Lecture2:Chapter 2 NEW Edited - Dr.Naif AlMutawa

Download Lecture2:Chapter 2 NEW Edited - Dr.Naif AlMutawa

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Biological Bases of psychological processes Date: 20/1/2013 and 27/1/2013

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  • 1. Chapter 2Biological Foundations of Psychology Use with Atkinson & Hilgards Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, WagenaarISBN 9781844807284 2009 Cengage Learning

2. The Study of the Biological Bases of Psychology Pre-adaptation Describes the process by which an existing system (e.g.physical disgust/physical pain) is co-opted (hi-jacked) inorder for new human functions to develop (e.g. moraldisgust/response to social exclusion) Nervous system Divided into Central Nervous System (CNS) andPeripheral Nervous System (PNS) CNS includes the brain and spinal chord PNS includes the somatic system and autonomic systemUse with Atkinson & Hilgards Introduction to Psychology 15th editionNolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 2009 Cengage Learning 3. Neurons, the Building Blocks of theNervous System Basic unit of the nervous system = Neuron Specialized cell that transmits neural impulses ormessages to other neurons, glands and musclesFigure 2.2 Schematic Diagram of aNeuron.Arrows indicate the direction of thenerve impulse. Some axons arebranched; the branches are calledcollaterals. The axons of manyneurons are covered with an insulatingmyelin sheath that helps increase thespeed of the nerve impulse.(Adapted from Human Anatomy by Anthony J. Gaudinand Kenneth C. Jones. Copyright 1988 by AnthonyJ. Gaudin and Kenneth C. Jones. Reprinted bypermission of the authors.) Use with Atkinson & Hilgards Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, WagenaarISBN 9781844807284 2009 Cengage Learning 4. Neurons, the Building Blocks of theNervous System Neurons vary greatly in size and shape Neurons are classified into three categories Sensory neurons transmit impulses from receptorsto CNS Motor neurons carry outgoing signals from CNS tomuscles and glands Inter-neurons connect sensory and motor neuronsUse with Atkinson & Hilgards Introduction to Psychology 15th editionNolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 2009 Cengage Learning 5. Neurons, the Building Blocks of theNervous System Action Potentials Information travels along neuron in form of neuralimpulse called an action potential Each action potential is the result of movement ofelectrically charged particles (ions) in and out ofneuron Movement of ions controlled by ion channels - whenthese are closed the neuron is referred to as resting When a neuron is depolarized above the excitationthreshold cell membrane is temporarily unstable,resulting in action potential Use with Atkinson & Hilgards Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, WagenaarISBN 9781844807284 2009 Cengage Learning 6. Neurons, the Building Blocks of theNervous SystemUse with Atkinson & Hilgards Introduction to Psychology 15th editionNolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 2009 Cengage Learning 7. Neurons, the Building Blocks of theNervous System Synaptic transmission and neural coding All-or-none law a neuron is either firing actionpotential, or not, so how can the nervous system codefor/represent complexity of experience? Power of nervous system lies in the complexity of theconnections between neurons Lock-and-key action the way a neurotransmitter andreceptor fit together, which causes a change inpermeability of ion channels, either excitatory orinhibitoryUse with Atkinson & Hilgards Introduction to Psychology 15th editionNolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 2009 Cengage Learning 8. Neurons, the Building Blocks of theNervous System Neurotransmitters More than 70 identified Acetylcholine involved in memory and attention andtransmits signals between nerve and muscle.Prevalent in hippocampus. What problems result? Norepinephrine an increase/decrease in braincorrelates with increase or decrease in mood level.Reuptake blocked by cocaine/amphetamines, Lithiumspeeds it up. Dopamine mediates effects of natural rewards (e.g.food) and effects of drugs of abuse (Schizophrenia)Use with Atkinson & Hilgards Introduction to Psychology 15th editionNolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 2009 Cengage Learning 9. Neurons, the Building Blocks of theNervous System ...Neurotransmitters Serotonin important role in mood regulation (SSRI).Also important in sleep and appetite and used for ED. Glutamate excitatory in nature linked with learningand memory. What area of brain is it mostly found in? GABA inhibitory in nature helps control musclemovement. Anti anxiety drugs enhance GABA. Use with Atkinson & Hilgards Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, WagenaarISBN 9781844807284 2009 Cengage Learning 10. The Organization of the Brain Use with Atkinson & Hilgards Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, WagenaarISBN 9781844807284 2009 Cengage Learning 11. The Organization of the Brain The hindbrain Medulla Controls breathing & some reflexes which aid upright posture Pons Important in the control of attentiveness/timing of sleep Reticular formation Network of neurons that extend from lower brainstem up to the thalamus in the forebrain and across other parts, controls arousal, also plays role in ability to focus attention. Cerebellum concerned primarily with control of movement & important for learning new motor responses to Psychology 15 editionUse with Atkinson & Hilgards IntroductionthNolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 2009 Cengage Learning 12. The Organization of the Brain The midbrain Superior and inferior colliculus Important for transmitting sensory information to brain & in movement control (including eye movement) Substantia nigra Key part of dopamine-containing pathway deteriorates in Parkinsons diseaseUse with Atkinson & Hilgards Introduction to Psychology 15th editionNolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 2009 Cengage Learning 13. The Organization of the Brain The forebrain Includes cerebrum (split into two hemispheres) andsub-cortical structures Thalamus Directs incoming information from sense receptors to cerebrum Hypothalamus Regulates eating, drinking & sexual behavior. Exerts control over ANS & also role in sensation of emotions. Important in homeostatsis. Pituitary gland Part of system of glands called endocrine system involved inUse with Atkinson & Hilgards Introduction to Psychology 15 editionth production of Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar hormones ISBN 9781844807284 2009 Cengage Learning 14. The Organization of the Brain ...The forebrain Limbic system Provides additional control over some instinctive behaviors regulated by central core Hippocampus special role in recent memory Amygdala involved in emotional behavior, e.g. fear Cerebral cortex Receives information from sensory systems; controls motor responses and contains association areas which are concerned with memory, thought and languageUse with Atkinson & Hilgards Introduction to Psychology 15th editionNolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 2009 Cengage Learning 15. The Organization of the Brain Use with Atkinson & Hilgards Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, WagenaarISBN 9781844807284 2009 Cengage Learning 16. The Organization of the Brain Mapping the brain Recent development of sophisticated computermethods allow detailed images of human brainwithout damaging or distressing patient Methods include computerized axial tomography (CAT or CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) Use with Atkinson & Hilgards Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, WagenaarISBN 9781844807284 2009 Cengage Learning 17. The Organization of the Brain Asymmetries in the brain Language Understanding about brain mechanisms for language largely derived from studies of patients with brain damage. Aphasia language deficit caused by brain damage Brocas area involved in speech production Wernickes area involved in speech comprehension Split-brain research The brain normally acts as integrated whole but for some epilepsy patients, the corpus callosum surgically severed - these split-brain patients provide important insights into brain functionUse with Atkinson & Hilgards Introduction to Psychology 15th editionNolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 2009 Cengage Learning 18. The Organization of the Brain Use with Atkinson & Hilgards Introduction to Psychology 15th edition Nolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, WagenaarISBN 9781844807284 2009 Cengage Learning 19. The Organization of the Brain ...Asymmetries in the brain Hemispheric specialization split-brain researchindicates two hemispheres function differently Left hemisphere controls ability to express self through language and skilled in mathematical abilities Right hemisphere comprehends only simple language but highly developed in spatial and pattern sense Specialization does not mean two hemispheres work independently but rather they continually integrate activitiesUse with Atkinson & Hilgards Introduction to Psychology 15th editionNolen-Hoeksema, Fredrickson, Loftus, Wagenaar ISBN 9781844807284 2009 Cengage Learning 20. The Autonomic Nervous System Autonomic system System of nerves outside of the brain & spinal chord thatcontrols the glands and smooth muscles including theheart, blood vessels and stomach lining. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) Activities it controls are autonomous or self-regulating(e.g. digestion & circulation) ANS has two divisions sympathetic & parasympathetic Sympathetic nervous system active during excitement Parasympathetic nervous system associated with rest Use wi