Kosnik 2003 1 2003 Illinois College of Emergency Physicians On Our Watch Practical Tools for Collaboratively Managing Hospital Demand Capacity January

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul><p> Slide 2 Kosnik 2003 1 2003 Illinois College of Emergency Physicians On Our Watch Practical Tools for Collaboratively Managing Hospital Demand Capacity January 10, 2003 Chicago Linda K. Kosnik, RN, MSN, ANP, CEN Chief Nursing Officer,Overlook Hospital Atlantic Health System Slide 3 Kosnik 2003 2 Objectives This presentation will demonstrate how matching of stress loads on systems, to capacity in dynamic processes creates more highly reliable systems and cultures. The concepts of Crew Resource Management which are usually defined at a team level can be applied at higher orders of complexity, so that microsystems within macrosystems communicate and collaborate effectively. Slide 4 Kosnik 2003 3 Objectives The resulting processes can be defined and measured based on specific criteria, which interpret the conditions, loads and stressors on the system. For each criteria interventions can be developed to move, compensate and recover design capacity. In this model a system of color-coded grids has proven to be effective and replicable in creating a collaborative culture that promotes an environment for safe and efficient healthcare practices as well as improved outcomes. Slide 5 In Aviation SafetyThe Student of Collaborative Principles will find parallels in Crew Resource Management (CRM) CRM is a communication methodology focusing on team-centered decision-making systems which was developed by the aviation industry in 1979 to reduce human error in air crashes. When applied to healthcare, the communication space of health care practitioners caring for critically ill patients can be viewed as resembling that of an aircrew engaged in complex flight operations. Team-centered decision making systems enables teams to perform more efficiently. Slide 6 At the Atlantic Health System we are exploring how Collaboration/CRM can be operationalized with the outcomes of efficient Demand Capacity Management CRMs primary building blocks include the use of Backup systems Team communication and coordination Adequate briefings, Availability and use of resources Leadership and adequate supervision System Knowledge Personal readiness Planning Correction of known problems and issues Management support Slide 7 CRM and Communication In CRM team building progresses in an open communication environment All team members are able to speak freely with equal acceptance of ideas Conflict resolution is achieved through a democratic process Execution is a complex matrix of team monitoring, cross-checks, workload management, vigilance, and automation management. Slide 8 CRM/Collaboration Tracks with a Culture of Safety. The concept alignment process in the CRM model provides a measurable process to affect human factors issues If consistently used, the model Facilitates the voicing of innovative ideas Holds all team members accountable Helps the team develop a sense of organizational attachment Supports the development of positive team behaviors Promotes an awareness of personal limitations Reduces decision-making requirement during emergencies Slide 9 Kosnik 2003 8 A Microsystem Awakes We have used Gene Nelsons Quality Value Compass since 1997 An approach to manage and improve quality and value Focused on testing the effects of changes in care processes Led us down the path to microsystem awareness Medical Cost Patient Satisfaction Quality of Life Outcomes Espinosa, 2002 Slide 10 Kosnik 2003 9 A Mini Microsystems Review The small, functional, front-line units that provide most health care to most people. Essential building blocks The place were patients and providers meet The quality and value of care produced by a large health system can be no better than the services generated by the small systems of which it is composed. (Nelson et al,2002) Slide 11 Kosnik 2003 10 A Self Aware Microsystem Cultural Change No longer simply a department but a business unit of a larger system. A move from collaborating within a department to being fellow members of an enterprise whose goal was to deliver excellent clinical care. Espinosa, 2002 Slide 12 Kosnik 2003 11 Field Notes : Stages In Our AHS Experience 1.Self Aware Microsystem (m) 2.Like microsystems (m+m+m) 3.Unlike microsystems (m+m+m) 4.Microsystems to Macrosystems (m+ m +m +M) 5.Like Macrosystems (M+M+M) 6.Macrosystems to Unlike Macrosystems (M+M+M) Kosnik and Espinosa, 2002 Slide 13 Kosnik 2003 12 Stage One: A Microsystem Becomes self aware Satisfaction Summit Reducing Waits and Delays Initiative Use of real-time data Use of Storytelling Appreciative Inquiry Actualization of Staff Ideas Overlook ED Slide 14 Kosnik 2003 13 Use Real-time Data Real-time data is helpful in improving ED patient satisfaction. In our ED, our patient tracking system provides real- time display of 8 critical ED processes, displayed on one screen, as run charts. Goal lines are set for these processes, and the data is displayed as 15 minutes averages of the processes, showing the current and last three hours of performance. Interventions are based on three or more consecutive breaches of identified goals Slide 15 Slide 16 Kosnik 2003 15 Exciting New Infrastructural Tools Emerged New emphasis on Appreciative Inquiry or Appreciative Management We analyze not only at outliers in the area of poor performance, but also outliers in the area of outstanding performance! We celebrate cooperation with the larger system, and look for areas to improve cooperation with the larger system. Live Stories from patients at Microsystem meetings (1999 to present) Patient Safety Laboratory (2000) We developed a patient safety laboratory, with an associated conference room A video camera feeds to a television and VCR in the conference room A suite of rooms was adapted for use as a mock ED, as well as for other mock re-enactment purposes Live Stories from Private Attendings at ED Microsystem Meetings (2000 to Present) Now a regular feature of our meetings Representing stories of what went well and what did not Helps to foster cooperation and to role-model openness Slide 17 Kosnik 2003 16 Stage Two: Like Microsystems Collaborate IHI Waits and Delays For the Emergency Department Collaboratives Emergency Physicians Associates Collaboratives Patient Satisfaction Lab Overlook ED ED Slide 18 Kosnik 2003 17 1998 and 1999 The IHI Collaboratives n 1998 Collaborative 31Teams 31Teams Locations: AL, CT, CA, FL, GA, IL, KY, MA, MD, NC, NJ, OH, TN, TX Locations: AL, CT, CA, FL, GA, IL, KY, MA, MD, NC, NJ, OH, TN, TX Total Patients Per Year = 1,247,500 Results: 84% reached significant improvement over a 9 month period! Total Patients Per Year = 1,247,500 Results: 84% reached significant improvement over a 9 month period! n 1999 Collaborative 19 Teams 19 Teams Locations: Australia, CA, FL, IL, MD, MO, NC, NY, OH, PA, TN, TX, UT, WV Locations: Australia, CA, FL, IL, MD, MO, NC, NY, OH, PA, TN, TX, UT, WV Total Patients Per Year =848,000 Total Patients Per Year =848,000 Results: 80% reached significant improvement over a 9 month period Results: 80% reached significant improvement over a 9 month period Slide 19 Kosnik 2003 18 ED Median Total Length of Stay Oak Ridge Methodist Medical Center Week Slide 20 Kosnik 2003 19 Week ED Median Door to Doctor Time Oak Ridge Methodist Medical Center Slide 21 Kosnik 2003 20 EPA Collaborative Example Like Microsystem to Like Microsystem) Collaboration (m+m+m) Example: Multi-hospital ED Multi-year Ongoing Collaboratives: Slide 22 2000 to 2003 EPA/Team Health Collaborative Select Topic Summarize Changes Identify/Select Participants Prework Handbook Supports 1. Calls 2. Listserv / E-mail 3. Visits 4. Monthly Reports (10th of each month starting in June 00) Learning Session 1 LS2 LS3 5/00 9/00 5/01 Set Aims and Goals A P S D Key: P = Plan D = Do S = Study A = Act A P S D Slide 23 Kosnik 2003 22 Average # Minutes To Transfer From ED Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital Slide 24 Kosnik 2003 23 Average Time To Transfer From ED to ICU/Telemetry - Massena Memorial Slide 25 Kosnik 2003 24 Median Times for All ED Patients Good Samaritan Hospital Total Length of Stay Faster Care Slide 26 Lessons Learned: Be Flexible Support Whatever Clinical Process Improvements are Needed Time to Thrombolytic Treatment/AMI and CVA Time to Antibiotic Treatment in Pneumonia Patients Time to Antibiotic Treatment in Neutropenic Patients Pain Management Etc. Slide 27 Kosnik 2003 26 2001 to 2003 Collaborative: New Directions Safety Microsystem Development Storytelling/Narrative Techniques Appreciative Inquiry Matching Capacity to Demand Management To Drive Improvements In Flow Slide 28 Kosnik 2003 27 Stage three: Unlike Microsystems Collaborate (m+m+m+m) Reducing Xray Turnaround Times. Admission Cycle Time Safety Summit M ED Inpatient Units ICU OR/RR Inpatient Units Envir Transport Lab Dietary Medical Staff Pharmacy Case Management Radiology Management Slide 29 Example: Reducing Admission cycle time ( m+m+m+m) Slide 30 Kosnik 2003 29 Reducing Admission Cycle Time Where top-down support is essential: Reducing Admission Cycle Time! Patients awaiting admission decrease the functional capacity of the ED. Efforts to decrease admission cycle time call for the very best in senior leadership. Barriers include a sense on the part of many inpatient units that ED admissions are additional work. In fairness, the ED often does not realize that a given floor may be in the process of receiving multiple simultaneous admissions. Delays in getting beds cleaned and in getting and giving report often complicate matters enormously. Slide 31 Kosnik 2003 30 Creating Interdepartmental Collaboration to Reduce Admission Cycle Time. Use the patient satisfaction survey as a tool to unite perceptions of the stakeholders. Prolonged admission cycle times contribute not only to decreased ED satisfactionand reducing ED efficienciesbut also to decreased inpatient scores. Identify barriers together Fair, open, even-handed analysis and discussion of data. Data collection will predictable show that a percentage of the burden of delay is on the ED side. Give credit to all stakeholders for improvements seen! Set a goal of less than 60 minutes.ideally, cycle times of an hour or less from the time that the decision is made to admit the patient, to the time that the patient is admitted, are possible! Demonstrate Benefits and Rewards of New Systems Constantly Re-evaluate Slide 32 Kosnik 2003 31 Admission Cycle Time Interventions Czarina of bed control concept Bed control brought under the ED Eliminating discharge holding Decentralized registration and housekeeping Collaborative Interdepartmental/ Interdisciplinary team approach Standardized documentation tool Slide 33 Kosnik 2003 32 Interventions Creating a push-pull system Real-time data collection and monitoring Timely feedback Living flowcharting Never underestimate the value of communication The non-verbal report Demand management Admission Cycle Time Slide 34 Kosnik 2003 33 Benefits Reduce and/or eliminate holding Reduce and/or eliminate divert Budget neutral solution Improved patient/staff/physician satisfaction Benefits of Decreasing Admission Cycle Time Slide 35 Kosnik 2003 34 Admission Cycle Time Slide 36 Kosnik 2003 35 Average Admission Cycle Time in Minutes Slide 37 Kosnik 2003 36 Patient Satisfaction Lab* Create a permanent designated space for a Patient Satisfaction Lab Signage Bi-weekly review of surveys and action plans with senior management Staff and management handling of surveys Individualized attention (*Espinosa, Kosnik 1999) Slide 38 Kosnik 2003 37 Stage Four: Microsystems Collaborating with and within the Macrosystem (m+ m +m +M) A Safety Summit and Mislabeled Lab Specimens Overlook Hospital Demand Capacity Management System M Slide 39 Kosnik 2003 38 Example: Matching Capacity to Demand Management To Drive Improvements In Flow (m+ m +m +M) Slide 40 Kosnik 2003 39 Impact of Robust Demand Capacity Management Systems Reduce incidents of overload Manifested by divert/bypass Inpatient services melt-down The ability to diffuse best practicesacross microsystem and macrosystems Decreased variation in practice patterns Increased customer confidence Slide 41 Kosnik 2003 40 Impact of Robust Demand Capacity Management Systems A system that is more stable and reliable facilitates safer systems Monitoring, prevention and mitigation of stress loads returns control to the system Receptor site availability Improved Staffing ratios Supplies accessible when needed Uses human factor principles Slide 42 Kosnik 2003 41 Robust Demand Capacity Management Systems Uses human factors principles Improve information access Decrease reliance on vigilance Reduce handoffs Increase feedback Automate carefully Avoid reliance on memory Simplifies Standardizes Uses constraints and forcing functions Uses protocols and checklist wisely Slide 43 Kosnik 2003 42 Robust Demand Capacity Management Systems Customer Satisfaction Waits and delays Staff Satisfaction Recruitment and retention Communication Collaboration Use of Crew Resource Management Skills Healthcare providers (Out-Patient/Emergency Department/In-Patient/Support Services) Administration and leadership Integrated approach to resource management Slide 44 Kosnik 2003 43 How to create more reliable, sensible and adaptable systems to meet those goals? Better understand of stress loads on systems, system states and looked at creating more highly reliable systems and cultures (Weick) This is Crew Resource Management at a higher order of complexity (Reason, Brown) We defined states, related to criteria of conditions, loads and stressors, and developed interventions to move, compensate and recover design capacity The states were given colors in relation to the conditions, loads and stressors Slide 45 Kosnik 2003 44 Green Slide 46 Kosnik 2003 45 Green What does a good day look like? Slide 47 Kosnik 2003 46 Green Interventions Slide 48 Kosnik 2003 47 Yellow Slide 49 Kosnik 2003 48 Yellow Early triggers What can we identify and manage early or on a regular basis? Slide 50 Kosnik 2003 49 Yellow Interventions Slide 51 Kosnik 2003 50 Orange Slide 52 Kosnik 2003 51 Orange Escalating demand without readily available capacity Aggressive action required to avoid system gridlock Overload Slide 53 Kosnik 2003 52 Orange Interventions Slide 54 Kosnik 2003 53 RED Slide 55 Kosnik 2003 54 RED Gridlock Disaster Plan response required Slide 56 Kosnik 2003 55 RED Interventions Use Institutional Disaster Plan Slide 57 Kosnik 2003 56 Slide 58 Kosnik 2003 57 AHS INPT FLOW 2001 Slide 59 Kosnik 2003 58 ICU Triage Process Slide 60 Kosnik 2003 59 Forms, Grids and Flow Admission Cycle Time Data Collection Form Admission Cycle Time Flow Chart ICU Decision Flow Demand Capacity Grids Emergency Department Slide 61 Kosnik 2003 60 But Does It Really Work? Retention Rate= 90% Admission Cycle Time A new collaborative approach to Demand/Capacity decision making Time since last episode of Critical...</p>