Labelling theory

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<ul><li> 1. Labelling Theory </li> <li> 2. Lesson Objectives Introduce the Labelling theory to Crime and Deviance Be able to apply Labelling theory to examples of Crime and Deviance Evaluate Labelling Theory </li> <li> 3. Last Lesson Recap Examine the role of access to opportunity structures in causing crime and deviance (12 marks) 6 AO1 6 AO2 </li> <li> 4. How to answer Outline Mertons Strain to anomie theory- esp. idea that deviance results from unequal access to legitimate opportunities (education and career). Identify different forms of deviance e.g. innovationao2 Examine Sub cultural theories using Cohen to evaluate Merton Link Cohens idea of status frustration to blocked opportunities and explain how subculture provide an illegitimate opportunity structure Use Cloward and Ohlin to show that access to illegitimate ao2 opportunity structures is unequal and how this gives rise to 3 different subcultures. Include evaluation e.g. functionalist assumptions of Cohen and ao2 Merton (do all deviants start out sharing mainstream goals?) or their failure to explain other types of crime e.g. corporate </li> <li> 5. Think. The concept of labelling has been used not only in explaining crime and deviance, but also in other areas of Sociology. How do you think it would relate to Crime and Deviance? Who is likely to be labelled and why? What effect can a label have on how people who are labelled are treated and how they behave? </li> <li> 6. Label ling as a formof Social Control: anics Folk D evils &amp; Moral P Stan C ohen (1972/80): s vs. Rockers ehind the Mod d in the truth b the media the Cohe n was intereste late 196 0s. According to problem me dia hype in the s and Rocker s was a national violence b etween the Mod ociety. d the decay of s that represente different Coh en reached very ed to what co nclusions compar eporting. the media was r </li> <li> 7. his researchCohen found the following in edia stories)..(which con tradicted the m ally minimal. at the media r eported was actu &gt; The Violence th de during f young pe ople at the seasi &gt; The majority o re not Mods or Rockers. riots we these so called of events &amp; o have painted a skewed picture &gt; The media seemed t between these t wo groups. the clashes sensationalised and why this In order to underst suggests we occurred (occurs), Cohen concepts of need to understand the Devils &amp; Moral Socia l Control, Folk Panics . </li> <li> 8. nic? What is a Moral Pa k of MORAL al concern over an issueusually the wor ocess of arousing soci a FOLK DEVIL. The pr is inevitably in volves the creation of ENTREPENUERS. Th eneurs? Who are these Moral Entrepr e power to create is a person, group or organisation with thA Moral Entrepreneur views &amp; attitudes on to others e.g. se their morals,or enforce rules &amp; impo &gt; Politicians &gt; Teachers &gt; Parents &gt; Religious Leaders evil? What is a Folk D / social groups who ormed generalisatio ns of particular peopleOver simplified, ill-inf demonise e.gMoral Entrepreneurs wish to&gt; Mods &amp; Rockers&gt; Hoodies&gt; Lone-parent Families&gt; Immigrants &gt; Young Muslims &gt; Paedophiles c. &gt; Football Hooligans et </li> <li> 9. ting the extent eating Folk Devils as well as exaggera labelling groups and cr epreneurs are ableBy society through th e Media, Moral Entrof these problems in in society:to genera te Moral Panics with </li> <li> 10. Social Construction of CrimeInstead of taking the definition of crime forgranted, labelling theorists are interested inhow and why certain acts come to be defined orlabelled as criminal in the first place.For labelling theorists, no act is deviant initself: deviance is a social construct </li> <li> 11. Howard Becker (1963) social groups create deviance by creating rules and applying them to particular people whom they label as outsiders Therefore an act or person only becomes deviant when labelled by others as deviant </li> <li> 12. Labelling theorists are interested in the role of what Becker calls moral entrepreneurs. These are people who lead a moral crusade to change the law in the belief that it will benefit those to whom it is applied. The new law however has two effects:1. Creation of a new group of outsiders- outlaws or deviants who break the new rule2. The creation or expansion of a social control agency (police) to enforce the rule and impose labels on offenders </li> <li> 13. It is not the harmfulness of a behaviour that leads to new laws being created, but rather the efforts of powerful individuals and groups to redefine that behaviour as unacceptable. </li> <li> 14. Differential Enforcement Labelling theorists argue that social control agencies (police, courts etc) tend to label certain groups as criminal Piliavin and Briar found police decisions to arrest were based on stereotypical ideas about manner, dress, gender, class, ethnicity, time and place These stereotypical ideas lead to judgements about a youths character </li> <li> 15. Effects of Labelling Labelling Theorists claim that by labelling certain people as criminal or deviant society encourages them to become more so. Primary Deviance- deviant acts that have not been publicly labelled. They may have many causes, are often trivial and mostly go uncaught e.g. fare dodging. Those who commit them do not usually see themselves as deviant Secondary Deviance- results from societal reaction i.e. from labelling. Labelling someone as an offender can involve stigmatising and excluding them from normal society. Others may see the offender solely in terms of the label, which becomes the individuals master status or controlling identity </li> <li> 16. Self Fulfilling Prophecy Being labelled may provoke a crisis for the individuals self concept and lead to sfp in which they live up to the label, resulting in secondary deviance Further societal reaction may reinforce the individuals outsider status and lead them to joining a deviant sub culture that offer support, role models and a deviant career Can you give an example? </li> <li> 17. Activity: Drugtakers and thepolice: an amplification spiral </li> <li> 18. Lemert and Young illustrates the idea that it is not the act itself, but the hostile societal reaction by the social audience, that created serious deviance. Ironically therefore, the social control processes that are meant to produce law- abiding behaviour may in fact produce the very opposite. Although a deviant career is a common outcome of labelling, labelling theorists are quick to point out that it is not inevitable </li> <li> 19. Deviance Amplification Deviance Amplification- the attempt to control deviance leads to it increasing rather than decreasing, resulting in grater attempts to control it and in turn more deviance e.g. Hippies How is this related to the trouble in Clacton in 1964? (page 83) Deviance Amplification is similar to secondary deviance. In both cases the societal reaction to an initial deviant act leads not to successful control of the deviance but to further deviance which in turns leads to greater reaction etc </li> <li> 20. piral eviance Amplification S Jock Y oung (1967/9) D more crime! Moral Panics actually generate Labels, Folk Devils &amp; Notting Hill..E.g. Drug Takers in types and as such are susceptible to m edia stories &amp; stereo not done: Police in Notting Hill hat they have or have vils regardless of w target these typical folk de r minor offences &gt; Police arrest drug marijuana smokers fo eir Folk Devil The nlise these stories and thus have th &gt; The media sensatio c about Drug Takers . n to generate a Moral Pani Drug Taker and begi ies, the police crack &gt; In re sponse to these stor these folk devils. down even harder on ises police suspicion g Takers underground this ra &gt; This pushes the Dru en more harshly drugs up th e police crack down ev &amp; pushes the price of ). (More Media Coverage turn to new types of art resist ing arresting arrest, &gt; The Drug Takers st er (MORE DEVIANCE ) ga nise themselves bett drugs and have to or </li> <li> 21. at moreMoral Panics about Knife Crime means th the streetspeople are fearful of being attacked in It carry ing knives themselves.and therefore start stabbed oris a fact that you are more likely to be ument/stab someone else if you get into an arg ing a knifesc uffle if you are carry to Deviance yourself Moral Panics lead Amplification. about The more people read...</li></ul>