L2 acquisition

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<ul><li> 1. SECOND LANGUAGEACQUISITIONArchibald, 2011</li></ul> <p> 2. SLA: multidisciplinary field1. Linguistics gives us an accurate description of what people are trying to learn (L2) and what we already know (L1)3. Psychology privides us with the learning theory to account for how people acquire knowledge.5. L1 Acquisition offers findings that can be applied to SLA. 3. Mainquestionin SLA 4. Secondquestion inSLA 5. Factors to consider in L2Acquisition The L1 second language learner productionalways resembles their L1 in one way or another.(TRANSFER). The INTERLANGUAGE contains features ofthe L1 as well as the L2. The FINAL STATE what is to be acquired(Communicatice competence). VARIATION in performance competence(linguistic knowledge the learner has) vs.performance (actual language used by thelearner) 6. Communicative competence 7. Variation: ExampleI didnt like that movie so I told her I no want togo there.QUESTIONS:Why is there such variation?Has this learner acquired the English negation ornot? 8. Variation: some explanations When learners are only focusing on the form ofthe L2 utterance, they may be able to produce itaccurately.HOWEVER, When there are other factors such ascommunicating a complex thought, errors mayoccurA matter of PROCESSING? Need to shift processing from controlled toautomatic (because of fixed processing capacity inhumans). 9. Interlanguage GrammarsGeneral question:What is the structure of an interlanguage?Investigate the mental representations ofinterlanguage grammars within the differentdomains of linguistic theory. 10. L2 phonology The L2 learner will have to learn to perceive andproduce some new sounds when learning an L2. Segmental phonology Prosodic phonology 11. L2 Phonology: Question Why are some sounds easier to acquire thanothers in an L2? What is the role of the L1?The role ofMarkedness The Markedness Differential Hypothesis. Investigates L2 acquisition by comparing therelative markedness in the L1 and the L2. 12. L2 Syntax Two facets of syntactic structure that L2 learnersmust acquire: the null subject parameter andverb movement.THE NULL SUBJECT PARAMETER Languages with overt subjects vs. languages inwhich the subject can be omitted. Languages with null subjects also: Allow declarative sentences with flexible word order Speakers of null subject languages are more likely topermit that trace sequences). 13. L2 SyntaxVERB MOVEMENTSomelanguages do not allow verb movement,while others do.For example,English does not allow it, but French does. 14. L2 Morphology Is the developmental sequence in L2 learning the same as it is in L1 learning?Developmental Order in L1 Developmental Order in L2 15. Factors affecting SLA Does the onset age of L2 acquisition causedifferent levels of final proficiency? Is there an optimal time or a critical period toacquire an L2? Discussion focuses in the area of phonology Fairly certain predictions: People who start learning the L2 before the age of 7, willhave native like L2 speech. People who start learning after the age of 14 or 15 will havenon-native speech. It is much more difficult to predict knowledge orability in the area of syntax, sociolinguistics, etc. 16. Individual differencesQuestion asked: if learners have a particular quality x, does this make them better second language acquirers?Three main points that need to be well explained:5. How doe we define x?6. What does it mean to be a better acquirer?7. What aspect of communicative competence are we referring to? 17. Affective factors: motivation Will a person that is more motivated be moresuccessful at acquiring an L2? Two types of motivation: INSTRUMENTAL (having a specific goal or reason tolearn the L2). INTEGRATIVE (wanting to learn more about aculture or to fit in better).Some findings:The degree of integrative motivation, correlates withthe degree of success in learning a target language. 18. Cognitive factors The mechanics of how an individual learnssomething new. Contrast between field dependence and fieldindependence.Some SLA conclusions: field-independent learners do better on tests thatfocus on analytic tasks such as providing thecorrect grammatical form in a given sentence. Field-dependent learners do better in tasks thatinvolve synthesizing their knowledge. (bettercommunicative commpetence more concernedwith getting the message across than with thecorrectness) 19. The l2 classroom Threerelevant characteristics of a second language classroom: Modified input (teacher talk) Modified interaction (recast) Focus on form (instructions about thelanguage and explicit correction). 20. Bilingual education Minority language maintenance programs French immersion </p>

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