Level 2 music theory
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Post on 25-Jan-2017
LEVEL 2 MUSIC THEORYLEVEL 2 MUSIC THEORYLevel 1Level 2 (cumulative)Terms and signs / Performance markingssimple articulation markings/indications (including slurs, ties, staccato, legato, accent)articulation markings (including phrase marks, tenuto, staccatissimo, semi-staccato)common dynamic markings (words and symbols) pp, p, mp, mf, f, ff, crescendo, diminuendo/decrescendodynamic markings including Italian terms: sf, fz, ppp, fff, common metronome and tempo markings: adagio, largo, lento, moderato, andante, allegro, presto. Rallentando/ritardando, accelerando, a tempo, pause performance directions (word and symbols): pizzicato, arco, ped, arpeggio, slide, hammer on, pull off, 8vemetronome and tempo markings: andantino, vivace, allegretto, allargando, expression markings: espressivo, grazioso, cantabile, tranquillo, poco a poco, molto, piu, menoperformance directions (words and symbols) including description of timbral effect: up-bow, down-bow, harmonics, con sordini, tremolo, una cordacommon drum kit techniques.common structural markings (e.g. double bars, repeat bars, first- and second-time bars) structural markings (e.g. DC / DC al Coda, DS/DS al fine)Guitar stufftermsssssDynamics (loud/soft/volume changes) Tempo (speed and its changes)Tempo (French and German)Articulation (how you play/attack the notes)ExpressionexpressionExpressionExpression (French and german)Rhythm / MetreLimited to 2/4, 3/4, 4/4 and 6/8 [including C]Limited to commonly used simple, compound and irregular time [including , and 5/4, 5/8, 7/8]above time signatures identification and understanding of rhythmic groupings and classifications: simple/compound, duple/triple/quadrupleas for L1, but including all time signatures above durations notes, rests, (to semiquaver), ties description of rhythmic feel (e.g. syncopation, swing)as for level 1 but including duplets/triplets/quintuplets, anacrusisPitch / TonalityLimited to major and minor keys, up to three sharps and three flatsLimited to major and minor keys, of up to four sharps and four flats [no modes]clefs treble, bass, alto C-clef, percussion, and vocal tenor (i.e. treble-octave)as for L1, plus tenor C-clef, guitar TABkey signatures and scalesrecognition of major and minor keys (harmonic and melodic), plus addition of Blue noteskey signatures and scales- as for L1 plus natural minor, and chromatickey relationships (scale degrees) tonic, subdominant, dominant, relative major and minorpitch names: tonicleading noteas for L1, plus tonic minor and supertonicintervals recognition of major, minor and perfect intervals within an octave; lower note can only be the tonic of one of the permitted major keys (i.e B-flat, F, C, G, or D)as for L1, plus augmented 4th/diminished 5th; same limitation on lower note (but range of possibilities is greater)transposition upwards only, sounding pitchwritten pitch only, limited to instruments in B-flat and F also instruments transposing 8vetransposition upwards or downwards, sounding pitchwritten pitch, limited to instruments in B-flat, E-flat, and F, transcription from treble clefbass clef, from alto clefother clefs, openclosed score, written pitchsounding pitch (i.e. vocal tenor, double bass, piccolo)as for L1, plus from tenor clefother clefs, written pitchsounding pitch (guitar/bass guitar)HarmonyLimited to chords I, IV, V, V7, and VI, in major and minor keys, in root position onlyLimited to chords I, Isus4, II, IV, V, V7,Vsus4 and VI, in major and minor keys, in root, first, and second inversionchords identification of individual chords using Roman numerals and jazz / rock notationas for L1, with a wider range of chords and inversionschord progressions identification of cadences (perfect, plagal, imperfect I-V and IV-V only, interrupted)add imperfect cadence II-V, and no restriction on inversionschords notation of individual chordschord progressions notation of cadences in root position (perfect [VI only, no V7], plagal, imperfect [IV only]); no interrupted cadencemodulation identification of modulation (via perfect cadence) to related keys (subdominant, dominant, relative major and minor)as for L1, plus tonic minorscaleschordTriadsThese chords are also known as triads. A triad is always made up of a root, a third above the root, and a fifth above the root.Notice that the notes of these triads are either all on lines, or allin spaces.Method for Suggesting Suitable ChordsTo work out the correct chords, follow these steps. More guidance is given for each step below.Identify the key signatureWrite down the notes of each of the chords I, II, IV and V in that key signature.Identify which notes are enclosed by the bracket.Decide which are chord notes, and which are non-chord notes.Identify the possible chords and select the most likely if there seems to be a choice.Types of TriadTriads/Chords can be major, minor, diminished or augmented.Here are the chords in C major with their names: In a minor key, the chords are built from the notes of theharmonic minor scale. This means you always have to raise the 7th degree of the scale by a semitone (half step).Here are the chords in A minor with their names: InversionsIn all the chords we've looked at so far, the lowest note in the chord was the root.When the root is the lowest note, the chord is inroot position.Chords can also beinverted(turned upside down).When a chord is inverted the position of the notes is changed around so that the lowest note of the chord is the third or the fifth, rather than the root.Here are some inversions of the first (I) chord in C major (which you will remember contains the notes C, E and G):Lowest note is E (the third) It doesn't matter what order the higher notes are in: inversions are defined by the lowest note of the chord. This note is also known as thebass note.Naming InversionsWe use the letters a, b and c (written in lower case letters)to describe the lowest note of a chord.When the chord is in root position(hasnt been inverted), we use the letter a.When the lowest note is the third, (e.g. E in C major), we use the letter b. This is also called first inversion.When the lowest note is the fifth, (e.g. G in C major), we use the letter c. This is also calledsecond inversion.Here is chord I in C major, in its three possible positions: In Jazz/Rock notations, root position would be C, 1st inversion would be C/E, 2nd inversion would be C/GFigured BassChords are sometimes written in figured bass, which is a system that uses numbers to describe notes of a chord.Each figure has two numbers in it. The numbers refer to the intervals above thebass note (lowest note) of the chord.The figures below are described relating to a C major chord. is used for root position (a) chords. Above the bass note (C), there is a note a 3rd higher (E), and another which is a 5th higher (G).is used for first inversion (b) chords. Above the bass note (E), there is a note a 3rd higher (G), and another which is a 6th higher (C). is used for second inversion (c) chords. Above the bass note (G), there is a note a 4th higher (C) and another which is a 6th higher (E). OTHER TYPES OF CHORDSSus 4 chordsCONSONANCE AND DISSONANCEDIFFERENT WAYS OF PLAYING THE CHORDWhat are Progressions?In music, a "progression" happens when one chord changes to another chord.For example, many pieces of music begin with notes that are taken from chord I (the tonic chord), followed by notes from chord V (the dominant chord).Here is the beginning of the famous theme from Dvorak's "New World Symphony", which begins with a I-V progression. What are Cadences?Cadences are special kinds of progression which are used to signify that a piece, or section/phrase of a piece, has come to an end.There are only three cadences that you need to know for Grade 5 Theory. Here they are:V - I (also known as a "perfect" cadence)IV - I (also known as a "plagal" cadence)? - V (also known as an "imperfect" cadence)Modulation- change of key during a piece of music- what key can we change to?InstrumentationLimited to scores of no more than 16 instruments.Limited to common orchestral and jazz / rock instruments, and common voice typesScores of varying levels of complexity including common symphonic, chamber, choral and jazz / rock ensembles.score layout recognition of family / instrument order, English namesadd Italian namesUsually in this vertical order(vocal)(if any) (for jazz or pop)Woodwinds (highest to lowest)BrassPercussionStringsFor VocalSopranoAltoTenorBass92Reed InstrumentsIn the woodwind family, the clarinet, oboe and bassoon all produce sound using areed. The clarinet is asingle-reedinstrument, and the oboe and bassoon aredouble-reed instruments. A double reed is simply two reeds bound together at one end You may be asked about which are single- or double-reed instruments, so learn this!Unpitched InstrumentsThe instruments in the strings, woodwind and brass families are allpitched instruments. This means they play notes which have a specific pitch, which you can write on a stave. In the percussion family, some instruments are pitched, and others areunpitched. Unpitched instruments make a "sound" but not a "note". Here are some examples.Pitched PercussionXylophone (made of wood), glockenspiel (made of metal), timpani (or "kettle drums").A kettle drum can only be tuned to play one note at a time, so usually you find two or three in an orchestra, each tuned to play different notes (e.g. the tonic and dominant).Unpitched PercussionGong, triangle, cymbals, castanets, bass drum, snare drum.Non-Standard Instruments There are plenty more instruments around as you probably know! They are not considered to be "standard" orchestral instruments though, because they are not used in a basic "standard" symphony orchestra.Some examples include the guitar, the saxophone (pictured), the harp, the piano and the recorder.Brass and woodwind instruments come in a variety of different sizes. A small flute is called a piccolo, whereas a big flute is called a bass flute. Clarinets come in many sizes too - you might have seen a small clarinet called an E flat clarinet, or a very big one which is a bass clarinet. A variant of the oboe is the cor anglais. These instruments are often used in symphony orchestras, but they are not "standard" because they are used in addition to (and not instead of) the standard instruments. Many brass instruments are used mainly in brass bands, and not so often in symphony orchestras, for example, the cornet or the flugelhorn (pictured).The VoiceThere are four basic ranges of voice. Womens voices can be soprano (the highest voice) or alto, and mens voices can be tenor or bass (the lowest voice).In between soprano and alto, there is another female voice called mezzo-soprano, and between tenor and bass there is another male voice which is called baritone.Here is the complete range from highest to lowest:Soprano - Mezzo Soprano - Alto - Tenor- Baritone - BassForm / StructureLimited to identification and supporting evidence of:introductionAB / binaryABA / ternaryversechorus12-bar bluesbridgeoutro / codaIdentification, and some analytical description required.No constraints on types of forms e.g. rondo, theme and variations, strophicBinary Form (AB)Just as cheese on toast has two ingredients, music in binary formhas two sections.We label these sections A and B.Ternary Form(ABA)Asandwich has three layersBread-Filling-Bread.Music in ternary form also has three sections and normally the B sectioncontrasts with the A sections.Rondo Form (ABACADA)Rondoform is like a multi-layered sandwich with a different filling on each piece ofbread. Music in rondo form has asection that is repeated over and over again. A different idea is sandwichedbetween each A section Verse + chorusfor pop music12 bar bluesStrophic- same melody, different wordsCompositional devicesMelodic / rhythmic / textural devices e.g.sequencerepetitionostinato motif/riffimitation Pedal noteSyncopationSimilar/contrary motionAs for L1, plus: motifs/riffs and their developmentphrases - regular and irregularaugmentation and diminutioninversioncanon / fugatovariation and thematic developmentmelodic range and contourPhrases can be regular (2, 4, 8, 12, 16 bars)(even number), or irreigular (3, 5, 7)variationTexturetextural features e.g.monophonic homophonicpolyphonic melody and accompaniment, layering (e.g. background, foreground) textural densitytextural features e.g.heterophonic countermelody antiphonal imitation, fuguetextural densityFUGUE
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