leds for lighting professionals

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This is a presentation I delivered to several IESNA chapters in fall, 2014.


Presentation Title

LEDs for Lighting ProfessionalsDonald G. Hirsh, Sr. Manager, Lighting Experience Center,don_hirsh@cree.com November, 2014

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#

N. B.Credit(s) earned on completion of this presentation will be reported to AIA CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both AIA members and non-AIA members are available upon request.

This presentation has been registered with AIA CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product.

_______________________________________Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#

Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this course, participants will have information to:Compare and contrast modern LED technology with major categories of evacuated tube technologies.Analyze evolving techniques in the design and development of SSL luminaires.Identify recent Advances in LED component technology.Compare categories or types of LED components. 2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#The Agenda Whats All the Fuss AboutReview of Some General Properties of LEDs vs. Evacuated Tube TechnologiesLED Typology & TechnologyLED Lighting FuturesEfficacy and the future of LED Product DevelopmentExample: The evolution of the color mixing technology platformsTM-21 & LM-80Conclusions: LEDs will rule in the Medium Term

(Whats In It For Me?) 2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#


Vacuum Tubes

Transistors1940s 1960s


DVD1980s 1990s

CRTFlat Panel Displays

1990s 2000s

Flash Memory1990s 2000sBrick phones

Smart phones1990s 2000s

Creative Destruction: Hard At Work in Your IndustryUsepervasivenesspricepath to market all changed

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#5

Creative Destruction: Hard At Work in Your IndustryNext up Lighting

Evacuated TubesSolid State Lighting2007 2020s

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#6What Is a Light Emitting Diode (LED)?Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are solid-state semiconductors that convert electrical energy directly into visible light.Packaged LED Chip

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#77

Blue + Yellow Phosphor

Blue PeakYellow PhosphorWhite Light from Blue LEDs 2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#Lighting Class LEDsFilamentFluorescent HIDSource Efficacy (lm/w)130 -20015-2580-10080-130Optical Control++++++++++++Applicability/Adaptability++++++++++++Lifetime (hrs)104-5103103-4104Lumen Depreciation*Chromatic Stability+++++*++++++++++Spectral Profile+++++++++++++++++Thermal Sensitivity++++Start-Up/RestrikesmssmDimmable, ControllableSuperiorGoodPossibleNotToxicity (Hg, Pb, Heavy Metals)++Rugged++++++++Illumination Source Review 2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#

The Inexorable March of Technology: Efficacy & Packaging$/lm, normalized(Cool White, 6500K)Annual Improvement in $/lm @ 100 LPW43%45%35%29%45%40%27%

Efficacy (LPW)

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#10

Evolution of Size: Different Die, Same Performance96% smaller than Gen 178% smaller than Gen 2Gen 1Gen 2Gen 3 2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#Example: Flux Groups circa 2008

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#Flux Groups circa 2014

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#Contrasting Emission Patterns

Bare HID Lamp Illustration

Bare LED Component Illustration

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#14Small Hemispheres Allow for Precise Optical Control

Bare LED Chip Package Illustration

Illustration of Altered Distribution(Secondary Optic Added)

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#Allows for Dramatically Improved Uniformity

The Prairie School, Racine, WI 2007

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#Average Footcandles (photopic):LED 1.01 HID 1.96Max/Min Ratio:LED 8:1 HID 27.75:1Avg/Min Ratio:LED 3.37:1 HID 4.9:116LEDHPS141WTotal System Wattage300W8,040Average Delivered Lumens20,52057Luminaire Efficacy (Lumens/Watt)681.01fcMaintained Average Footcandles1.96fc0.30fcMaintained Minimum Footcandle0.30fc53%2007 Energy Savings-Allows for Dramatically Improved Uniformity

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#Average Footcandles (photopic):LED 1.01 HID 1.96Max/Min Ratio:LED 8:1 HID 27.75:1Avg/Min Ratio:LED 3.37:1 HID 4.9:117

Similar illumination performance from recent products

1st Generation141 Watts(2007)Seven Years of LED & Systems Innovation

53W 82% Energy Savings80% Price Reduction vs 2007 Product

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#Todays choices and value. Now is the time to implement Cree solutions across all categories where we have product.18So Many Lamps

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#So Many LEDs - A Representative Components PortfolioDiscretesArrays

Integrated Arrays

One component simplifies design and assemblyHigh efficacy, high lumen output


High lumen density for optical controlExcellent LED-to-LED color consistency

Highest level of integrationSpeed time to marketExcellent color consistency

Design flexibilityEnables lower system cost


2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#Have to discuss mid-power 20Average Rated Life vs. Average Useful Life

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#Thermal Management: Radiation vs. ConductionLEDs Require Appropriate Thermal Management for Superior Long-Term PerformanceThermal Management Drives the Tendency to Integral Luminaire Designs

L70 25,000HL70 100,000H

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#The point is to talk about the little heat sink vs. The big-ass heat sink.22Comparing Representative Spectral Power Distributions Incan-descent




2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#If daylight is the gold standard and incandescent has been a close artificial light standard for years, than it makes sense to replicate daylight as close as we can.23White CCx, CCy Space 2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#LED Production: Recipes Process Yield, A Hypothetical Example 2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#DISCRETESARRAYSINTEGRATED ARRAYSMODULESNon-Directional A & E Bulbs, SconcesDirectional MR & PAR, Spot, TrackDownlight Ceiling Mount, PendantLinear Cove, FL Retrofit, PanelOutdoor & High BayRoadway, IndustrialPortableConsumer, High EndLighting Applications Matrix

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#26Example Lamp and Luminaire Constructions: COB

Matches HID performance with no down sides:50% less power50% less weightLower operating temperature10x longer lifetimeInstant-on/Instant restrike 2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#

LEDs Win vs. CMH TracklightMatches CMH performance with no down sides:Higher lm/WLower temperatureNo explosion risk10x longer lifetimeInstant-onInstant restrike

Parameter39W CMHCOBCOBSystem Lumens2400 lm3846 lm4471 lmSystem Power44 W47 W53 WSystem Efficacy55 lm/W82 lm/W85 lm/WBeam Angle151616CBCP29,000 cd25,070 cd29,150 cd3000K, 80CRIParameter20W CMHModern COBSystem Lumens1000 lm1,260 lmSystem Power20 W15.6 WSystem Efficacy50 lm/W74 lm/WBeam Angle813CBCP13,000 cd10,943 cd

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#Increasing Efficacy Leads to Redesigns + Cost Reduction

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#The Future: SmallerHigh Density COBPrototype Fixture70W HalogenPAR38FLCCT, CRI3000K, 82 CRI2900K, 98 CRICBCP2,093 cd2,379 cdBeam Angle4040Initial Lumens1010 lm1381 lmSystem Power14.4W (20%)74WOptic30 mm x 23 mm (~22%)135 mm x 121 mm70W halogen flood performance at 1/4 the size

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#Some Heuristics of LED Phosphor Systems Conversion EfficiencyPhosphor Systems Introduce Conversion Efficiencies, which are (Roughly) Linear and CCT DependentBlue-to-red is least efficient

Efficacy vs. CCTExample: from 5000K 70 CRI to 2700K 80 CRI expect a 20-25% LPW loss, with roughly linear interpolation. (4000K 70 CRI would be ~10% LPW loss)Efficacy vs. CRIExample: from 2700K CCT, 80 CRI to 2700K CCT, 90 CRI 20% LPW loss

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#Example SPDs of a Modern LED Component

Representative SPDs90 CRI, Outdoor White SPD 2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#DOE LED RoadmapUS DOE MYPP, April 2013, p.47

Consensus: Well get to 250 LPW in production 2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#33Uses of a 250LPW LED Source:

1. Trade LPW for cost; save a ton of money on luminaire first-cost2. Trade LPW for high CRI

3. Trade LPW for CCT ANY CCT4. Enable applications you thought impossible. Really!

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#The Evolution of High CRI Lighting Applications

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#LED Standards Define Many Aspects of Quality

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#Most of the major pieces are in place, more on the way (TM26) Practiced and referenced worldwide by industry and government programs

36TM-21 LED Luminous Stability Over Current, Temp, Time

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#Example High Power LED (LM-80) Data SetCurrentTa (C)Tsp (C)Tj (C)1500 mA5555758585105

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#Outstanding Chromatic Stability Over Current, Temp, Time

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#What Does This Mean? This is Superior Color Stability.

2014 Cree, Inc.All rights reserved.#40And Now For Something Completely Different

US Dept of Energy, 2013, Color Maintenance of LEDs in Laboratory an


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