Lecture 8 – INTERTIDAL - ZONATION PHYSICAL FACTORS

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Lecture 8 INTERTIDAL - ZONATION PHYSICAL FACTORS. 1. DESICCATION. Experiment (Frank, 1965. Ecol. 46: 831). Before artificial seep. Barnacle. Fucus. 1. DESICCATION. Experiment (Frank, 1965. Ecol. 46: 831). After artificial seep. Before artificial seep. Barnacle. Fucus. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>Lecture 8 INTERTIDAL - ZONATIONPHYSICAL FACTORS</p></li><li><p>1. DESICCATIONExperiment (Frank, 1965. Ecol. 46: 831)BarnacleFucusBefore artificial seep</p></li><li><p>1. DESICCATIONExperiment (Frank, 1965. Ecol. 46: 831)After artificial seepBarnacleFucusBefore artificial seep</p></li><li><p>1. DESICCATIONA second kind of experiment (Foster 71, J. Anim. Ecol. 40:33)</p></li><li><p>1. DESICCATIONA second kind of experiment (Foster 71, J. Anim. Ecol. 40:33)</p></li><li><p>1. DESICCATIONAvoiding drying-seeking refuge (Kensler, 1967, Carefoot, 1977)Inner RegionMiddle RegionOuter RegionTransient speciesHighest diversityVery few inhabitantsClay, fine silt, sandGravel, shells, coarse sand</p></li><li><p>1. DESICCATIONAvoiding drying1. Barnacles - trap waterCO2O22. Mussels - Airgape- open valves repeatedly during low tide</p></li><li><p>1. DESICCATIONCoping with oxygen depletionFucusresubmergePercentage of initial water retainedPercentage of initial water lostO2 consump-tion10050100</p></li><li><p>2. TEMPERATURE</p></li><li><p>2. TEMPERATURE</p></li><li><p>2. TEMPERATUREMETABOLIC RATECINTERTIDAL INVERTEBRATESDEEPER WATER INVERTEBRATES</p></li><li><p>2. TEMPERATUREUpper Lethal TemperatureMedian lethal time (hrs)40</p><p>35</p><p>30Balanus crenatusS. balanoidesChthalamus125102050</p></li><li><p>2. TEMPERATUREUpper Lethal TemperatureMedian lethal time (mins)45</p><p>40</p><p>35</p><p>3050100AsteriasOphiodermaArbaciaUcaIlyanasa</p></li><li><p>2. TEMPERATURE-effects of substrate and crowdingTISSUE CEXPOSURE TIMEsolitary cobblecrowded cobblesolitary bouldercrowded bouldersolitary cobblecrowded cobblesolitary bouldercrowded boulderHigh intertidalLow intertidal</p></li><li><p>2. TEMPERATURE-effects of shadingSurface CTIME4010Canopy removedUnder canopy</p></li><li><p>2. TEMPERATURELatitudinal effectsHelmuth et al, Ecol. Monogr. 2006</p></li><li><p>2. TEMPERATURE-low temperature</p></li><li><p>2. TEMPERATURE-low temperatureDendronotus frondosus(Gionet &amp; Aiken, 1992)%SurvivorshipTemperature (4 hr exposure)0-4-8-10-12100</p><p>50</p><p>0</p></li><li><p>3. WAVE STRESSa. Limitation of sizeWater flow100%90%Boundary layer</p></li><li><p>3. WAVE STRESSa. Limitation of sizeWater flow</p></li><li><p>3. WAVE STRESSb. Holding on Keyhole limpet</p></li><li><p>3. WAVE STRESSb. Holding on - body orientationWater flow</p></li><li><p>3. WAVE STRESSb. Holding on - body orientation.5 m/sFreqOrientation ( to flow)</p></li><li><p>3. WAVE STRESSb. Holding on - tenacityWhat is tenacity?1. Suction?Atmospheric pressure 1 kg/cm2Patella 5 - 7 kg/cm2</p></li><li><p>3. WAVE STRESSb. Holding on - tenacityWhat is tenacity?Patella</p></li><li><p>3. WAVE STRESSb. Holding on - tenacityWhat is tenacity?2. AdhesionF = 2 A Sdareasurface tensionthicknessTheoretical adhesion = 600 kg/cm2</p></li><li><p>3. WAVE STRESSb. Holding on - tenacityWhat is tenacity?2. AdhesionF 1dTenacity(kg/cm2 to detach)Weight of mucous</p></li><li><p>3. WAVE STRESSLimitation of size- plantsLaminaria</p></li><li><p>3. WAVE STRESS- How plants deal with itcurrentMovement of plant dissipates EReaction forceInertial force</p></li><li><p>3. WAVE STRESS-can extend intertidal zonesUpper limit of barnaclesUpper limit of musselsUpper limit of fucoidsUpper limit of kelpELWSEHWSExposedSheltered</p></li><li><p>Effects on limpet distributionTodgham et al, 1997</p></li><li><p>Effects on limpet distributionTodgham et al, 1997HYPOTHESES1. Greater density of limpets the wave-exposed site.2. Limpets will be found more frequently in habitats with refuges.3. Limpets will be found less frequently in wave protected habitats with refuges.</p></li><li><p>Effects on limpet distributionTodgham et al, 1997Habitats ExposedProtected</p></li><li><p>Effects on limpet distributionTodgham et al, 1997Wave Velocity Recorder</p></li><li><p>Effects on limpet distributionTodgham et al, 1997Lottia digitalisLottia paradigitalisLottia peltaTectura personnaTectura scutum</p></li><li><p>Effects on limpet distributionTodgham et al, 1997At each site recorded:Species2. Size class - Small, Medium, LargeMicrohabitatBare rockBare rock with barnacles (Balanus)On/under algaeCrevices </p></li><li><p>Effects on limpet distributionTodgham et al, 1997</p><p>SpeciesProtectedExposed P-valueLottia digitalis50 7.362.4 6.44NSL. paradigitalis18.6 3.728.0 2.7NSL. pelta19.6 3.3318.7 1.44NSTectura scutum25.4 3.1133.9 2.880.009T. personna25.9 3.8Not foundXXXX</p></li><li><p>Effects on limpet distributionTodgham et al, 1997Low tideHigh tideL. digitalisL. paradigitalisL. peltaT. personnaT. scutum</p></li><li><p>Effects on limpet distributionTodgham et al, 1997Wave protectedL. digitalis frequencyHabitat frequencyBare rockRock/BarnacleCoverCreviceBare rockRock/BarnacleCoverCreviceWave exposedLottia digitalis</p></li><li><p>Effects on limpet distributionTodgham et al, 1997Distribution of size classes in all species</p></li><li><p>Effects on limpet distributionBlanchette, 1997Growth and survival of Fucus gardneri</p></li><li><p>Effects on Fucus Blanchette, 1997Growth and survival of Fucus gardneri</p></li><li><p>Growth and survival of Fucus gardneriEffects on Fucus Blanchette, 1997</p></li><li><p>Growth and survival of Fucus gardneriEffects on Fucus Blanchette, 1997</p></li><li><p>Growth and survival of Fucus gardneriMarch August FebruaryPlaniform area m2Exposed Protected Effects on Fucus Blanchette, 1997</p></li><li><p>Growth and survival of Fucus gardneriMarch August FebruaryMean LengthExposed Protected Effects on Fucus Blanchette, 1997</p></li><li><p>Growth and survival of Fucus gardneriMarch August FebruaryMean MassExposed Protected Effects on Fucus Blanchette, 1997</p></li><li><p>TransplantsEffects on Fucus Blanchette, 1997</p></li><li><p>TransplantsP to PP to EE to PE to EP to PP to EE to PE to EMean areaMaximum areaMean areaSeptSeptEffects on Fucus Blanchette, 1997</p></li><li><p>TransplantsP to PP to EE to PE to EReproductive Status(number of blades with mature receptacles)Effects on Fucus Blanchette, 1997</p></li><li><p>Next timeIntertidal Zonation - Biological Factors</p></li></ul>