latin america: revolution and reaction into the 21 st century c33 eqs: why was latin america so...
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Latin America: Revolution and Reaction into the 21st CenturyC33EQs: Why was Latin America so unstable in the 20th C? Why did the US intervene so much?
IntroductionLatin America in the 20th century experienced many revolutions and many reactions to revolutionsAs the 20th century closed, Latin America has positioned itself between Western nations and third world nations, thanks in part to heavy western investmentStill, political and social injustice dating back to colonial and post colonial days remain, as do issues of economic security, surging population growth in urban areas and emigration to the USIt terms of economics and politics, very little change has occurred, however, education, social services, womens rights and the role of industry
After World War IILatin America saw very little action during the warbut economies grewBrazil developed a steel industry with the help of the USNew political upheavals emerged in several nations, Argentina being a key example as a military group forced Juan Peron out of power, and led several dirty wars to purge the country of its opponentsMexico continued to be controlled by the PRI (Party of the Institutionalized Revolution), however, the party very slowly continued the promised reforms of the Mexican Revolutionthis angered many amongst the lower classes who were still waiting for the land (ejidos)Guerrilla movements formed, mainly in southern Mexicoa group known as the Zapatistas responded to PRI corruption with revolts, that were often met with civil repression from the PRI governmentBy the end of the 20th century, the negotiation of NAFTA with the US and the ultimate defeat of the PRI by the PAN (Conservative Party) brought new change to Mexico, the results of which are not completely clear
Radical Options in the 1950sPolitical unrest still plagued most of Latin America post-WWIIin several countries, Marxist revolution became the normIn Bolivia, a socialist rebellion rose against the 6% of the population that controlled all the wealth in the nationthough successful with nationalization policies, Bolivia fell back into control by a military caudillo by 1964Guatemala experienced more radical attempts at reformthe majority of the population was poor, illiterate, had no land and the overall economy was based on the coffee and banana marketIn 1944, Juan Jose Arevalo was elected due to promises of sweeping reforms (income tax and business nationalism)these were in conflict with the powerful United Fruit Coanother free election in 1951 saw the rise of General Jacobo Arbenz to powermore radical, Arbenz opposed further foreign intervention in Guatemalan affairsArbenz took a pro-socialist approach, attempting to redistribute unused land to peasantsfears of Communism led to the US backing a military coup in 1954 the government was replaced with a caudillo, Arbenz was strangled for the good of democracy and capitalism, and land reforms were haltedSadly, the regime established by the US would become oppressive, leading to a long civil war in Guatemala that led to the massacres of many Mayan natives and peasants
Viva Cuba!!!Cuba became the US own private sugar plantation after it was secured from the Spanish in 1898as a result, a growing disparity emerged between rural laborers and the large middle class and wealthy landowners who benefited from direct trade with/investment from the USFulgencio Batista rose to power on promises of reforms, political, economic and social in nature, however, was as corrupt a leader as they come, lining his pockets with bribes from US businessmenThe alternative was a young lawyer named Fidel Castro who led an unsuccessful revolution in 1953he left Cuba and joined forces with Che Guevara in Mexico, and, with a small military force, returned to Cuba in 1956 to being a revolution which promised better living conditions to the rural poor, better pay and working conditions to the proletariat (middle class workers)whether or not Castros original intentions were Marxist in nature has never been clarifiedthe US had abandoned the corrupt Batista by 1958
Viva Cuba!!!What resulted was Castros immediate nationalization of Cuban interests, a break from relations with the US and an increase of support from the Soviet Unionthe US responded with the failed Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961 and the brink of nuclear war was almost reached with the Cuban missile crisis of 1962None-the-less, Cuba prospered somewhat under the Castro regime, with improvements in social areas but less success economically (largely led to a US led embargo)the Cuban model was attempted to be spread throughout Latin America thereafter, in places like Nicaragua (Sandanistas) and Grenada but failed, mainly due impart again to US interventionsThe only Latin American nations lately that have attempted to successfully model the Cuban Socialist model, with much dismay to the US, are Venezuela and Brazil
Other Reforms and Military OptionsOther traditions institutions remained or regained power in politics in the late 20th centurythe Catholic Church made a comeback starting in the 1950s in Chile and Venezuela as Christian Democrats were elected on platforms promises reforms and an end to social injusticepriests even got radical (Father Torres in 1960s Colombia)In the 70s, a new movement known as liberation theology emergedit stressed a combination of Catholic social/charitable theology w/Marxist socialist ideologyin short, the movement stressed Jesus and faith in the church as the savior to the peoples issuesresponse was mixed as the right claimed the movement to be too radical (Pope John Paul II even criticized it)several clergy were assassinated (Romero in El Salvador)Military dictatorship still reigned supreme, however, in many areas, all thanks, in part, the US, who saw dictators as a better option in several nations (Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and Peru) as a better option to CommunismAll dictators placed in power reigned on nationalist principles, however, their economic policies remained pro-West, which stifled the working class and the poorthough areas such as health and education improved, basic wage payments, land ownership and living conditions did not
New Democratic TrendsDemocracy began to be filtered into LA nations (particularly the ones with dictatorships) in the 70s and 80s, though the path was not an easy oneArgentinas military dictator was replaced in 1983 after the military lost the Falkland Islands WarBrazil saw elections for a congress in 1985 and a new president in 1989Peru faced guerrilla resistance from the leftist Shining Path movementNicaragua had to deal with the leftist Sandinista party in the 80sPanama called on the US to ouster its drug peddling dictator in 1989 (Noriega)Guatemalas civil war was finally over by the 90s and a civilian government was in power by 1996Despite democracy, leftist/socialist ideology still managed to gain power in several nations (Brazil w/ Lula and Venezuela w/Chavez), only threatening to alter a Pro-Western foreign policy (meaning, anti-US)
The US in Latin America: TimelineThe first time the US got directly involved in Latin America was the Mexican War (Texan War of Independence)we gained great portions of territory from that war by 1848.The next time we got directly involved in Latin America was the Spanish American War (1898)we helped the Cubans fight for independenceThis event opened the door for Teddy Roosevelt to introduce his Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (Speak softly and carry a big stick)This policy would open a new wave of investments in Latin America and would establish a clear presence of the United States in the region
The US in Latin America: Timeline1901- Platt Amendment to Cuba's new constitution gives the U.S. the unilateral right to intervene in the island's political affairs. 1903 - Theodore Roosevelt intervenes to assist Panamanian independence from Colombia. The resulting Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty makes the US sovereign "in perpetuity" in the ten-mile wide Panama Canal Zone. 1904 - (Theodore) Roosevelt's Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine declares the U.S. to be the policeman of the Caribbean. US forces place the Dominican Republic under a customs receivership.1905 - US Marines land in Honduras. 1912 - United Fruit Company begins operations in Honduras and later becomes a major force throughout Central America (Banana Republics). 1914 - US forces shell and then occupy Vera Cruz, Mexico. 1915-1934 - US Marines intervene/occupy Haiti. 1916-1917 - US Expeditionary Force under Gen. John J. "Black Jack" Pershing unsuccessfully pursues Pancho Villa in northern Mexico. 1916-1924 - US Marines occupy the Dominican Republic
The US in Latin America: Timeline1920-1921 - US troops support a coup in Guatemala. 1926-1933 - US Marines occupy Nicaragua and fight against the nationalistic forces led by Augusto Csar Sandino. 1933 - US offers to intervene in El Salvador to put down a peasant rebellion. The Salvadoran military dictator refuses, then murders thousands of peasants. 1936-1979 - US supports three different Somozas as dictators of Nicaragua. 1954 - CIA overthrows constitutional government of Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala. 1956 - US-supported dictator Anastasio Somoza assassinated in NicaraguaUS military intervenes1957-1986 - Papa Doc and Baby Doc Duvalier rule Haiti as dictators, with US support. 1958 - Vice President Richard Nixon meets strong anti-American sentiment on his "good will" tour of Latin America. 1959 - Dictator Fulgencio Bastista, supported by the US until 1958, flees Castro's revolution in Cuba.
US Latin American PoliciesTafts Dollar Diplomacy, which led to increased US investment in Latin American interests (United Fruit Co. and the Banana Republics) Roosevelts Good Neighbor Policy of 1933, which attempted to reduce numerous interventions into LAit was short lived after WWII with the advent of Communism and containmentKennedys Alliance for Progress in 1961 aimed to redirect investment in LA and reduce LA debt to US companiesit failed as elites mostly benefited AND Kennedy was assassinatedLatter policies in LA were more lessez faire, leaving LA alone and holding friendly relations with established dictatorshipswe even gave Panama promised to give the canal back to Panama (1978 treaty from Carter, canal went back on Dec 31, 1999)while Reagan and Bush Sr. actively replaced counterrevolutionary elements in several Central American nations in the 80s (Panama, El Salvador, Nicaragua)
Social Issues: A SummarySocial changes in Latin America has come slowly during the 20th century, despite the active role women played in revolutions (Mexico)The position of women has improved, as their status now rivals those living in western EuropeWomen received suffrage in many LA countries in the 1920s and by the 1950s the overwhelming majority of LA nations gave women the right to vote (mainly through suffrage movements similar to those of the US and Europe)Eventually, women found roles in politics and the workforce as wellin 1911 80% of the textile industry in Argentina was women employedthough wages and benefits remained unequalwomen are still considered unskilled laborwomen by the 90s represented 9% of the legislative bodies of LAin some countries, notable women became leaders (Isabel Peron in Argentina, Violeta Chamorro in Nicaragua, Benedita da Silva in Brazil)
Social Issues: A SummaryMigration has been the biggest issue in recent yearsboth internal and externalLatin Americas population surged in the 20th centuryusual reasons included the need for more labor sources in poor families both agricultural and industrialLabor drove huge mass migrations of rural people to the cities first in the 70s and 80swhile international migration has been generally common place since the 1920s, as cheap labor migrated across the borders north, from Mexico to the US, Guatemala to Mexico and so onIn other nations, political repression represented the main reason for migration of refugees (Cuba, Haiti, Guatemala, El Salvador) into Mexico or the USResults have caused negative impacts in many nations, the biggest being urban povertyslums and shantytowns spring up on the edges of large urban areas (favelas)political attempts to relieve this stresses have largely failedIn the long run, issues in Latin America remain, as social injustices, political repression, inequalities and population growth (less urban) continue into this century
THIS WEEKTuesday: Film on US involvement in Latin America
Wednesday: Change Analysis on 20th C Latin America
Thursday: THE AP EXAM
Friday: Final Exam Project and SS DSTP discussion