learning. instinct vs. experience what do salmon do at birth? unlike salmon, we are not born with a...
Post on 18-Jan-2018
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DESCRIPTIONWe can learn how to build grass huts or snow shelters, submarines, or space stations, and thereby adjust to almost any environment. Indeed, natures most important gift to us may be to our adaptability--our capacity to learn new behaviors that help us cope with changing circumstances.
LEARNING Instinct vs. Experience What do salmon do at birth? Unlike Salmon, we are not born with a genetic plan for life. Much of what we do, we learn from experience. Although we struggle to find the life direction a salmon is born with, our learning gives us more flexibility. We can learn how to build grass huts or snow shelters, submarines, or space stations, and thereby adjust to almost any environment. Indeed, natures most important gift to us may be to our adaptability--our capacity to learn new behaviors that help us cope with changing circumstances. According to Myers, no topic is closer to the heart of psychology than LEARNING, a relatively permanent behavior change due to experience. We will focus on 3 types of LEARNING for now: Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Observational Learning Classical Conditioning is You all worked on your Learning Terms and saw the Zimbardo videoplease take a second to tell the class what you think Classical Conditioning actually is? Heres a great way of putting it Classical Conditioning is a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events. Exampleseeing lightning and wincing as you anticipate thunder. PAVLOV We have already discussed his experiments, so lets jump in and discuss the terminology that resulted from his research Unconditioned Response: he called the salivation in the mouth the unconditioned response because it was unlearned. The food was the unconditioned stimulus. More On Pavlov Salivation in response to the tone was conditional upon the dogs learning the association between the tone and the food. Today we call this learned response the Conditioned Response (CR). The previously neutral tone stimulus that now triggered the conditional salivation we call the Conditioned Stimulus (CS). 1 Different Example Identify the US, UR, CS, and CR: An experimenter sounds a tone just before delivering an air puff which causes your eye to blink. After several repetitions you blink to the tone alone. ANSWERS Unconditioned Stimulus=Air Puff Unconditioned Response=Blinking to the Air Puff Conditioned Stimulus=Tone After Procedure Conditioned Response=Blink to Tone Write this down to help you Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Neutral Stimulus+Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Repeat Several Times and Conditioned Stimulus+No Stimulus Conditioned Response 1 Last Time Can one brave volunteer tell us The aroma of cake baking sets your mouth to watering. What is the US? The CS? And the CR? ANSWER US=the Cake (and its taste) CS=Aroma CR=Salivating To Fully Understand Classical Conditioning Make sure you learn these terms (if you know them now, please speak up): acquisition higher-order conditioning extinction spontaneous recovery generalization discrimination learned helplessness