lantana lantana camara (l.) verbenaceae. biology native to west indies and africanative to west...

Download Lantana Lantana camara (L.) Verbenaceae. Biology Native to West Indies and AfricaNative to West Indies and Africa Hundreds of cultivars developedHundreds

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  • Lantana Lantana camara (L.) Verbenaceae

  • BiologyNative to West Indies and AfricaHundreds of cultivars developed Worldwide distribution Americas, EuropeSerious pest in Australia, New Zealand and India

  • BiologyStems used for paper pulpBark used as an astringent and lotion in leprous ulcers & other skin eruptions Leaves boiled and applied for swellings and painAlkaloids from the plant can be used to lower blood pressure

  • BackgroundEconomic UsesCultivated extensively as an landscape speciesShowy flowersAlso used as a hedge

  • DistributionFound throughout much of FloridaCommonly found along roadways and disturbed areas, forest edges, pasturesFrequently found in abandoned citrus grovesIsolated infestations in other areas including Georgia, Texas, California and Hawaii

  • Lantana Distribution in Florida

  • ImpactsCategory 1 invasive species (FLEPPC)Decreases productivity in pasturesToxic to cattle and other grazing animalsAllelopathic inhibits growth of other plants thru exudation of chemicalsInvades natural areas, outcompetes native speciesReadily hybridize with native Lantana

  • Identification

  • Mature PlantPerennial shrub, can be erect growing or prostrateOften highly branched, creating a dense hedge

  • LeavesOppositely arrangedOvate shape with serrate marginsAromatic when crushedRough, sandpaper-like texture

  • Flowers and FruitFlowering occurs year-roundBorne in clusters at tip of stemChange color after pollinationFruit are small and dark purple

  • SeedProlific seed producer12,000 fruits per plantSeed germination is normally lowDispersal via birds and other animalsPassage through animal digestive system increases germination rate

  • ManagementPreventativeCulturalMechanicalBiologicalChemical

  • PreventativeLimit planting as an ornamentalRemove existing plants, including resprouts and before seeds are producedRouge out plants in abandoned areas

  • CulturalAlternative landscape plants to replace lantanaPrograms to educate homeowners about the problems associated with lantanaMaintain good ground cover and mixture of plant species to reduce establishment

  • BiologicalSeveral under consideration in Florida, but release is controversial due to landscape popularity20+ biocontrol agents released In Hawaii with varying resultsMost effective agents are:Defoliating caterpillar Hypena strigataSeed-destroying fly Ophiomyia lantanaeLace bug Teleonemia scrupulosa

  • MechanicalHand pull young seedlings, including all roots, repeated pulling for resproutsMowing is effective, but must be repeatedHeavy equipment such as bulldozers or stickraking is effective, especially if coupled with fire retreatment needed

  • Chemical - FoliarBroadcast applications for large areasGlyphosate is only marginally effectiveFluroxypyr + aminopyralid good, but need to be repeated after 6 monthsSpot treatment for smaller areasGlyphosate 2 to 3% solutionImazapyr 0.5 to 1% solutionUse surfactant at 0.25%

  • Chemical - BasalIndividual plants, near desirable speciesUse 25% fluroxypyr or 10% imazapyr solution with basal oilWet stems thoroughly for good control, spray until run-off is noticeable at ground Mowing and applying to cut stems is most cost-effective

  • Useful LinksInstitute of Pacific Islands Forestry, Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk: http://www.hear.org/pier/index.htmlUniversity of Florida Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants: http://aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu/welcome.htmlUniversity of Floridas Cooperative Extension Electronic Data Information Source: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/index.html

  • Useful LinksLantana camara (Fankatavinakoho, Fotatra, lantana, Mandadrieko, Rajejeka, Radredreka, Ramity) (in press) In Goodman S.M. and J.P. Benstead (Eds) The natural history of Madagascar. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/docs/mad-lanta.RTF Mount Morgan Council Homepage: http://www.mountmorgan.com/lantana.html

  • Literature CitedLangeland, K.A. and K. Craddock Burks. 1998. Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. IFAS Publication SP 257. University of Florida, Gainesville. 165 pp.

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