latin america crct study guide. location latin america includes: mexico, central america, all of...

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Latin America CRCT Study Guide

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  • Slide 1
  • Latin America CRCT Study Guide
  • Slide 2
  • Location Latin America includes: Mexico, Central America, all of South America, and the islands of the Caribbean
  • Slide 3
  • Environmental Issues in Latin America Mexico City and Air Pollution Causes of Air Pollution- the city is over populated, Older Cars, Geography Mexico City is built in a bowl shaped crater of an extinct volcano. Because of this, the pollution constantly hovers over the city, causing smog The government is working to improve the air pollution by beginning Hoy No Circula or One Day Without A Car
  • Slide 4
  • Destruction of the Rainforest in Brazil More than half of Brazil is covered in rainforest The rainforest is being destroyed due to deforestation (cutting down all of the trees in an area). Trees are needed for lumber. Trees are also cut to make way for cattle ranches, farms, and city expansion. The government of Brazil has created laws to control how much of the rainforest is being cut, but it is difficult for enforce this policy.
  • Slide 5
  • Oil- Related Pollution in Venezuela Venezuela is the worlds 5 th largest oil producer. Half of the governments budget comes from the sale of oil to other countries Oil spills and tanker leaks have damaged the western coast of Venezuela on the Caribbean. Oil production also causes high levels of carbon dioxide. Oil drilling is destroying Lake Maracaibo. The eastern shore of the lake sinks 3 inches each year. The government does very little to protect the environment
  • Slide 6
  • Location, Climate, and Natural Resources of Mexico Location South of the US in between the Pacific Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea Because of its close location to the US, we are Mexicos number 1 trading partner Climate Varies according to location. Most people live in central plateau- Mexico City is located here. Because of Mexicos climate and location, tourism is a major industry.
  • Slide 7
  • Natural Resources Oil is one of Mexicos most important resources. It is the 10 th largest oil producing country. The sale of oil makes up for 1/3 of the governments budget Silver is also a major resource- 15% of the worlds silver comes from Mexico Other exports are coffee, fruit, cotton, and vegetables of Mexicos trade with other nations comes from the US
  • Slide 8
  • Location, Climate, and Natural Resources of Venezuela Location Boarded on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Shares boarders with Guyana on the east, Brazil to the south, and Colombia on the west. Location gives it easy access for trade with other nations. Near the Panama Canal
  • Slide 9
  • Climate In the tropics, just north of the equator Hot and tropical all year. The exception is higher elevations. Rainy season from May to October Most people work in service industries Natural Resources Oil is the most valuable resource. Fishing is also a very important industry Very little arable land
  • Slide 10
  • Location, Climate, and Natural Resources of Brazil Location Largest country in Latin America Bordered on the east by the Atlantic. Shares a western boarder with almost every South American nation. Trade is important because Brazil has 7 major seaports. The US is Brazils most important trading partner. Because of its favorable climate and beaches, tourism is a major industry
  • Slide 11
  • Location, Climate, Natural Resources of Cuba Location Island, 90 miles south of Florida Surrounded by the Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic and the Caribbean Most people live in urban areas Climate Tropical, but moderated by the trade winds Rainy season from May October Is hot to warm all year long Target for hurricanes
  • Slide 12
  • Blending of Ethnic Groups in Latin America Culture of Latin America is diverse and varies according to region. Also racially diverse because of its history and the intermarrying of Spanish colonists, slaves, and natives Mulattoes- people who have African and European ancestors Mestizos- people who have European and Native American ancestors Roman Catholic beliefs also blended with native beliefs. Example: Day of the Dead
  • Slide 13
  • Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil Federal Government- Power is divided between the federal government and state/local governments President is the head of government and head of state. Chosen by the people Legislature is called Congress. Members are chosen by citizens Men and Women age 16-17 may choose to vote. People 18-70 are required to vote. Those over 70 may choose to vote. People have many rights and freedoms, but the court system doesnt protect personal property rights.
  • Slide 14
  • Government of the United Mexican States Federal Government. Presidential Democracy. President serves one 6 year term Citizens elect members of the legislature (Congress) Many rights and freedoms Citizens over 18 may vote Court system is managed by the government, and sometimes under the control of the President
  • Slide 15
  • Government of the Republic of Cuba Unitary government. A strong central government controls the local governments. Communist dictatorship. People do not elect the president. President is appointed by National Assembly of Peoples Power. Citizens may vote for members of the National Assembly, but only for members of the communist party. Citizens have few freedoms. One of the worlds least free countries Controlled by Fidel Castro and his brother, Raul.
  • Slide 16
  • Brazils Economy Brazil has a mixed economy, that is closer to a pure market For the most part, citizens are allowed to being own their own property and businesses. The government does own some industries- steel for example They have laws protecting property rights, but they have a poor court system that doesnt do a good job. Due to the court system, it could take months to get approval to start a business
  • Slide 17
  • Cubas Economy Command Economy Government owns all property and businesses. Government decides how much of product to produce and the price Very little private business is allowed
  • Slide 18
  • NAFTA Signed in 1994 by the US, Canada, and Mexico Took away all tariffs on goods traded between the 3 countries NAFTA is the worlds largest free trade zone
  • Slide 19
  • Trade and Currency Mexico- Peso Cuba- Peso (not the same as a Mexican Peso) Brazil- Real Trade with other countries requires that currency be exchanged.
  • Slide 20
  • Latin American History Aztec Civilization In the area of central and southern Mexico Capital City- Tenochtitlan Known for artwork and architecture Sacrifice of animals and humans was part of culture and religion Language- Nahuatl
  • Slide 21
  • Hernan Cortes A Spanish Conquistador (Conqueror) Captured the Aztec Empire between 1519-1521 Montezuma II Aztec Ruler from 1500-1520 Welcomed Cortes and his army into Tenochtitlan believing that he was a god Taken prisoner by Cortes Killed when a fight broke out between the Aztec and Spanish
  • Slide 22
  • Incan Civilization Lived along the western coast of South America, along the Andes Mountains Capital was Cuzco (modern day Peru) Extensive road system Built terraces on the mountainside for farming Language- Quechua
  • Slide 23
  • Francisco Pizarro and Atahualpa Pizarro was a Spanish Conquistador Atahualpa- King of the Inca Atahualpa was captured and killed by Pizarro Spanish control the former Incan Empire for 300 years New Spain Name of Spains colonies in the New World Capital city was at Tenochtitlan, renamed Mexico City
  • Slide 24
  • Columbian Exchange Due to forced labor and exposure to European diseases, the indigenous (native) population of Latin America began to decline Europeans brought slaves from Africa to work on sugar plantations and in mines The Columbian Exchange was the exchange of goods, ideas, animals, food, and people between the Old World (Europe) and the New World (N. and S. America)
  • Slide 25
  • Influence of Spanish and Portuguese on the Language and Religion of Latin America As Spanish and Portuguese conquered new areas, they spread their language and religion Spanish language is still spoken in areas ruled by Spain Portuguese is the official language of Brazil. Because Brazil is such a large country, there are as many Portuguese speakers in Latin America as there are Spanish speakers Most Latin Americans are Roman Catholic. The governments of Spain and Portugal built churches, missions, and hospitals in the New World that were ran by the Catholic Church
  • Slide 26
  • Freedom Fighters Toussaint LOuverture A freed slave. Lead a slave revolt in St. Dominique (Haiti) when the French government took back its promise to free the slaves. After France abolished slavery, he lead an army against Spanish and English forces trying to take over the island. Because of his defeat of the British and Spanish, he was made Governor General of Haiti. When Napoleon I took control of France, he also retook control of Haiti, Toussaint was captured and died in a French prison. 2 years later St. Dominique gains freedom and names itself Haiti
  • Slide 27
  • Simon Bolivar Born in Caracas (modern day Venezuela). His family was very wealthy. Vowed that one day his homeland would be free from Spanish rule. From 1810-1824 lead armies against the Spanish and ended Spanish control of South America in 1824. The countries of Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Bolivia, and Venezuela owe freedom to him. Known as The Liberator Became dictator and tried to create one country called Gran Colombia, but fights caused the countries to break apart.
  • Slide 28
  • Father Miguel Hidalgo A Catholic Priest who lead a peasant army against the Spanish to free Mexico. Knowing that he was about to be arrested by the new French government in Spain, he ran to his church and rang the bells. People from all over came to hear his speech, known as The Cry of Dolores stating that it was time for Mexico to be free Hidalgo was not a trained military man (unlike Bolivar and LOuverture). Hidalgos army was defeated and he was captured and executed. Mexico would not be free for another 10 years.
  • Slide 29
  • Impact of the Cuban Revolution Fulgencio Batista- one time President of Cuba, who made himself a dictator. Under his rule, Cubans were unhappy due to poor healthcare, education, and poverty Fidel Castro- lead a group against Batista and took over the government. Established a communist government. Took over all property belonging to Americans in Cuba. All Cuban owned businesses were controlled by the government
  • Slide 30
  • Those who supported Batista or protested against Castro were placed in prison or executed Because of the Cuban Revolution, the US placed an embargo (US would no longer buy Cuban goods or sell US goods to Cuba). Also, US citizens were not allowed to travel to Cuba. The Soviet Union became friends with Cuba. They bought Cubas sugar cane crop each year, supplied weapons and other goods to Cuba. Trained the Cuban military There were a few benefits under Castro- hospitals and schools improved, but the people had no civil rights.
  • Slide 31
  • Cubans who were Christians were discriminated against. Although everyone was guaranteed a wage, it was very low. Cubans remained poor and lived in the least free country in the Western Hemisphere Cuba tried to spread communism into Latin America
  • Slide 32
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 1962- Cuba gave the Soviet Union permission to build a missile launching complex. This would allow the Soviet Union to fire nuclear missiles at the US President Kennedy demanded that the missiles be moved. Castro and the Soviet government refused. For several days, the world was the brink of a nuclear war. The countries negotiate- the Soviets remove the missiles, and the US agrees not to invade Cuba
  • Slide 33
  • US & Cuban Relations Today The relationship hasnt improved much in the past 50 years The embargo is still in place, but Cuban Americans can send money to their family back in Cuba The US allows 20,000 Cubans to enter the US each year to seek freedom. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in the 1990s, Cuba has lost its most valuable trading partner
  • Slide 34
  • The Zapatistas A group of Mexicans who support improved rights, and living conditions for Mexicos indigenous people- especially in Chiapas, Mexicos poorest state, that is mainly indigenous. Began taking over several towns in protest of NAFTA. Eventually reach a truce with the Mexican government Zapatistas still continue to protest the treatment of indigenous people in Mexico who need help with healthcare, education, and jobs