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Later Life & Theories of Aging. Unit 5 Chapter 13. The Stability Template Model. Assumes that individuals do not change once they achieve adulthood Based on the belief that the basic personality is formed in childhood - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Adult Life & Theories of Aging

Later Life & Theories of AgingUnit 5 Chapter 13

The Stability Template ModelAssumes that individuals do not change once they achieve adulthoodBased on the belief that the basic personality is formed in childhoodThis model explains that if an individuals identity is stable over time, they will respond to events and stresses in life in a consistent mannerThere will be variations in behaviour from person to person, but an individuals behaviour will be predictable

The Orderly Change ModelExplains that an individuals identity is formed earlier in life but changes through interaction with the environment in the presentDaniel Levinson suggests that in midlife, individuals examine their Dream, the life structure they have been building in early adulthood, and define a new life structure for themselves in later life based on changing circumstancesSuggests that identity changes according to the options available in societyThe Theory of Random ChangeExplains that fate, or non-normative events, causes change in identity because of how individuals adapt to their new rolesPatterns of behaviour exist because cohorts are exposed to the same eventsAlthough the behaviour of individuals within generations might conform to a pattern, it is not possible to predict the behaviour of future generations

Social Construction TheoryThe actions and feelings of individuals have no intrinsic meaning of their own but are given meaning by the theoretical perspectives that are developed for their explanationIndividuals behaviour does not necessarily differ from place to place or from generation to generation, but the meaning ascribed to the behaviour changes to reflect the expectations of the society

GenerativityMeaning productivityThe range of ways people are able to reach out to leave their mark on future generationsBy investing in the future and caring for others, individuals can develop the virtue of careHowever, by becoming self-indulgent, focusing only on their own lives, individuals do not develop, a state that Erikson called stagnation

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GenerativityIndividuals may have a need to nurture others, but society expects adults to take responsibility for themselves, care for their children and pass on the culture to their offspringTherefore, adults in their 30s and 40s who are not ready for steady employment and a family are considered to be out of time with the social clock

GenerativityPeople who do not meet the time lines of the society in which they live might be judged as immature and be encouraged to settle down

Generativity is a universal task of adulthood, but the form and the timing are defined by the society

GenerativityHowever, for some individuals, generativity is not attainableThey may feel that they cannot generate good products and outcomes, that they are unable to leave a positive mark on their worldTheir struggle to tend to and maintain themselves may be so taxing that they cannot find the resources to care for those who will eventually survive themForms of GenerativityGenerativity is the motivation for the rest of adult life

Psychologist John Kotre states that because of the limits of fertility, especially for women, generativity must be defined as something more than reproduction and parenthood

Forms of GenerativityBiological generativity or parenthoodParental generativity or the raising of childrenTechnical generativity or the passing on of knowledgeCultural generativity or the sharing of culture and traditionBiological GenerativityParenthood is occurring later in life for most CanadiansAs a result of the impact of contraception, parenthood has become a choiceIndividuals saw less need for children when improved health enabled them to live longer and healthier lives in which they could accomplish their goalsTherefore, there is currently less biological generativity

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Parental GenerativityAttained through interaction with children, as active participants in parentingIn the past, women bore most of the responsibility for childcare and parenting, so parental generativity was assumed to be the motivation for a womans life in adulthoodNow, men have gained greater opportunities for parental generativity as they share an active parenting role with their working wives

Parental GenerativityIncreased life expectancy is changing the nature of parental generativityA longer life allows individuals to have longer connections with past and future generations within the familyGrandparenting provides additional parental generativity rolesThose who did not have children achieve parental generativity by taking on the role of guardian and caring for others children as teachers or childcare providersTechnical GenerativityAnother way of providing for the future and leaving ones mark on the world that extend beyond familyTechnical Generativity means teaching knowledge and skills to the next generation so that they can develop competenceParents or aunts and uncles teaching children, teachers instructing students and older men and women mentoring younger adults are some examples of the ways technical generativity is expressed

Cultural GenerativityMeans creating and sharing ideas and artifacts that will contribute to the cultural experience of societyWhether by producing beneficial products or services at work or by expressing creativity by sewing painting, singing, writing or dancing, individuals can achieve cultural generativityLike Technical Generativity, Cultural Generativity can be achieved by developing and nurturing ideas

Is Marriage a Rewarding Investment?Those who maintain their marriages into old age are healthier, live longer and are happier than their widowed, divorced or single peersPost-retirement marriages are happier, perhaps the happiest since the time of being newlywedsThis may be that older people are better at resolving problems or that senior couples are tough marriage survivors

Is Marriage a Rewarding Investment?50% of married Canadians say they are very satisfied with life, compared with only 38% of the common-law populationAmong widows and widowers, about 40% are very satisfied with life, compared with 35% of divorced men and women and 27% of separated men and women

Is Marriage a Rewarding Investment?Older couples may continue to interact using strategies that they established early in the marriage, but they seem to perceive each others behaviour in a more positive wayHowever, there is evidence that those who are happiest in middle-aged and older marriages were also happiest before they marriedCouples who are happy are more likely to marry, recover from the transitions and stay marriedRemarriageRemarriage is becoming more common in Canada for several reasonsImproved health and a longer life expectancy enable widows and widowers to consider remarriage, especially after the early death of a spouseAbout 16% of widowed people have married again

RemarriageIn 2006, 43% of adults who had divorced were remarried10% of Canadians are married for the second time and 1 % are married for the third timeAlthough many believe remarriages are motivated by money, the research does not support this idea, the second time around, people still marry for love and romance

Establishing A Second MarriageBoth partners must first recover from their first marriage and get over the grief, anger and other intense emotions that result from divorce or bereavementThose with lasting remarriages often have a more practical than romantic attitude that allows them to deal with conflict under the watchful eyes of children, in-laws and ex-spouses

Establishing A Second MarriageA second marriage may fail if The individuals problems from the first marriage continue in the secondRemarriage occurs later in life and coincides with greater involvement in work than during the first marriage, so there may be conflicting marital and work rolesCouples have difficulty negotiating a new marital system when they both have old strategies that have been established in other roles in their lives

Establishing A Second MarriageIn second marriages as with first marriages, the older couples are when they marry, the more durable the marriage will beOlder widowed and divorced people remarry for similar reasons to those in middle age; they seek companionship, social support, health and well-being, financial standing and sexual activity

Establishing A Second MarriageWidowers are 5 times more likely to marry than widows because there is a larger pool of eligible womenA long-term stable marriage is associated with significant health benefits for men and women of all demographic groupsIt may be that the healthiest people marry or that married people have healthier, less risky lifestyles

Establishing A Second MarriageMarried couples provide social support and care for one another, which improves health and longevitySince society expects that individuals will delay remarriage until an appropriate period of mourning has passed, there is usually a longer waiting period for remarriage after the death of a spouse than

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