Language Development for English Language Learners

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<ul><li><p>Language Development for English Language Learners</p></li><li><p> The Center on Instruction is operated by RMC Research Corporation in partnership with the Florida Center for Reading Research at Florida StateUniversity; Horizon Research, Inc.; RG Research Group; the Texas Institute for Measurement,Evaluation, and Statistics at the University of Houston; and the VaughnGross Center for Reading and Language Arts at the University of Texas at Austin.</p><p>The contents of this PowerPoint were developed under cooperative agreement S283B050034 withthe U.S. Department of Education. However, these contents do not necessarilyrepresent the policy of the Department of Education, and you should notassume endorsement by the Federal Government.</p><p>2008 </p><p>The Center on Instruction requests that no changes be made to the content or appearance of this product. To download a copy of this document, visit www.centeroninstruction.org</p></li><li><p>Demographics</p></li><li><p>Frequent terms used in the literatureLanguage Minority Student (LM) a child who hears and/or speaks a language other than English in the home </p><p>Limited English Proficient (LEP) Term used by federal government to identify LM students whose limited command of English prevents independent participation in instruction</p><p>English Language Learner (ELL) an LM student designated locally (i.e., by the state) as limited English Proficientthe English Language Learner term is often preferred over Limited English Proficient as it highlights accomplishments rather than deficits</p></li><li><p>Who areEnglish Language Learners (ELLs)?National-origin minority students who have limited proficiency of English</p><p>Membership defined by limited proficiency in English language use, which directly affects learning and assessment results</p><p>Group membership is expected to be temporary</p></li><li><p>One of the fastest-growing groups among the school-aged population in this nationOf over 9 million LM students, roughly 5.5 million are classified as Limited English Proficient (LEP/ELL)Within the ELL population the largest and fastest growing segments are:Students who immigrated before KindergartenU.S. born children of immigrants (native-born) K-8: 76%9-12: 56%ELLs form a large, growing populationBy 2015, second generation children of immigrants are expected to be 30% of the school-aged population.</p><p>(Capps, Fix, Murray, Ost, Passel, &amp; Herwantoro 2005)</p></li><li><p>Number of LEP StudentsU.S. Department of Education, NCELA, 2006</p></li><li><p>Density of LEP StudentsU.S. Department of Education, NCELA, 2006</p></li><li><p>Growth in LEP StudentsU.S. Department of Education, NCELA, 2006</p></li><li><p>A heterogeneous populationLanguagesOver 460 different home languages are represented nationallyMost common languages are:Spanish (79%)Vietnamese (2%)Hmong (1.6%)Cantonese (1%)Korean (1%)Other 455 languages (15.4%)</p></li><li><p>Native language(s)</p><p> Level of native language/literacy skills</p><p>Level of English language/literacy skills</p><p>Age of arrival</p><p>Previous schooling experience</p><p>Familiarity with school routines</p><p>Content area knowledge</p><p>Parental educationOther Characteristics of this Heterogeneous Population</p></li><li><p>Definitions: At school entryIdentification Home surveyLanguage proficiency testsOther input (e.g., teachers)MonitoringLanguage Title IIIAchievement Title IELLs(or LEP)IFEP(fluent)Language Prof. TestsIFEP = Initially Fluent English ProficientSlide courtesy of N. Lesaux and M. Kieffer, Harvard Graduate School of Education</p></li><li><p>Definitions: Over timeRFEP = Reclassified Fluent English ProficientSlide courtesy of N. Lesaux and M. Kieffer, Harvard Graduate School of Education</p></li><li><p>ELL Performance OutcomesSome states have begun to look at the performance of ELLs on state tests after they have gained proficiency in English</p><p>Although some reclassified ELLs do well, many students who have lost the formal LEP designation continue to struggle with:listening, speaking, reading, and writing that involves academic languageaccess to content-area knowledge</p></li><li><p>Learning challengesELLs face a unique set of learning challenges: to develop the content-related knowledge and skills defined by state standardswhile simultaneously acquiring a second (or third) language for young children, this is a time when their first language is not fully developed to demonstrate their learning on an assessment in English</p></li><li><p>Language Development</p></li><li><p>What is Language?Is a written or oral system of communication made up of symbols with rules that govern their use</p><p>Is the gateway for learning</p><p>Enables us to communicate</p></li><li><p>Phonologythe patterns of basic speech units and the accepted rules of pronunciation</p><p>Morphologysmallest meaningful units of speech</p><p>Syntaxhow individual words and basic meaningful units are combined</p><p>Semanticsthe ways in which a language conveys meaning</p><p>Pragmaticsthe appropriate use of language Language Components</p></li><li><p>First Language Development MilestonesThere are many theories of how we develop languageLanguage and speech development vary across childrenMilestones serve as a guide to normal developmentLanguage development is cumulativeSimple skills are mastered before more complex onesOn average, children pass through different periods of language development at a certain age and time</p></li><li><p>Language Acquisition TheoriesNativist theoriesPropose that children are born with specific abilities that facilitate language learningLinguists ChomskyUniversal Grammar</p><p>Lenneberg Critical Period for language acquisition</p><p>DeKeyserRole of language aptitude opposed to the Critical Period</p></li><li><p>Interactionist theoriesTheorize that adults play an important part in childrens language acquisitionTheorists: Snow; Bates; TomaselloLanguage learning results from general cognitive abilities and the interactions between learners and their environment</p><p>Language Acquisition Theories</p></li><li><p>Some languages are easier to learn than others depending on the complexity of their symbol system and the degree of transferability from the first language.</p></li><li><p>What is the Alphabetic Principle?</p><p>The idea that letters and letter patterns represent the sounds of spoken language </p></li><li><p>What is an Alphabetic Language?A language that uses symbols to represent sounds in speech and print.Examples: English, Spanish, Greek, RussianAlphabetic languages differ in how they present a single sound in print.Orthography (defines the set of symbols used and the rules about how to write these symbols)Transparent Languages that allow a few or just one association between symbols and soundsOpaque Languages that allow: many ways to represent the same sound and a given symbol; or combination of symbols to represent sounds</p></li><li><p>Alphabetic LanguagesEnglish is considered to have an opaque orthography due to its many combinations of symbols to a particular sound.Ex: English: f and ph in fantasy and pharmacy; ee, ei and ea in need, receive, and readu for umbrella or Utah Whereas Spanish is considered to have a transparent orthography because of generally a 1:1 correspondence between letters and sounds.</p></li><li><p>What is Second Language Acquisition?The process of learning a language in addition to a native or first language.Debate: how long does it take to become fully proficient?Little empirical data to inform an answer to this questionFactors that influence second language proficiencyAge of first contact with new languageLevel of proficiency in first language (L1)Language-learning abilityIntensity of instruction and opportunities-to-learn</p></li><li><p>Assessment </p></li><li><p>Challenges in Assessing ELLs Content KnowledgeContent area knowledge and language proficiency challenges;</p><p>ELLs need to devote more cognitive resources than their monolingual peers to process the language of English assessments;</p><p>Fewer cognitive resources to attend content; and</p><p>Language demands of the testsFrancis, 2006</p></li><li><p>Language ProficiencyStudents considered fully proficientcommunicate effectively and understand the meaning that others are trying to relay Components of language proficiencyoral (listening and speaking) skillswritten (reading and writing) skillsacademic and non-academic language</p></li><li><p>Language Proficiency TestsThe purpose of using Language Proficiency Tests with ELLs is threefold:To determine placement in language programsTo monitor students progress while in these programsTo guide decisions about when students should exit the program (August &amp; Hakuta, 1997)</p></li><li><p>Language of AssessmentIn what language should ELLs be assessed? </p><p>Native Language</p><p>may give more accurate inventory of students knowledge and skillsmay be less predictive of English skills than a English assessment, depending upon schooling history</p><p>English</p><p>may be more predictive of English skills than a native language assessmentmay reflect misunderstanding of assessment directions more than actual skill levelmay also reflect the ELLs schooling experiences in English</p></li><li><p>Testing in both languagesProvides a clear picture of knowledge, skills, abilities, and instructional needsIdeally, instructions even for English assessments, should be given in the students first language (L1) for ELLs who are indeed bilingual and biliterate</p><p>ChallengesDifficult to find comparable assessments in L1 and EnglishTechnically and financially demandingDialectsMany skills being assessed are dependent upon instruction, but much instruction is only in English</p><p>Language of Assessment</p></li><li><p>ReferencesAugust, D., &amp; Hakuta., K. (1997). Improving schooling for language minority children: A research agenda. Washington, DC National Academy Press.</p><p>Capps, R., Fix, M., Murray, J., Ost, J., Passel, J, &amp; Herwantoro, S. (2005). The New Demography of Americas Schools: Immigration and the No Child Left Behind Act. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.</p><p>Francis, D.J. (2003, October) Identification of learning disabilities in Spanish-Speaking English language learners. Paper presented to the OELA/OSERS/NICHD Symposium on Learning Disabilities in English Language Learners. Washington, DC.</p><p>Hakuta, K. (2001). A critical period for second language acquisition? In D. B. Bailey, J. T. Bruer, F. J., Symons, &amp; J. W. Lichtman (Eds.). Critical Thinking about Critical Periods. Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes Publishing Company.</p><p>National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition and Language. (2006). Growing numbers of limited English proficient students: 1995/96 2005/06. Retrieved June 25, 2008, from http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/policy/states/reports/statedata/2005LEP/GrowingLEP_0506.pdf</p><p>*First, the module presents relevant demographic information about the school-aged population of ELLs.*These terms are commonly found in the literature in reference to children who may hear and/or speak a language other than English in the home. </p><p>ARE THERE ANY ISSUES RELATED TO TERMINOLOGY IN THE STATES YOU SERVE?</p><p>Limited English Proficient is the legal term used to identify students with a small or no mastery of English language skills within the larger population of Language Minority Students. </p><p>It is important to understand that not all Language Minority students struggle with command of English skills, only those identified as LEP (or ELL). </p><p>The English Language Learner term is often preferred over Limited English Proficient as it highlights accomplishments rather than deficits. </p><p>It is also inclusive of students who have conversational English skills but lack mastery of academic English. This term will be used throughout this training in reference to LM students who are not proficient in English.</p><p>*These children have limited proficiency in English, which affects their learning and assessment results.</p><p>By definition, the Limited English Proficient (LEP) label is expected to be temporary since the goal is for the student to become proficient as soon as possible. </p><p>These students also face challenges due to their limited time to acquire and be proficient in English while they are learning the standards expected for their age and grade level.*In the last two decades, the population of ELLs has grown 169%--whereas the general school population has grown only 12%. </p><p>Many ELLs with academic challenges have been enrolled in U.S. schools since Kindergarten. </p><p>These students typically have good conversational English skills, but lack mastery of academic language that is necessary for content learning.</p><p>ARE THE STATES YOU SERVE READY FOR THIS GROWTH?*This map illustrates the increasing number of students formally designated as LEPs in the states.*This map illustrates percentage of LEP students in the states.</p><p> This is different from the map illustrating the number of LEP students since it provides information comparing LEP vs. non-LEP students.</p><p>BRING TO THEIR ATTENTION THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NUMBERS AND DENSITY.</p><p>Here we clearly see the large concentration of LEP students over other groups.*This map illustrates the growth in the LEP population in several states.</p><p>This growth represents a different scenario for middle and northern states.</p><p>HOW HAS THE GROWTH IMPACTED THE STATES YOU SERVE?*The number of languages spoken in schools represents a challenge for state agencies in terms of assessment and instruction.</p><p>However, Spanish is the most common language spoken by ELLs. **Activity: Ask audience to name other aspects that are relevant to the ELL population before showing the list. Write on chart paper.Please turn to a person sitting next to you and share what you think are differences within the ELL population.Can we name a few?Now, lets look at a list.</p><p>*Language Minority children in school undergo a screening process through surveys, tests, and referrals. </p><p>The results of language proficiency tests would identify them as IFEP (Initially Fluent English Proficient) or LEP (Limited English Proficient), also called ELL (English Language Learner). </p><p>Schools are held accountable for monitoring their progress in English language acquisition and achievement.</p><p>WHAT ARE OTHER SOURCES OF IDENTIFICATION USED IN THE STATES YOU SERVE?*Over time and with effective instruction, ELLs who demonstrate a functional level on a measure of English proficiency that is considered adequate for meaningful participation language proficiency are re-classified as Fluent English Proficient.</p><p>*Not all ELLs struggle with academics; however, several factors, such as lack of high quality of instruction and opportunities to practice reading and speaking, contribute to some ELL difficulties.</p><p>These deficiencies in the instructional and school environment are detrimental to their continued progress and increase the gap between them and their native English speaking peers.</p><p>The current model of LM designation does not provide support to ELLs who are re-classified as fully English proficient.</p><p>*This heterogeneous group presents a range of abilities. ELLS with struggling issues have skills that range from not speaking English to having different stages of conversational vocabulary and low mastery of academic language.</p><p>Their varied abilities are challenged when they are required to master content and improve their English language proficiency.</p><p>In addition, some ELLs may have had limited or no test-taking or assessment experiences in their first or second language. </p><p>ARE THERE ANY OTHER CHALLENGES TO INCLUDE?*Before we discuss research based teaching st...</p></li></ul>