legumes and oilseeds

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  • Legumes and oilseeds

    Legumes are all members of the Fabaceae or Leguminosae, a large family with more than 18,000 species Oilseeds are seeds or crops grown mainly for oil

  • Legumes

    Compositae

    Cucurbitae

    Palmae

    Miscellaneous oilseeds

    Tree-nuts

    Chick pea, black gram, mung bean, pigeon pea, peanuts, jack bean, soybean, hyacinth bean, lentil, lupin, african locust bean, lima bean, common bean, faba bean, bambara groundnut, rice bean, cow pea etc

    Safflower, sun flower

    Melon, flutted pumpkin, bottle gourd, buffalo gourd

    Coconut, palm oil, babassu

    Rubber, castor, sal seed

    Brazilian nut, walnut, macadamia, almond, cashew, etc

    Legumes and oilseeds

  • legumes

    Pulses Less oil than nuts

    Nuts

    The roots of most legumes form associations with bacteria that can fix atmospheric nitrogen

  • Pulses as food harvested for their immature or mature seeds sig. source of dietary carbohydrate (but less starch than cereals) and

    protein, (calcium, iron, thiamine and riboflavine) but not primarily oil

    Usually consumed as human diet Contain less sulphur amino acids = consider nutritionally inferior to meat

    and fish

  • As source of proteins

    Legumes rich in protein

    19-25% (average 22%) (whereas oilseeds have 20-35% protein content)

    Legume seeds have more of some amino acids than cereal grains.

    Seeds of almost all legumes are toxic if eaten uncooked because of proteins or peptides that inhibit digestive enzymes.

  • Legume proteins

    Classified into:

    (1) Globulins 70%

    (2) albumins 10-20%

    (3) glutelins 10-20%

    Example of dominant globulin : vicilin sediments at 7S and legumin at 11S

    Other proteins: enzymes, protease and carbohydrase inhibitors, and lectins (hemagglutinins)

    Amino acids: less than optimal content of sulphur amino acids (cystine and methionine), deficiency of tryptophan

  • Protein digestibility

    Digestibility of raw legume seeds is very poor (low-moderate) partly due to 1. the presence of protease inhibitor (the

    digestibility can be improved by heat treatments/ cooking)

    2. deficiency of sulphur amino acids thus hindering protein utilization

    3. Presence of polyphenols and other antimetabolites

    4. Tertiary structure of native protein making them refractory to enzymatic proteolysis

  • Pulses as sources of carbohydrate

    70% of the seed by weight

    Starch is principle carbohydrate

    Sucrose and oligosaccharides (minor amounts)

    Oligosaccharides (raffinose, stachyose and verbascose) are associated with flatulence

    Raffinose (C18H32O16) MW 504 g/mol Galactose-glucose-fructose

    stachyose(C24H42O21) MW 667 g/mol Gal(1-6)Gal(1-6)Glu(1-2)Fru

    verbascose (C30H52O26) MW 829 g/mol

  • Pulses as source of dietary fiber Excellent sources of dietary fiber

    Components such as saponins, pectins, gums, and galactans can absorb bile salts, convey the hypocholesterolaemic effects

    Soy fiber product has 66-77% dietary fiber.

    6.1% 25.5%

    to

    13 g of soy fiber 58 g of oat bran

    735 g of lettuce 23 g of wheat bran 502 g of apple

    To provide 10 g dietary fiber, required:

  • Anti-nutritional factors

    Chemical substances, non-toxic, but generate adverse physical responses in who consume the legume, interfere the utilization of nutrients

    Soybeans: protease inhibitors, haemagglutinins (lectins), goitrogens, antivitamins and phytates.

    Also saponins, oestrogens, flatulence factors, allergens and lysinoalanine

    Other legumes have cyanogens, favism factors, lathyrism factors, amylase inhibitors, tannins, aflatoxin and pressor amines.

    Most of them can be destroyed by heat treatments

  • Tugas I

    Pergilah ke supermarket/pasar

    Bikin inventaris seluruh kacang-kacangan dan panenan yang mengandung minyak (lemak)

    Bedakan kacang-kacangan lokal dan impor

    Pilih salah satu komoditas kacang2an yang kamu anggap paling potensial dikembangakan di indonesia, dan develop satu produk (yang inovatif) dari komoditas itu.

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