lecture 17. chapter 9 motivating and leading employees

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Lecture 17

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  • Lecture 17

  • Chapter 9MOTIVATING AND LEADING EMPLOYEES

  • Chapter Outcome Describe the nature and importance of psychological contracts in the workplaceImportance of job satisfaction and employee morale Important theories of motivationStrategies to improve job satisfaction and employee motivationManagerial style of leadership

  • Psychological ContractSet of expectation held by employees concerning what they will contribute and what the organization will provideEmployees ContributionsOrganizations InducementsResult satisfaction and motivation

  • Psychological Contract

    Human Relations- Interaction Of Employees With Company And Each OtherJob SatisfactionDegree of enjoyment derived from workMoraleOverall attitude towards workTurnoverAnnual % of workforce that leaves and must be replaced Organizational SuccessSatisfied VS dissatisfied worker

  • Trends In Satisfaction & MoraleMassive Layoffs/Cutbacks

    Improving Economy Could Mean Reduced Morale

    Reinstate Benefits

  • High Priorities For Todays WorkforceFamily OrientationSense Of CommunityQuality Of Life IssuesVolunteerismAutonomyFlexibility & Nonconformity

  • Workplace MotivationMotivation- Forces Affecting Peoples BehaviorClassical Theory/Scientific ManagementBehavior TheoryContemporary Motivational Theories

  • Classical TheoryFrederick Taylor (1911)

    More Money = Greater Motivation

    Efficient Company = Higher Profits & Pay

    Time-And-Motion Study

  • Behavior TheoryHawthorne Studies (1925)

    Physical Environment Changes Affect Worker Output

    Increased Pay did not increase productivity

    Hawthorne Effect productivity rose in response to management action that workers interpreted as special attention

  • Theories X & Y (1960)Belief about how best to use the human resource employed by the firm, Theory Y managers are more likely to have satisfied workforce

  • Hierarchy Of Needs (1954) Abrahim Maslow

  • Two-Factor Theory(1959) Fredrick Herzberg Job Satisfaction Depends On Two Factors

  • Expectancy TheoryVictor Vroom (1964)People Work Towards Rewards

  • Equity TheoryPeople evaluate their treatment by employers relative to the treatment of others

  • Strategies for Enhancing Job Satisfaction and Motivation

  • Reinforcement/Behavior Modification TheoryB.F. Skinner (1957)Behavior can be encouraged or discouraged by means of reward and punishment

    ReinforcementPieceworkPerformance = Rewards

    Punishment = Negative ReinforcementPresent people with unpleasant consequences

  • ManagementBy ObjectivesPeter Drucker (1954)Collaborative Goal Setting

  • RecentManagement StylesParticipative Management Or Employee EmpowermentEmployees Receive Greater ResponsibilityEmployees Feel More Committed To OrganizationTeam Management- Employees Given Decision-Making ResponsibilitySome Employees Frustrated By Increased Responsibility

  • Job Enrichment

    Adding one more motivating factor to the job

  • Job Enlargement & Job Rotation

  • Job RedesignAcknowledges that different people want different thingsRestructures work to have a fit between worker and workJob redesign is implemented in one or three waysCombining task or job enlargementForming natural workgroupsEstablishing client relationshipsMore control and feedback

  • Modified Work SchedulesWork-ShareFlextimeTelecommuting/Virtual OfficeAdvantagesEmployee Freedom/Control Of LifeImproves Individual ProductivityDisadvantagesComplex CoordinationDifficult To Keep Accurate Records

  • Flextime Schedule

  • Questions For TelecommutersCan I Manage Deadlines?Can I Be Without The Social Context Of The Office?NetworkingAdvancementWhat Will Be The Impact On My Family?

  • Managerial Styles& LeadershipManagerial Styles- Patterns Of Management Behavior In Dealing With Employees

    Leadership- Motivating Others To Work

  • Autocratic StyleIssue Orders

    Expect Them To Be Followed

    Rapid Decision-Making

  • Democratic StyleAsk For Input From Subordinates

    Retains Final Authority

  • Free-Rein StyleManager Is Advisor To Subordinates

    Subordinates Make Decisions

    Fosters Creativity

  • Contingency StyleNo Specific Style Used All The TimeSituation Dictates Managers Leadership StyleDifferent Cultures Have Varying Expectations Of Leaders

  • 21st Century Leadership/ManagementMotivationMoney No Longer PrimeDifferent Desires At WorkVarying Lifestyles Reflect Varying Goals Of EmployeeLeadershipFlatter Organizations = Less AutocraticDiversity Of Workplace = Diversity Of LeadersNetwork Mentalitys