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  • Electronics & Communication Engineering

    Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

    Department of

    Electronics & Communication Engineering

  • Electronics & Communication Engineering

    Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

    Lecture 5

    The Forced Solution

    By

    Dr. Praveen Kumar

    Assistant Professor

    Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

  • Electronics & Communication Engineering

    Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

    The response to sinusoidal

    source In Fig.1, the excitation is

    (1)

    The equilibrium equation is found from the relationship

    (2)

    Rearranging the terms of eq.2 gives

    (3)

    The right hand side of eq.3 is simplified as

    (4)

    The eq.4 clearly indicates that the assumed form of the forced solution must contain both a sine and a cosine component in order to have left hand side equal to the right hand side.

    1( ) 10sin(3 )e t t

    2

    1 2

    1 2 4( ) ( ) 10sin(3 )

    4 11 8f

    ad

    p pi t e t t

    Z p p

    2 2(4 11 8) ( ) (2 4 )10sin(3 )fp p i t p p t

    2(2 4 )10sin(3 ) 180sin(3 ) 120cos(3 )p P t t t

  • Electronics & Communication Engineering

    Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

    The response to sinusoidal

    source 1 1/ 2F 2

    1

    2H

    110sin(3 )t

    Figure 1: Network with sinusoidal excitation

    a b c

    d

  • Electronics & Communication Engineering

    Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

    The response to sinusoidal

    source The assumed solution is

    (5)

    (6)

    (7)

    Using eq.5 to 7 to substitutes the values of if(t), pif(t) and p2if(t) into eq.4 gives

    (8)

    Equating the coefficients of sin(3t) and cos(3t) in eq.22 gives

    (9)

    (10)

    The complete forced solution is

    (11)

    2

    ( ) sin(3 ) cos(3 )

    ( )( ) 3 cos(3 ) 3 sin(3 )

    ( ) 9 sin(3 ) 9 cos(3 )

    f

    f

    f

    f

    i t A t B t

    di tpi t A t B t

    dt

    p i t A t B t

    ( 28 33 )sin(3 ) (33 28 )cos(3 ) 180sin(3 ) 120cos(3 )A B t A B t t t

    28 33 180

    33 28 120

    4.8 and 1.38

    A B

    A B

    A B

    ( ) 4.8sin(3 ) 1.38cos(3 )fi t t t

  • Electronics & Communication Engineering

    Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

    The response to Polynomial

    Sources The excitation function in the Fig.2 is

    (12)

    The function in eq.12 varies linearly with time and has a slope of 2. Because of its sloping graphical representation, eq.12 is also referred to as ramp function.

    The current if(t) is given by

    (13)

    Rearranging the eq.13 gives

    (14)

    Simplifying eq.14 gives

    (15)

    ( ) 2f t t

    2

    2

    1 2 4 2( ) ( ) (2 )

    4 11 8f

    p pi t e t t

    Z p p

    2 2(4 11 8) ( ) (2 4 2)(2 )fp p i t p p t

    2(4 11 8) ( ) 8 4fp p i t t

  • Electronics & Communication Engineering

    Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

    The response to Polynomial

    Sources

    Fig.2: Network with sinusoidal excitation

    1 1/ 2F 2

    11

    2H2t

    a b c

    d

  • Electronics & Communication Engineering

    Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

    The response to Polynomial

    Sources The forced response can be written as the sum of a constant term plus a ramp. Hence

    (16)

    Substituting if(t) from eq.16 into eq.15 gives

    (17)

    Equating the like coefficients and solving for the unknown quantities gives

    (18)

    The complete expression for the forced solution becomes

    (19)

    ( )fi t A Bt

    11 8 8 8 4B A Bt t

    5 1,

    16 2A B

    5 1( )

    16 2fi t t

  • Electronics & Communication Engineering

    Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

    The Natural Response (Transient

    Solution) The forced solution is the solution that is found to exist when the circuit has settled down in its

    response to the disturbing effect of an applied source function. This forced solution is also known

    as steady state solution.

    The forced or the steady state solution always satisfies the defining differential equation but in general it is not a valid a solution over the entire time domain.

    To illustrate the point consider the circuit shown in Fig.3. In this network it is desired to find the complete solution for the voltage v appearing across the resistor for all time t after the switch is

    closed.

    The equation that relates v to the source voltage E is

    (20)

    (21)

    1

    1 ( )

    v R

    LE R pLpR

    L dvv E

    R dt

  • Electronics & Communication Engineering

    Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

    The Natural Response (Transient

    Solution)

    Fig.3: An R-L circuit

  • Electronics & Communication Engineering

    Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

    The Natural Response (Transient

    Solution) The forced solution of eq.21 is

    (22)

    The solution in eq.22 satisfies eq.21, however this solution does not qualify as a solution of the governing differential equation in the period immediately following the closing of the switch at

    time

    At time the current is zero because of the presence of the inductor. Hence v, which is iR, is also zero. Hence, the solution in eq.22 cannot be taken to be a complete description.

    In essence, then, there arises, in this time period, , immediately following the application of the source function, a need to add a complementary function to the forced solution.

    This complementary function will disappear as steady state is reached. It is the purpose of the complementary function to provide a smooth transition from the initial state of the response in

    the presence of energy storing elements to the final state.

    fv E

    0t

    0t

    0t

  • Electronics & Communication Engineering

    Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

    The Natural Response (Transient

    Solution) In Fig.3, the complementary function (natural response) is obtained by solving the equation

    (23)

    The solution to the eq.23 should satisfy that function, v and its derivative, dv/dt, must be of the same form to make the left hand side equal to the right hand side.

    The plausible solution for eq.23 is

    (24)

    Substituting v from eq.24 into eq.23 gives

    (25)

    (26)

    0L dv

    vR dt

    stv Ke

    1 0stLs Ke

    R

    Rs

    L

  • Electronics & Communication Engineering

    Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

    The Natural Response (Transient

    Solution) Hence, the complementary solution becomes

    (27)

    The complete solution of the original governing differential equation (eq.23) is

    (28)

    The quantity K is found from the initial condition which requires that v to be zero at t=0+

    (29)

    Hence, the complete solution is

    (30)

    A graph of eq.30 is shown in Fig.4. The rapidity with which this transition takes place is entirely dependent upon the value s. In eq.26 when R is large (or L is small) the transition occurs quickly

    because the transient term dies out in little time.

    ( / )R L tv Ke

    0 E K K E

    ( / )(1 )R L tv E e

    ( / )R L tv E Ke

  • Electronics & Communication Engineering

    Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

    The Natural Response (Transient

    Solution) vf=E

    V=vf+vt

    vt=-Ee-(R/L)t

    Fig.4: Complete solution of voltage across the resistor in network 3

  • Electronics & Communication Engineering

    Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

    Example 1

    Consider the network shown in Fig.5. The differential equation governing the voltage V to the source E, is

    (31)

    The associated differential equation is

    (323)

    The forced solution is

    (33)

    The characteristics equation is

    (34)

    2 2

    1

    1 4

    1 1 5 4

    pCv E E

    p LC pRC p pR pL

    pC

    2

    25 4 4

    d v dvv E

    dt dt

    2( ) ( ) 5 4 ( 4)( 1) 0D p D s s s s s

    2

    0

    4

    5 4f f

    p

    v E E v Ep p

  • Electronics & Communication Engineering

    Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

    Example 1

    Fig.5: Network for the example

  • Electronics & Communication Engineering

    Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

    Example 1

    Hence

    (35)

    Since there are two unknown coefficients, two initial conditions are required. The first is that v has a zero value at time t=0+, then

    (36)

    To determine the second initial condition, differentiate the eq. 35

    (37)

    1 2

    4

    1 2

    4

    1 2

    4, 1

    Hence, the complementary solution is

    Hence, the complete solution is

    t t

    t

    t t

    f t

    s s

    v K e K e

    v v v E K e K e

    1 2(0 ) 0v E K K

    4

    1 24t tdv K e K e

    dt

  • Electronics & Communication Engineering

    Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati

    Example 1

    The term dv/dt is the voltage drop across the capacitor. At time t=0+, the voltage across the capacitor is zero because the inductor does not allow the current to flow the network

    immediately. Hence,

    (38)

    Solving eq.49 and eq.51 gives

    (39)

    The complete solution is

    (40)

    4

    1 2

    1 2

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