lecture 01_the lay of the land_draft2

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    The Lay of the Land: Geography

    and its Role in Chinas Society

    Lecture 1

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    Total Land

    Area

    Cultivated

    Land Area

    Cultivated as

    Percent of

    Total

    Popula-

    tion

    Cultivated

    Land per

    capita

    (M. km--2) (M. km2) (2)/(1) (Million) (hectares)

    China

    1996

    9.6 1.3 13.5% 1,224 .106

    India 3.29 1.41 43% 931 .19

    USA 9.17 1.70 19% 243 .70

    USSR 22.27 2.20 10% 284 .77

    Same as other nations but oh so different!

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    Geographical Forces

    Location in Asia (latitude next Thursday)

    Mountains

    Deserts Rainfall Patterns

    Temperature and Other Factors

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    Creation of Chinas Realm

    Plate Tectonics the defining force of

    China

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    Plate Tectonics Shaping Asia

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    China after the collision:

    One big mountainous mess

    and a lot desert elsewhere

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    Rainfall in North China

    Low

    Variable

    All Concentrated in the Summer

    Determinants: A combination of Siberia /the Himalayas / and sunspots

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    WinterWeather Driven by Siberian Land Mass

    1. Cold creates very high pressure

    2. All winter /

    spring strong

    winds out of NE

    3. Mountains block all

    moisture from Indian Ocean

    4. All moisture from

    South China Sea is

    blown out of NorthChina

    5. Therefore: does not rain all winter in

    North China or Central Asian Steppe

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    SummerWeather Also driven by Siberian Land

    Mass Plus Sunspots

    1. Heat creates low pressure

    2. By mid-summer warm

    air mass rises enough and

    starts sucking in moisture

    from South China sea

    3a. But, rainfall can be variable: If

    sunspots (that is, extra hot), moisture

    from Indian Ocean can come in

    abundance -- floods

    4. By spring, every

    year, as NE winds die

    down, moisture fromSouth China Sea flows

    in Yangtze Valley

    plum rains

    5. Therefore: most rain in North China

    comes in July and August, but variable

    3b. If cooler weather,

    little or no moisture

    can make it -- drought

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    Drier and Drier

    Wetter and

    wetter

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    Abundant water in South China

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    The Desert of Mongolia and

    Central Asia

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    Creation of Chinas Realm

    Plate Tectonics the defining force of

    China

    Division from Europe desert in west and

    north

    Division from rest of South Asia peaks

    and canyons

    Mountains in South China

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    Barriers of Geography

    Mountains and

    canyons

    Deserts

    Coves and

    ocean andhostile

    pirates

    Why is China less imperialistic than other powers Who are Chinas traditional enemies?

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    Geography and Institutions

    Deserts of the Northwest: Need for

    irrigation and rise of Imperial China

    The Himalayas and Moisture of SoutheastAsia: The mid-China swamp, the discovery

    of rice and expansion of an empire

    Mountainous terrain and isolated coves:

    The isolated south havens for pirates

    and patriots

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    7000 BC to 5000 BC: arrival of wheat / barely / sorghum

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    First irrigation systems

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    Deserts of the Northwest: Need for

    irrigation and rise of Imperial China

    Need for the creation ofa bureaucracy to

    manage irrigation system

    Oriental Despotism

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    Geography creates Chinas Yellow Earth

    And, creates a

    landscape where 30

    million people still live in

    caves

    Windblown soil from Gobi

    desert deposited 1000s of feet

    thick in Northwest China

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    North China Water Crisis

    Not enough water in the

    Yellow River; Huai River orHai River to support both

    booming agriculture and

    rapidly expanding cities

    Hai River Basin

    LowerReaches of

    Yellow River

    Places of real

    shortages

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    Agricultural Expansion on the North China Plain mainly from

    2 season wheat corn largest increase in Chinas food

    output in the post-WWII era

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    Not enough surface water so, tapone of the richest fresh water aquifers

    in the world with pumping

    But, pumping itself is going on so fast,

    groundwater table is falling at 1 meter

    per year in some places

    Yellow River (full of loess silt), millions of years ago

    Yellow River (full of loess silt), nowMountains in Hai River Basin

    First filled in by silt overflow from

    flooding Yellow River and then

    filled with fresh water

    Ground level

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    Creation of 1000s of Years of

    Conflict Mongolian Plain nomads

    Xiongnu / Mongolians /

    Manchurians

    China, proper --

    farmers

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    How long is the Great Wall?

    (Hint Chinese name: wanli changcheng 10,000 li wall)

    Hint on hints: hints are not always right: over

    course of Chinas history, more than 20,000

    kilometers of wall have been built

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    But, much less today

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    Culture from the North

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    Although most of real wall is gone

    today there is a population wall

    of land

    6 percent of

    population

    of land

    94 percent of

    population

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    In fact, the geography of the

    North indirectly has created

    Chinas ethnic mosaic

    Chinaa non-Han minorities areall over . Yet almost no

    where: only about 8% of

    population are non-Han

    So how did geography create

    todays China? Have to look back

    nearly 1000 years

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    Geography begats Genghis

    "The greatest happiness is

    to vanquish your enemies,

    to chase them before you,to rob them of their wealth,

    to see those dear to them

    bathed in tears, to clasp to

    your bosom their wives

    and daughters"-GENGHIS KHAN

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    Where did Genghis Khan come

    from?

    Pastoral society that evolved on the edge of

    Chinas northern borders

    Grass versus Cultivation

    Grass horsemanship / bow technology / strategy for

    warfare during a pre-fire arms era

    Why the evolution?

    Chinas wealth provided the motivation to produce

    better/faster horses stronger bows and more effective

    strategies

    And ultimately

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    the Mongolia Empire 1206 to 1294

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    What is

    effect onChina?

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    Empire before

    the Yuan Dynasty

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    Xinjiang / Qinghai

    Tibet

    Inner Mongolia

    HLJ

    Jilin

    Liaoning

    Yunnan

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    Chinaa non-Han minorities are

    all over . Yet almost no

    where: only about 8% of

    population are non-Han

    Uygur /

    Kazakh /(altais or turkie)

    Tibetan

    Mongolian(altai)

    Man +Korean (altai)

    Miao Yao / Tai /

    Tujia (sino-tibetan)Most of Chinas

    Minority Areas

    are actually

    added by non-

    Han dynasties

    Tajiks (indoeuropeans

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    Distribution of Minorities because

    of nature of isolated geographies

    most of Chinas 55 ethnic minority

    groups are in the South and

    Southwest .

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    Muslims around 8 million (Uygurs) and other

    Muslims (about 20 million altogether) dominate

    Northwest China (and the worries of Han Leaders)

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    Most concentrated minorities in

    population terms are actually in

    Northeast Man (10 million) and

    Korean (2 million) difficult to tell

    apart from Han agriculturalist mixed marriages

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    Geography and Institutions

    Deserts of the Northwest: Need forirrigation and rise of Imperial China

    The Himalayas and Moisture of

    Southeast Asia: The mid-China swamp,the discovery of rice and expansion ofan empire

    Mountainous terrain and isolated coves:The isolated south havens for piratesand patriots

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    Yangtze: Chinas largest river

    and geographic heart of Middle

    China

    Second in water flow (to Amazon)

    Second in length (to Nile)

    First in vertical drop (from more than 5000

    meters to sea-level)

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    Source:

    about 5000

    meters on

    Tibetan

    Plateau

    Into the sea

    near

    Shangahi

    The long journey down the Yangtze

    and a land dominated by water

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    80% of

    population in

    the South

    80% of

    population in

    the North

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    Reasons for

    population shift:

    Pull: Big

    breakthroughwhen paddy rice

    came from

    Vietnam (via

    India? Via China?)

    in around 1200

    AD)

    Push: Ghengis

    Khan

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    The Grand Canal of China () is the largest ancient

    artificial riverin the world, from Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province to Tianjin near

    the Bohai Bay, where it unites with the Hai He, and thus may be said to extend

    to Tung-chow in the neighbourhood ofBeijing.

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    The flip side of a lot of water not

    drought, but floods

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    The ultimate floodprevention project

    maybe?

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    And, produces a lot of culture

    From the late Song

    (after Genghis) to

    Ming and today?

    Center of Chinese

    Culture

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    and Shanghai which has helped produce

    Chinas economic growth!

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    Geography and Institutions

    Deserts of the Northwest: Need forirrigation and rise of Imperial China

    The Himalayas and Moisture of Southeast

    Asia: The mid-China swamp, the discoveryof rice and expansion of an empire

    Mountainous terrain and isolated

    coves: The isolated south havens forpirates and patriots andentrepreneurs

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    Innumerable Scenes from the South

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    The mountains are everywhere giving

    refuge to pirates and patriots the

    Mongols / Manchurians / Nationalists couldnever defeat the rebels in the South

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    Geography under fiscal scarcity creates theultimate choice

    The Ming is wealthy lots of trade peace

    and expansion of economic activity

    Zhu Di (second emperor) with help of a eunuchnamed Zheng He (Zhu Diindirectly actually

    made Zheng He a eunuch; then he made him

    his closest advisor), began a series of

    enormous projects to lay the foundation of a

    true Chinese empire (including rebuilding

    Peking; widening the Grand Canal; etc)

    GREATEST PROJECTS f Zh Di/ Zh H BUILD th

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    GREATEST PROJECTS of Zhu Di/ Zheng He:

    A. Create a permanent defense against the

    Barbarians out of the north

    B. Build a fleet that could conquer the world

    or at least master it with trade (this is, of

    course, more than 100 years before

    Columbus) under fiscal scarcity creates

    the ultimate choices

    But, few countries can fight two wars at onetime and, there are two wars (Mongols /

    Manchus continue to attack northern

    borders + pirates attacking ocean going

    shipping)

    Geography raises the stakes can not raise abig enough army to destroy Barbarians in

    the north (why? Desert is too big and too

    far from supply lines) and can not build a big

    enough coast guard/navy to protect ocean

    going vessels (why? Too many coves and

    islands for hiding)

    BUILD the

    GREAT WALL

    a real one

    BAN OCEAN GOING shipping

    cant afford both (forces

    China to turn inward

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    Geography also creates thousands

    of isolated villages thousands of

    dialects and customs andfoods (hunan chicken sichuan

    ribs cantonese dimsum

    peking duck xian lamb soup

    mongolian bbq neverending)

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    Also creates governance-with-

    Chinese characteristics

    Remember the structure of Chinas

    government? Created in response to the

    demands of irrigation [see next slide]

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    Deserts of the Northwest: Need for

    irrigation and rise of Imperial China

    Need for the creation of

    a bureaucracy tomanage irrigation system

    Oriental Despotism

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    Also creates governance-with-

    Chinese characteristics

    Remember the structure of Chinas

    government? Created in response to the

    demands of irrigation [see next slide]

    Problem: how do you run a huge,

    DIVERSE (with many areas isolated by

    geography) county in a pre-internet

    (telephone) era?DECENTRALIZATION

    What is the nat re of the

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    What is the nature of the

    contracts between upper and

    lower levels in Chinas governmentbureaucracy?

    The Center (Emperor

    (e.g., Qian Long) or theChairman (e.g., Mao)

    or the General Party

    Secretary (Hu Jintao)

    KEY QUESTION: Could Qian Long give an

    orderand have it carried out in all 22 provinces

    189 prefectures 1500 counties and

    22000 towns?

    NO Geography dictates a decentralized

    government system:

    County magistrate does:

    X, Y and Z (submit taxes / maintain dikes /

    keep peace)

    Center does not care how governance is

    carried out [effect? Enormous

    heterogeneity in institutions / culture /

    foods / etc]

    provinces

    Prefectures

    Counties

    Towns

    The New Heart of Chinas Industry-Machine

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    The New Heart of China s Industry-Machine

    different models in different places

    Township and

    village

    enterprises in

    Southern

    Jiangsu

    Pure

    private

    enterprisein

    Wenzhou

    JVs between overseas

    Chinese and domestic

    entrepreneurs in Guangdong

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    Although it makes policy making

    from the center difficult it allows

    for safe experimentation:

    First Special Economic Zones in

    the South areas isolated from the

    rest of China

    How else could

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    How else could

    you get:

    Shenzhen: the

    symbol of Chinas

    miracle growth

    From 1980

    until 2000

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    The many faces of China

    Each influenced by

    geography

    And more

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    Lessons

    I didnt know what plate-tectonics were yesterday, andtoday I know it has shaped the world that I am living infully!

    Geography is powerful: Chinas culture is not what

    makes the middle kingdom special, the middlekingdom (that is, Chinas position in East Asia surrounded by mountains; deserts and coves) is whatmakes Chinas culture

    The power of geography and the legacy of the culture

    (which was shaped by the geography) live on today: China is not hegemonic (it never has been only those nasty

    barbarians from the north were)

    The state plays an important role in the economy (it always has)

    China is a diverse and decentralized place (it had to be)