Lesson Plan on: German-Italian Unification Bismarck Garibaldi Prepared by: Mr. Bierschbach Metternich Alexander I Talleyrand

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Lesson Plan on: German-Italian Unification Bismarck Garibaldi Prepared by: Mr. Bierschbach Metternich Alexander I Talleyrand </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> SOL: 9.8 The student will describe political developments in Europe in the 19th century, including: u the Congress of Vienna; u expansion of democracy in Europe, including the effects of urbanization, revolutions of 1848, and British reform laws; u unification of Germany and the role of Bismarck; and u unification of Italy and the role of Garibaldi. </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> 19th C Europe 19th C Europe 1814-15 Congress of Vienna 1820 Spanish monarchy agrees to constitutional govt Terms to define: Congress of Vienna Concert of Europe Liberalism Nationalism Ottoman Empire Abdicate T he Charter of French Liberties The July Revolution Chancellor Realpolik Kaiser Reich Kaiser Red Shirts 1821-29 Greece wins independence from Ottomans 1830 Louis Philip became citizen-king 1848 In 1848, French proclaimed the 2nd Republic &amp; voted Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte as president. In 1852, L-Napoleon became Nap. III People &amp; Groups to meet: Louis XVIII Metternich Louis-Philippe (Citizen King) Louis-Napoleon (Napoleon III) Bismarck Kaiser William Cavour | Victor Emmanuel | Garibaldi 1854 &amp; 1870 Crimean War (54) &amp; Franco-Prussian War (70) 1860s-1871 Italy united (1860s) / Germany united (1871) </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Nationalism (nation) While nationalism gave people with a common heritasge a sense of identity and a common goal---establishment of a homeland-- it also had negative effects, too. For example, it often bred intolerance and led to persecution of natural or ethnic minorities. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Ottoman Empire the sick man the sick man Balkans </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Europe Catches a Cold In both 1830 &amp; 1848, the revolts in Paris inspired uprisings elsewhere --- in Europe &amp; in Latin America! Metternich coined the phrase, when France sneezes, Europe catches cold. Most uprisings were suppressed. Yet, here and there, rebels did force changes on conservative governments. Moreover, even when they failed to bring about radical changes, the uprisings eventually frightened rulers badly enough to implement reforms. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> German also gradually developed. In the early 1800s, romantic writers spoke of a unique German national character shaped by ancient traditions. The early calls for nationhood came mostly from students &amp; intellectuals. Napoleon had dissolved the HRE and organized a number of German states into a French-controlled Rhine Federation. In the mid-1800s, an aggressive leader named Otto von Bismarck emerged. He imposed a Prussian brand of nationhood on all of Germany. At the Congress of Vienna, Metternich opposed German nationalist demands. Metternich pointed out that a united Germany would require dismantling the governments of the many separate German states. Instead, the conservative members of the Congress created the German Federation --- a weak body headed by Austria. German Nationalism </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> In the 1830s, Austrias great rival, Prussia, took the lead in creating an economic union called the Zolverein. The Zolverein dismantled tariff barriers between many of the German states. Yet, despite this step towards economic unity, Germany remained politically fragmented. Bismarck came from Prussias Junker class, which was made up of conservative landowning nobles. In 1862, after serving as a diplomat in both Russia and France, Bismarck was made chancellor, or prime minister (by King William I) German Nationalism </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Within a decade, Bismarcks used his policy of blood &amp; iron to unite the German states under Prussian rule. Bismarck was a master of realpolitik, or realistic politics based on a tough-minded evaluation of the needs of the state. In Bismarcks view, the ends justifies the means. Power was more important than principles such as liberalism. Oddly enough, Bismarck, the architect of German unity, was not really a German nationalist. His primary loyalty was to the Hohenzollerns (the ruling dynasty of Prussia.) He regarded uniting Germany as a means to make the Hohenzollerns gain control over all the German states. As chancellor, Bismarck moved first to build up the Prussian army. Despite his blood and iron speech, the liberal legislature refused to vote funds for the military. What did Bismarck do? He simply used money that had been collected for other purposes to strengthen the army. With a powerful, well-equipped military, Bismarck was ready to pursue an aggressive foreign policy. German Nationalism </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Victory in Three Wars: In a decade, Bismarck led Prussia into three wars. Each war, however, resulted in increased Prussian prestige and power while paving the way for German unity. German Nationalism Schleswig &amp; Holstein In 1864, Bismarcks first maneuver was to form an alliance with Austria. They, then, moved to seize the provinces of Schleswig and Holstein from Denmark. After a breif war, these German-inhabited areas were liberated. Austria was to administer Holstein while Prussia was to administer Schleswig. In 1866, Bismarck invented an excuse to attack Austria. The Austro-Prussian War lasted only seven weeks --- with a Prussian victory! Bismarck dissolved the Austrian-led German Confederation and created a new North German Confederation dominated by Prussia. Bismarck allowed Austria and four other southern German states to remain independent. </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Franco-Prussian War The Prussian victory worried Napoleon III of France. A growing rivalry between France and Prussian reached a state of war in 1870 --- referred to as the Franco-Prussian War. The immediate cause of the war was a struggle over the vacant Spanish throne. When a relative of the Prussian king offered the throne, France protested. Bismarck used this situation to rally all Germans --- no matter where they lived --- against Napoleon III (&amp; France). Bismarck reminded the Germans to recall the Napoleonic invasions only some 60 years earlier. Surprisingly, Napoleon III did little to avod war. Bismarck even re-wrote then rleased to the press a telegram that reported on a meeting between King William I and the French Ambassador that made it seem that William I had insulted Napoleon III. Furious --- Napoleon declared war on Prussia. France was defearted in only a few weeks of fighting. This defeat led to the downfall of the Second Empire. By this time, Louis-Napoleon (Napoleon III) was old and ill. France lost the area known as Alsace-Lorranne. Delighted with the victory over France, the princes from the southern German states and the North German Federation pursuaded William I to take the title of kaiser or emperor. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Franco-Prussian War </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Bismarck Kaiser William </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> In 1871, German nationalists celebrated the birth of the second Reich or empire. The Germans called it the second reich because it was heir to the HRE abolished by Napoleon I in 1806. Ironically, a united Germany had been created by a conservative Prussian noble. To proclaim the new German empire, German princes, in 1871, gathered at Versailles. The symbolism was clear --- Germany (&amp; NOT France) was the new power in Europe. This new power was headed by Kaiser William I, but real power was clearly concentrated in the hands of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Franco-Prussian War </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Italian unification was brought about by the efforts of a single, powerful state --- that is, the kingdom of Sardinia --- &amp; a ruthless politician, Count Camillo Cavour. Modern Italy owes its foundation most of all to the count di Cavour. Before his time the Italian peninsula was made up of scattered independent states. Unifying Italy Garibaldi </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> uGiuseppe Mazzini inspired the Italians to make the peninsula one kingdom. Giuseppe Garibaldi was the great military hero. Cavour, a nobleman, was the organizer, politician, and diplomat who made the union of Italy a reality. Unifying Italy Garibaldi </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Unifying Italy As in Germany, the invasions of Napoleon had sparked dreams of national unity in Italy. The Congress of Vienna, however, ignored the demands of nationalists. To Metternich, Italy was merely a, geographic expression, --- not a nation. Moreover, a divided Italy favored Austrias own interests. At the Congress, Austria took control of much of northern Italy, while the Hapsburg monarchs ruled various other Italian states. In the south, a French bourbon ruler was put in charge of Naples &amp; Sicily. </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Unifying Italy In the 1830s, the nationalist leader Giuseppe Mazzini founded Young Italy. The goal of the secret society was to constitute Italy --- one, free, independent, republican nation. In 1849, Mazzini helped to set up a revolutionary republic in Rome --- but French forces soon toppled it. After 1848, leadership of the Risorgimento, or Italian nationalist movement passed to the small kingdom of Sardinia. Its constitutional monarch, Victor Emmanuel II hoped to join other states to his own. </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Unifying Italy Cavour -- In 1852, Victor Emmanuel II appointed Count Camillo Cavour as his PM. Cavour came from a noble family but favored liberal goals. Like Bismarck, Cavour believed in Realpolitik. Also, like Bismark, he was a monarchist devoted to the interests of his royal monarch. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Unifying Italy Once in office, Cavour reformed Sardinias economy, improved agriculture, built railroads, and encouraged commerce by supporting free trade. Cavours long-term goal was to expel Austrian power from Italy and add Lombardy &amp; Venetia to Sardinia. </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Crimean War In 1855, led by Cavour, Sardinia joined Britain and France in the Crimean War against Russia. Although the war brought no additional terretory to Sardinia, it did give Sardinia a voice at the peace conference. It also made Napoleon III take notice of Sardinia. Napoleon III made a secret deal with Napoleon III in which France agreed to aid Sardinia in case it faced war with Austria. A year later --- Cavour provoked a war with Austria. With Frances help, Sardinia defeated Austreia &amp; annexed Lombardy. Meanwhile, nationalist groups overthrew Austrian-backed rulers in several other northern Italian states. These states, then, voted to join with Sardinia. Florence Nightengale: She gained fame as a nurse tending to the wounded during the Crimean War. </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Next, attention shifted to the kingdom of the Two Sicilies in southern Italy. There, Garibaldi, a longtime nationalist and an ally of Manzzini, was ready for action. Like Manzzini, Garibaldi wanted to create an Italian republic. He was also ready to accept aid from the monarchist --- Cavour. By 1860, Garibaldi had recruited a force of 1,000 red-shirted volunteers. Cavour provided weapons and allowed two ships to take Garibaldi and his Red Shirts south to Sicily. Garibaldi won control of Sicily, crossed into the mainland &amp; marched north to Naples. Soon afterwards, Cavour had second-thoughts! He began to fear that Garibaldi would set up a separate republic in the south. To prevent this, Cavour sent Sardinian troops to deal with Garibaldi! Unifying Italy Garibaldis Red Shirts </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> The Sardinian troops overran the Papal States &amp; linked up with Garibaldi in Naples. In a patriotic move --- Garibaldi turned over Naples &amp; Sicily to Victor Emmanuel. Shortly, thereafter, southern Italy voted to approve the move and in 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was crowned the king of Italy. After this eventonly two main areas remained separate, namely: Rome &amp; Venetia. In a deal negoiated with Bismarck, Italy acquired Venetia in the peace treaty that ended the Austro-prussian War in 1866. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, France was forced to withdraw its forces from Rome. Italian troops entered, and for the first time since the fall of Rome (476), Italy was a united land. Unifying Italy Garibaldis Red Shirts </li> </ul>