lecture 8 – intertidal - zonation physical factors

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Lecture 8 – INTERTIDAL - ZONATION PHYSICAL FACTORS. Studies of intertidal ecology. Descriptive phase. Understand process. Understand interactions. Investigate physiological/genetic/cellular mechanisms. Studies of intertidal ecology. Effects of physical factors. Organism A. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Lecture 8 INTERTIDAL - ZONATIONPHYSICAL FACTORS

  • Studies of intertidal ecologyDescriptive phaseUnderstand processUnderstand interactionsInvestigate physiological/genetic/cellular mechanisms

  • Studies of intertidal ecologyOrganism ADistribution on the intertidalEffects of physical factorsOrganism BDistribution on the intertidalEffects of physical factors

  • Immersion timeEmersion timeTemperature & desiccationWave actionPhysical Factors on the Intertidal

  • 1. DesiccationBarnacle cypridsFoster 1971. Mar. Biol. 8: 12-29 Time (hours)0369121518Percentage 100

    50

    0mortalitywater loss

  • 1. DesiccationFoster 1971. Mar. Biol. 8: 12-29 Median lethal time (hours)020406080100120140Basal diameter (mm)12

    10

    8

    6

    4

    2

    0

    Balanus crenatusSemibalanus balanoidesElminius modestus

  • Why are larger animals more resistant to desiccation?1 cm1 cm1 cmSurface area = 6 cm2Volume = 1 cm32 cm2 cm2 cmSurface area = 24 cm2Volume = 8 cm3Ratio = 6:1Ratio = 3:1

  • 1. DESICCATIONA second kind of experiment (Foster 71, J. Anim. Ecol. 40:33)

  • 1. DESICCATIONA second kind of experiment (Foster 71, J. Anim. Ecol. 40:33)

  • 1. DESICCATIONAvoiding drying-seeking refuge (Kensler, 1967, Carefoot, 1977)Inner RegionMiddle RegionOuter RegionTransient speciesHighest diversityVery few inhabitantsClay, fine silt, sandGravel, shells, coarse sand

  • 1. DESICCATIONAvoiding drying1. Barnacles - trap waterCO2O22. Mussels - Airgape- open valves repeatedly during low tide

  • 1. DESICCATIONCoping with oxygen depletionFucusresubmergePercentage of initial water retainedPercentage of initial water lostO2 consump-tion10050100

  • 2. TEMPERATURE

  • 2. TEMPERATURE

  • 2. TEMPERATUREMETABOLIC RATECINTERTIDAL INVERTEBRATESDEEPER WATER INVERTEBRATES

  • 2. TEMPERATUREUpper Lethal TemperatureMedian lethal time (hrs)40

    35

    30Balanus crenatusS. balanoidesChthalamus125102050

  • 2. TEMPERATUREUpper Lethal TemperatureMedian lethal time (mins)45

    40

    35

    3050100AsteriasOphiodermaArbaciaUcaIlyanasa

  • 2. TEMPERATURE-effects of substrate and crowdingTISSUE CEXPOSURE TIMEsolitary cobblecrowded cobblesolitary bouldercrowded bouldersolitary cobblecrowded cobblesolitary bouldercrowded boulderHigh intertidalLow intertidal

  • 2. TEMPERATURE-effects of shadingSurface CTIME4010Canopy removedUnder canopy

  • 2. TEMPERATURELatitudinal effectsHelmuth et al, Ecol. Monogr. 2006

  • 2. TEMPERATURETolerances within generaLT5045

    40

    35

    30

    25

    20P. eriomerusP. cinctipes1020304050LT50 = MHT19 species of PetrolisthesMean Habitat Temperature (MHT)Somero. 2002. Int.Comp. Biol. 42:780P. cinctipesP. eriomerus

  • 2. TEMPERATURETolerances within generaSomero. 2002. Int.Comp. Biol. 42:780T. funebralisT. brunneaT. montereyiL. sctulataL. keenae

  • Temperature and AggregationChapperon & Seuront. 2012. J. Therm. Biol 37: 640

  • Temperature and AggregationChapperon & Seuront. 2012. J. Therm. Biol 37: 640

  • Temperature and AggregationChapperon & Seuront. 2012. J. Therm. Biol 37: 640

  • Desiccation and AggregationColeman 2010. J.Exp.Mar.Biol.Ecol. 386:113No significant differences

  • Coleman 2010. J.Exp.Mar.Biol.Ecol. 386:113Desiccation and AggregationNo significant differences

  • 2. TEMPERATURE-low temperature

  • 2. TEMPERATURE-low temperatureDendronotus frondosus(Gionet & Aiken, 1992)%SurvivorshipTemperature (4 hr exposure)0-4-8-10-12100

    50

    0

  • 3. WAVE STRESSa. Limitation of sizeWater flow100%90%Boundary layer

  • 3. WAVE STRESSa. Limitation of sizeWater flow

  • 3. WAVE STRESSb. Holding on Keyhole limpet

  • 3. WAVE STRESSb. Holding on - body orientationWater flow

  • 3. WAVE STRESSb. Holding on - body orientation.5 m/sFreqOrientation ( to flow)

  • 3. WAVE STRESSb. Holding on - tenacityWhat is tenacity?1. Suction?Atmospheric pressure 1 kg/cm2Patella 5 - 7 kg/cm2

  • 3. WAVE STRESSb. Holding on - tenacityWhat is tenacity?Patella

  • 3. WAVE STRESSb. Holding on - tenacityWhat is tenacity?2. AdhesionF = 2 A Sdareasurface tensionthicknessTheoretical adhesion = 600 kg/cm2

  • 3. WAVE STRESSb. Holding on - tenacityWhat is tenacity?2. AdhesionF 1dTenacity(kg/cm2 to detach)Weight of mucous

  • 3. WAVE STRESSLimitation of size- plantsLaminaria

  • 3. WAVE STRESS- How plants deal with itcurrentMovement of plant dissipates EReaction forceInertial force

  • 3. WAVE STRESS-can extend intertidal zonesUpper limit of barnaclesUpper limit of musselsUpper limit of fucoidsUpper limit of kelpELWSEHWSExposedSheltered

  • Effects on limpet distributionTodgham et al, 1997

  • Effects on limpet distributionTodgham et al, 1997HYPOTHESES1. Greater density of limpets the wave-exposed site.2. Limpets will be found more frequently in habitats with refuges.3. Limpets will be found less frequently in wave protected habitats with refuges.

  • Effects on limpet distributionTodgham et al, 1997Habitats ExposedProtected

  • Effects on limpet distributionTodgham et al, 1997Wave Velocity Recorder

  • Effects on limpet distributionTodgham et al, 1997Lottia digitalisLottia paradigitalisLottia peltaTectura personnaTectura scutum

  • Effects on limpet distributionTodgham et al, 1997At each site recorded:Species2. Size class - Small, Medium, LargeMicrohabitatBare rockBare rock with barnacles (Balanus)On/under algaeCrevices

  • Effects on limpet distributionTodgham et al, 1997

    SpeciesProtectedExposed P-valueLottia digitalis50 7.362.4 6.44NSL. paradigitalis18.6 3.728.0 2.7NSL. pelta19.6 3.3318.7 1.44NSTectura scutum25.4 3.1133.9 2.880.009T. personna25.9 3.8Not foundXXXX

  • Effects on limpet distributionTodgham et al, 1997Low tideHigh tideL. digitalisL. paradigitalisL. peltaT. personnaT. scutum

  • Effects on limpet distributionTodgham et al, 1997Wave protectedL. digitalis frequencyHabitat frequencyBare rockRock/BarnacleCoverCreviceBare rockRock/BarnacleCoverCreviceWave exposedLottia digitalis

  • Effects on limpet distributionTodgham et al, 1997Distribution of size classes in all species

  • Effects on limpet distributionBlanchette, 1997Growth and survival of Fucus gardneri

  • Effects on Fucus Blanchette, 1997Growth and survival of Fucus gardneri

  • Growth and survival of Fucus gardneriEffects on Fucus Blanchette, 1997

  • Growth and survival of Fucus gardneriEffects on Fucus Blanchette, 1997

  • Growth and survival of Fucus gardneriMarch August FebruaryPlaniform area m2Exposed Protected Effects on Fucus Blanchette, 1997

  • Growth and survival of Fucus gardneriMarch August FebruaryMean LengthExposed Protected Effects on Fucus Blanchette, 1997

  • Growth and survival of Fucus gardneriMarch August FebruaryMean MassExposed Protected Effects on Fucus Blanchette, 1997

  • TransplantsEffects on Fucus Blanchette, 1997

  • TransplantsP to PP to EE to PE to EP to PP to EE to PE to EMean areaMaximum areaMean areaSeptSeptEffects on Fucus Blanchette, 1997

  • TransplantsP to PP to EE to PE to EReproductive Status(number of blades with mature receptacles)Effects on Fucus Blanchette, 1997

  • Next timeIntertidal Zonation - Biological Factors