lantana camara - exp agri blog .lantana camara 3 ornamental west indian lantana has become popular

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  • Lantana camara 1

    Lantana camara

    Lantana camara

    Flowers and leaves

    Scientific classification

    Kingdom: Plantae Unranked: Angiosperms Unranked: Eudicots Unranked: Asterids Order: Lamiales Family: Verbenaceae Genus: Lantana Species: L. camara

    Binomial name

    Lantana camaraL.

    Synonyms

    Lantana aculeata L.[1]Lantana armata

    Lantana camara, also known as Spanish Flag or West Indian Lantana, is a species of flowering plant in theverbena family, Verbenaceae, that is native to the American tropics.[2] [3] [4] It has been introduced into other parts ofthe world as an ornamental plant and is considered an invasive species in many tropical and sub-tropical areas.[5]

    L. camara is sometimes known as "Red (Yellow, Wild) Sage", despite its classification in a separate family fromsage (Lamiaceae), and a different order from sagebrush (Asterales).

    Habitat and rangeThe native range of Lantana camara includes Mexico, Central America, the Greater Antilles, The Bahamas, Colombia, and Venezuela.[1] It is believed to be indigenous to the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas in the United States.[6] It has become naturalized in tropical and warm regions worldwide.[7] In the Kenyan highlands it grows in many areas that receive even minimal amounts of rainfall. It can be seen in the wild and along footpaths, deserted fields, and farms.[8] West Indian Lantana has been naturalized in the United States, particularly in the Atlantic coastal plains, from Florida to Georgia, where the climate is close to its native climate, with high heat and

    http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:LantanaFlowerLeaves-3.jpghttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Biological_classificationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Planthttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Flowering_planthttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eudicotshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Asteridshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lamialeshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Verbenaceaehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lantanahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Binomial_nomenclaturehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Carl_Linnaeushttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Synonym_%28taxonomy%29http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Flowering_planthttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Verbenahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Verbenaceaehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Americashttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tropicshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Introduced_specieshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ornamental_planthttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Invasive_specieshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Salviahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Artemisia_tridentatahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mexicohttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Central_Americahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Greater_Antilleshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Bahamashttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Colombiahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Venezuelahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rio_Grande_Valleyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Texashttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=United_Stateshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=United_Stateshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kenyahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=United_Stateshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Floridahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Georgia_%28U.S._state%29

  • Lantana camara 2

    humidity.[3]

    ToxicityWest Indian Lantana has been reported to make animals ill after ingestion.[7] The pentacyclic triterpenoids its foliagecontains cause hepatotoxicity and photosensitivity in grazing animals such as sheep, goats, bovines,[9] and horses.[10]

    Livestock foraging on the plant has led to widespread losses in the United States, South Africa, India, Mexico, andAustralia.[9] The berries are edible when ripe[11] Ingestion of L. camara (including unripe berries) is not associatedany significant human toxicity.[12]

    Ecological impact

    Flowers of L. camara with white crab spider(Misumenoides formosipes, lower right) in wait

    for prey.

    L. camara is an invasive species and has covered large areas in India,Australia and much of Africa.[13] It colonizes new areas when its seedsare dispersed by birds. Once it reaches an area, L. camara spreadsquickly. It coppices so well, that efforts to eradicate it have completelyfailed. It is resistant to fire, and quickly grows in and colonizes burntareas.[14] It has become a serious obstacle to the natural regeneration ofimportant native species including the Shala Tree (Shorea robusta) inSoutheast Asia, as well as plants in 22 other countries. In greenhouses,L. camara is notorious for attracting whitefly.[7] [15] In India they bearfruit all year round and this appears to have an impact on birdcommunities.[16]

    While considered a pest in Australia, it shelters several nativemarsupial species from predators, and offers a habitat for the vulnerable Exoneura native bee, which nests in thehollow stems of the plant.

    L. camara has been listed as a Category One "Invasive Toxic Species" in Florida by the Florida Exotic Pest PlantCouncil, and has become a problem in Texas and Hawaii.[3] [15]

    UsesSome communities have found alternate uses for West Indian Lantana, as it is difficult to eradicate. Some householdfurniture, such as tables and chairs are made from the stalks, or the small branches are bundled together to makebrooms.[8]

    MedicinalThe methanolic extract of Lantana camara leaves shown healing of gastric ulcers and also prevents development ofduodenal ulcers in rats.[17] Extracts of the fresh leaves are antibacterial and are traditionally used in Brazil as anantipyretic, carminative and in the treatment of respiratory system infections[18]

    http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Terpenoidhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hepatotoxicityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Domestic_sheephttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Goathttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bovinaehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Horsehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Berryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Crab_spiderhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Misumenoides_formosipeshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Twin_lantana_camara_edit.jpghttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Invasive_specieshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Indiahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Australiahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Africahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Seed_dispersal%23By_animalshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Birdhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Coppicinghttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Shorea_robustahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Southeast_Asiahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Greenhousehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Whiteflyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Australidelphiahttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Texashttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hawaiihttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antipyretichttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Carminative

  • Lantana camara 3

    OrnamentalWest Indian Lantana has become popular in gardens for its hardy nature. It is not affected by pests or disease, haslow water requirements, and is tolerant of extreme heat. It is a favorite species of butterflies, and used in butterflygardens in the United States.[3] Wild species may have short, hooked prickles. Lantana cultivars favored asornamentals tend to have small herbaceous stems.See also article Lantana.

    References[1] "Lantana camara L." (http:/ / www. ars-grin. gov/ cgi-bin/ npgs/ html/ taxon. pl?310628). Germplasm Resources Information Network.

    United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-05-29. . Retrieved 2010-08-28.[2] Efren and Luisa Gonzalez (2007). "Fill your garden with sunshine" (http:/ / www. thetenerifesun. com/ Issue-172/ page32. htm). The Western

    Sun Newspaper. . Retrieved September 19, 2007.[3] Floridata LC (2007). "Lantana camara" (http:/ / www. floridata. com/ ref/ L/ lant_c. cfm). Floridata LC. . Retrieved September 19, 2007.[4] Moyhill Publishing (2007). "English vs. Latin Names" (http:/ / www. moyhill. com/ html/ english_vs_latin_names. html). Moyhill Publishing.

    . Retrieved September 19, 2007.[5] New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service (2007). "Lantana - fact sheet" (http:/ / www. nationalparks. nsw. gov. au/ npws. nsf/

    content/ lantana_factsheet). Department of Environment and Climate Change - NSW. . Retrieved September 19, 2007.[6] Hagne, Martin (2009-01-01). "Native Lantana Species of the LRGV" (http:/ / nativeplantproject. com/ SABALS/ SABAL0109. pdf) (PDF).

    The Sabal (Native Plant Project) 26 (1): 3. .[7] Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (2005). "Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council: Lantana camanara" (http:/ / www. fleppc. org/ ID_book/ lantana

    camara. pdf) (PDF). Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. . Retrieved September 19, 2007.[8] Khanna, L. S.; Prakash, R. (1983). Theory and Practice of silvicultural Systems. International Book Distributions. pp.400 pages.[9] Barceloux, Donald G. (2008). Medical Toxicology of Natural Substances: Foods, Fungi, Medicinal Herbs, Plants, and Venomous Animals

    (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=CpqzhHc072AC). John Wiley and Sons. pp.867868. ISBN9780471727613. .[10] Burns, Deborah (2001). Storey's Horse-Lover's Encyclopedia: an English & Western A-to-Z Guide (http:/ / books. google. com/

    books?id=DzTaTRqJTjgC). Storey Publishing. p.302. ISBN9781580173179. .[11] Herzog et al. (1996), Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge & Libreros Ferla (2000), TAMREC (2000)[12] Carstairs SD. Luk JY. To

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