leah leadership projects: objectives, literature review, methods

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LEAH Leadership Projects: Objectives, Literature Review, Methods. Cari McCarty, Ph.D. November 22, 2013. Check In. Content Category (1 of 5) Topic Mentoring Panel. Step 1: Create LP Objectives. Clinical Care – What will you develop, who is it targeted to, and how could it improve care? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • LEAHLeadership Projects:Objectives, Literature Review, MethodsCari McCarty, Ph.D.November 22, 2013

  • Check In

    Content Category (1 of 5)TopicMentoring Panel

  • Step 1: Create LP Objectives

    Clinical Care What will you develop, who is it targeted to, and how could it improve care?Policy What type of policy do you aim to inform and how will you go about it?Research Specify and interest the reader in an important question your study will answer Advocacy Who is your advocacy project targeted to? What are the advocacy objectives? Education Who will you educate? What are the learning objectives?

  • Creating LP ObjectivesQualities of Strong LP Objectives

    Important and interesting: Check it out with your mentor and peers, spouse, friends, etc.

  • Framing: Does Your Objective Interest Others?

  • Creating Your LP ObjectivesQualities of Strong LP Objectives

    Important and interesting: Check it out with your mentor and peers, spouse, friends, etc.Clearly written, with unambiguous language: Does it mean to others what it means to you?

  • Is it Clear and Unambiguous?

  • Learning Many New LanguagesDuring the course of your project, you will consult with diverse experts (technology, IRB, data management, research design, data analysis, biostatistics, scientific writing, etc.) each speaking a different languageAsk for help when you are unsure what is meant

  • Creating LP ObjectivesQualities of Strong LP Objectives

    Important and interesting: Check it out with your mentor and parents, spouse, friends, etc.Clearly written, with unambiguous language: Does it mean to others what it means to you?Specific enough to tell the reader what youll learn: Population? Exposure? Outcomes? Timeframes?

  • LP Objective LanguageTensions in creating a a simple yet specific objective in lay language

    Specificity: VagueDetailedLength:LongShortWording:UnclearExcessive lingo

  • Creating LP ObjectivesQualities of Strong LP Objectives

    Imply a hypothesis (if Research): Can you phrase it To determine or test whether ______ ? Does it imply the directionality of your hypothesis?Addressable (by you): How sure are you that YOU can do the work to address the objective? What is your method/outcome? Do you have or can you recruit the needed expertise?

  • Refining LP Objectives

    Have lots of other people review itHave non-researchers review it Re-review it yourself after taking a break from itMake sure the work you are doing addresses it and is feasible

  • Step 2: Literature Reviews with a Librarian

    Write down specific topics and keywords relevant to your objectivesIdentify the optimal librarian liaison http://www.lib.washington.edu/subject/librarians/ or Susan Klawansky@seattlechildrens.orgEmail him/her and set up a meeting (in person or phone); they are expecting you!Refine and save your search

  • Literature Reviews

    Benefits of Standardized Literature Reviews

    Research ideas: Gaps in literature, patterns in what has been examinedPolicy/advocacy: Data leads to changes!Publishing: Write a standardized literature review or an editorialSave time when writing later manuscripts and grants

  • Standardize Your Literature Reviews

    Develop a Table/Form to Abstract Key InformationFor a specific question and a specific search Specify inclusion/exclusion criteria for articlesAuthor/year, Sample, Measures, Results, NotesStart simple; add detail as specific use(s) becomes clearWhat is it you want to know about the literature?

  • Case Study: Literature Review Is there an association between depression and alcohol use during adolescence?Mixed findings, no consensusLimited understanding of timing, sequence, severity, role of conduct problems

  • Case StudyResults of Standardized Review

    Study# of depression time points# of alcohol timepointsCP includedDepression MeasureCapaldi et al. (1999)31YesSymptomsHussong et al., 1998Chassin et al., 200213NoNoSymptomsKaplow et. al., 200113NoSymptomsKing et al., 200412NoDiagnosisMeaselle et al., 200644NoDiagnosis & SymptomsWhite et al., 2001Pardini et al., 20071162NoYesSymptomsSymptomsMason et al., 200811YesSymptomsFleming et al., 200844NoSymptomsPROPOSED STUDY77YesDiagnosis & Symptoms

  • Example 1: Studies on Depression as a Risk Factor for Alcohol Use

    Authors/DateSample SizeType of SampleLocationAge Span% BoysEthnicEnglund et al., 2008178High-riskMidwest9-1853%67.6% White10.6% African American21.8% OtherMaggs et all, 200816,009CommunityGreat Britain7-4250.8%Not providedHooshmand et al., 20124412School-BasedOntario, Canada14-1751%Not provided

  • Example 2: Meta-Analysis of Treatment Studies for Youth Depression

    Author/YearSample TypeControl GroupOther OutcomesEffect SizeNotesClarke et al., 2001SubclinicalUsual care in an HMOExternalizing0.116.3% attritionDeCuyper et al., 2004Subclinical school sampleWaitlistAnxiety0.40Diamond et al., (2002)Diagnosed, referred youthWaitlistAnxiety Family Functioning0.68

  • Use a Citation Management System Why? Saves your library of citations, inserts markers in your writing, formats your bibliography for different journals

    Which tools are used most frequently at UW? Zotero, Mendeley, RefWorks, EndNote


  • Citation Management Systems Refworks: free, great online help, web, transferable, no updates needed, tutorial and UW librarian support Zotero: free, saves your library on your local computer but allows you to sync, Mendeley: web-based app, with mobile capacity, newer Endnote: many faculty use and like; costs; updates often pain Endnote Web: free, limited to 10,000 citations, can import citations from a bookmark

  • Step 3: Method/Project PlanningDetermine the approach that you will take to accomplish your objectives. This can take many forms:

    Needs assessmentsFocus groupsKey informant/stakeholder interviewsStatistical analysis of dataWriting a syllabusDeveloping a curriculumDeveloping a brochure/educational tools

  • Step 4: Flesh Out the DetailsHow will you approach people?What questions will you ask them?What measures will you use (established vs. new)?How will you organize yourself?How will you track your progress?How will you summarize the results?What will your project look like in the end?How can your mentors best help you?

    *************Childrens librarian also available for fellows with SCH priviliges****We have carefully searched the literature and have only found 10 papers, encompassing 8 different samples, which have addressed the longitudinal relationship between depression and alcohol use in adolescence (defined here as first timepoint before age 18), as listed in Table 1. These studies provide an important foundation for further work examining associations between depression and adolescent alcohol use, but are limited as a group in several ways. First, the majority of these studies (7 of 10) have examined depression as a static variable rather than as a dynamic process, as most analyses have utilized a single timepoint in assessing depression. Doing so may lead to misleading conclusions because depression is an episodic phenomenon that typically waxes and wanes. Moreover, it is very possible that the relationship between depression and alcohol problems changes over the course of adolescent development, as these are both emerging problems during that time. Thus, findings in early adolescence may not translate to later adolescence. Research examining the effect of conduct disorder on substance use disorder has found age specific effects.42 Second, most of these studies (7 of 10) did not examine depression in the context of or as interacting with conduct problems. This is critical because of the high prevalence of comorbidity and the potential for mixing of effects. Third, all but two of these studies have examined depression measured as symptoms, with no attention to factors such as persistence or severity of depression. Fourth, although we know that factors such as economic disadvantage and family adversity play an important role, very few of these studies (3 of 10) incorporated any other social-contextual risks or developmental processes into their analyses. Fifth, some of the studies did not differentiate between internalizing problems related to depression and those related to anxiety, which appear to function differently in the development of alcohol use.40 Thus, the proposed study will offer the most complete assessment of the role of depression in adolescent alcohol problems to date. ***


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