lasser guided missile

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A presentation on laser guided missileunder the guidance of respected A.H.Karode Sir

by- Amit Satish Ghodke. T.E E&TC roll no. 17

WHAT IS A MISSILE ?Aflyingweaponthat hasitsownengineso that it cantravelalongdistance beforeexplodingat theplacethat it has beenaimedat Missiles have four system components: targeting and/or guidance, flight system, propulsion system and warhead.

IntroductionThe word missile comes from the Latin verb mittere, literally meaning "to send".They are basically rockets which are meant for destructive purposes only.Missiles differ from rockets by virtue of a guidance system that steers them towards a pre-selected target.Missiles are often used in warfare as a means of delivering destructive force (usually inthe formof an explosive warhead) upon a target.

GUIDANCE SYSTEMMissiles may be targeted in a number of ways. The most common method is to use some form ofradiation , such asinfrared ,lasers orradio waves , to guide the missile onto its target. There are two types of guidance system

G-O-T (go onto target). G-O-L-I-S(go onto location in space).

Types of MissilesGuided missiles are guided to or acquire their targets via a radar signal, wire, laser, or most recently GPS.Radar signal- Missile use radar signatures to acquire their targets.Wire Missile- Miles of small, fine wire are wound in the tail section of the missile and unwind as the missile travels to the target. Missile proceeds in linear direction.Buzzword Missile- Fires the missile, and then immediately returns back into his cover (fire & forgot).Laser missile- It uses a laser of a certain frequency bandwidth to acquire their target. GPS missile- missiles, after being launched, could deliver a warhead to any part of the globe via the interface of the onboard computer in the missile with the GPS satellite system. Laser Guidance Alaser designatordevice calculates relative position to a highlighted target. Most are familiar with the military uses of the technology onLaser-guided bomb. The space shuttle crew leverages a hand held device to feed information into rendezvous planning. The primary limitation on this device is that it requires aline of sightbetween the target and the designator.

Introduction of laserIf the electrons in certain materials are stimulated with enough energy, they emit light waves, which can be amplified and made to travel together in a narrow beam. The beam is called a laser. The laser designator is used to paint a spot on a target, marking it so that a guided weapon such as a missile can find and destroy it.The use of laser beams to destroy targets is limited by the large amount of power needed and also by airborne dust, which weakens the laser by absorbing its energy. Basic PrincipleThe Basic Principle is technically called the semi-active homing. Somebody, it could be the pilot or a soldier on the ground, shines a laser beam on the target. On striking the target this laser beam is reflected. Now when the LGM is released from the aircraft, it looks out for this reflected laser beam. Once it detects the particular laser it has been programmed to search for, it uses its control to move towards the target. How accurately it strikes the target will depend upon how well it can maneuver.

THE CONSTRUCTIONThe Detector Assembly : This is the sub system which looks out for the reflected laser energy. It also keeps looking towards the laser spot.The Controls: It controls the LGB flight path. They are basically small wings like structures which can move up-down/ left-right to change the direction of the LGM. The Wings: To maneuver the LGB some extra lift is required. This is provided by the wings. The WorkingThe LGB is carried on the aircraft, all the systems are inactive. As the bomb is released the safety pins and lanyards are pulled out. Once the LGB is safely away from the aircraft, the battery starts supplying to the detector assembly and the electronics. The controls are unlocked and are ready to move. As soon as the detector assembly picks up the laser reflections it locks on and tells the electronic computer where the target is in relation to the LGB. This process continues and finally the LGB hits the target. The MissionThe LGB flight path is divided into three phases: ballistic, transition, and terminal guidance.During the ballistic phase, the weapon continues on the unguided trajectory established by the flight path of the delivery aircraft at the moment of release. During the transition phase, the weapon attempts to align its velocity vector with the line-of-sight vector to the target. During terminal guidance, the UGB attempts to keep its velocity vector aligned with the instantaneous line-of- sight. Advantages of laser guided missileIt is a lightweight weapon can be employed by light helicopters.The SAL seeker is relatively low cost.Offers high precision operational flexibility.Capability of effective lock-on after launch targeting.

Disadvantages of laser guided missile.laser guided weapons are no good in the rain or in weather conditions where there is sufficient cloud cover. laser guidance is not useful against targets that do not reflect much laser energy, including those coated in special paint which absorbs laser energy. Most critical limitation of an LGB is that the detector needs to be able to see the laser spot at most of the times and definitely short of hitting the target. Refrences

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