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  • Restoring the Coastal Environment in Cartagena, Colombia

    Environment & Water Resources OCCASIONAL PAPER SERIES

    LATIN AMERICA & CARIBBEAN REGION

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    wb350881 Typewritten Text 86305

  • Rights and Permissions The material in this work is subject to copyright. Because The World Bank encourages dissemination of its knowledge, this work may be reproduced, in whole or in part, for noncommercial purposes as long as full attribution to this work is given.

    Any queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed to the Office of the Publisher, The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; fax: 202-522-2422; e-mail: pubrights@worldbank.org.

    All images courtesy of ACUACAR, Thinkstock/Getty Images, Barbara Minguez Garcia, and The World Bank.

    Front and Back Covers: View of the historical city of Cartagena from the Castle San Felipe de Barajas. Credit: Barbara Minguez Garcia © 2014.

    © 2014 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank 1818 H Street NW Washington DC 20433 Telephone: 202-473-1000 Internet: www.worldbank.org

    This work is a product of the staff of The World Bank with external contributions. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this work do not necessarily reflect the views of The World Bank, its Board of Executive Directors, or the governments they represent.

    The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgment on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.

    The Environment & Water Resources Occasional Paper Series is a knowledge product of the Environment Unit in the Latin America and Caribbean Region (LCSEN) of the World Bank. The publications in this Series were designed and produced by GRC Direct under the supervision of Emilia Battaglini, Acting Sector Manager and Keiko Ashida Tao, Natural Resource Management Specialist (LCSEN).

    A list of the most recent papers is located at the end of this publication. For electronic copies of all our LAC Environment & Water Resources Occasional Paper Series please visit our Web site at www.worldbank.org/LCSENSeries.

  • The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region has a unique mix of qualities and challenges when it comes to the environment. It is exceptionally endowed with natural assets—diverse ecosystems including the world’s greatest carbon sink in the Amazon, globally significant biodiversity such as the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef, and valuable crops. At the same time, the region registers the highest rates of urbanization in the developing world, water and natural resources overuse, and increased pollution, with detrimental consequence for the environment and the health of people, especially the poor.

    Over the past twenty years, the LAC region has made impressive gains in addressing these issues. It leads the developing world in biodiversity conservation, natural and water resource management, and is at the forefront in reducing urban pollution. The World Bank often has the privilege to partner with countries in the region to pioneer innovative environmental policies and initiatives. Such initiatives include improvement of fuel and air quality standards in Peru, carbon emission reduction in Mexico, payment for ecosystem services in Costa Rica, participatory and integrated water resources management in Brazil, and new approaches to irrigation management in Mexico.

    The Environment & Water Resources Occasional Paper Series, a publication of the Environment Unit of the Sustainable Development Department in Latin America and Caribbean Region (LCSEN)

    was launched in 2013. The objective of the Series is to contribute to global knowledge exchange on innovation in addressing environmental issues and the pursuit of greener and more inclusive growth. The papers seek to bring to a broader public - decision makers, development practitioners, academics and other partners - lessons learned from World Bank- financed projects, technical assistance and other knowledge activities jointly undertaken with our partners. The Series highlights issues relevant to the region’s environmental sustainability agenda such as biodiversity conservation, natural and water resources management, irrigation, ecosystem services, environmental health, environmental policy, pollution management, environmental institutions and governance, environmental financing, and climate change and their linkages to development, growth and shared prosperity.

    The cases presented in the Series show how the LAC region continues to make its growth more environmentally sustainable and inclusive. We hope that this Series will make a contribution to knowledge sharing among a wider audience within the LAC region and globally.

    Emilia Battaglini Acting Sector Manager Environment Unit Sustainable Development Department Latin America and Caribbean Region

    Environment & Water Resources LCSEN Occasional Paper Series

    FOREWORD

    i

  • CONTENTS

    ii

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .......................................................................................................................... iii

    RESTORING THE COASTAL ENVIRONMENT IN CARTAGENA, COLOMBIA Cartagena: A Dynamic Cultural and Industrial City ..................................................................................... 2 Confronting a Coastal Environmental Crisis ................................................................................................ 3 Resetting the Institutional Framework for Wastewater Management ....................................................... 4 Developing New Environmental Institutions ................................................................................................ 4 Financing Infrastructure Investments .......................................................................................................... 5 Implementing a Phased Infrastructure Development Program ................................................................. 5 Summary of ACUACAR’s Achievements ....................................................................................................... 7 Coastal Environmental Improvements ......................................................................................................... 8 Future Challenges in Coastal Environmental Restoration .......................................................................... 9 Summary of Key Lessons ............................................................................................................................. 9

    BOXES Box 1 Global Partnership for the Oceans ............................................................................................... 2 Box 2 Cartagena Convention ................................................................................................................... 4 Box 3 Submarine Outfalls ...................................................................................................................... 11

    FIGURES Figure 1 Map of Cartagena ...................................................................................................................... 3 Figure 2 Wastewater Facilities and Indicative Water Quality Data ...................................................... 10

    TABLES Table 1 Summary of ACUACAR’s Achievements: Key Service Indicators .............................................. 8

  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    iii

    An initiative from the World Bank for integrated urban water management

    This publication was prepared jointly by the Water Supply and Sanitation Unit (LCSWS) and the Environment Unit (LCSEN) in the Latin America and Caribbean Region of the World Bank in collaboration with the Cartagena Water Company (ACUACAR) and the Colombian Ministry of Environment, Direction of Marine Affairs. The Global Partnership for the Oceans (GPO) provided technical advice related to marine and coastal issues for the report. The authors wish to express their thanks for the support provided by the Cartagena Regional Environmental Authority (CARDIQUE).

    The primary authors are Greg Browder (Lead Water and Sanitation Specialist, World Bank) and Ricardi Duvil (Consultant, World Bank), with extensive support provided by Luis Alfonso Pinzón and José Zapata Pinedo (ACUACAR), and Evelyn Paola Moreno Nieto (Ministry of Environment). Senior Editor: Maria L. Madrid. Assistant Editors: Elvira C. Broeks and Barbara Minguez Garcia (World Bank). Special thanks are extended to the many other colleagues who have commented on earlier drafts.

  • 6 Restoring the Coastal Environment in Cartagena, Col

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