Kosmas Lapatas - Music Pedagogy Models

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This is a quick review on the different models of music pedagogy


<ul><li><p>MUSIC PEDAGOGY </p><p> KOSMAS LAPATAS EEME, HEjMEC, IACOMP, ISME, ISPME, MPG, NAfME, WPTA </p></li><li><p>Contents </p><p>1. Introduction </p><p>2. Music Education Models </p><p>3. Music Education Overview </p><p>4. Music Education Methods </p><p>4.1 Dalcroze </p><p>4.2 Kodly </p><p>4.3 Orff </p><p>4.4 Suzuki </p><p>4.5 Gordon </p><p>4.6 Manhattanville </p><p>5. Standards and Assessment </p><p>6. Significance </p><p>7. Experiments </p><p>8. Advocacy </p></li><li><p>Dedication </p><p>This study is dedicated to the HELLO STAGE team, board and founders. Special thanks </p><p>to Bernhard Kerres, Nina K Lucas and Bettina Mehne for their faith on me within such as </p><p>very short time. </p><p>Acknowledgement </p><p>I would like to thank my old-time soulmate, friend for life and everlasting supporter </p><p>musician/psychologist Gianna Tzanoukaki, actress Maria Tzanoukaki and school master </p><p>Antonis Skellas for the faith and trust in me and my music education work. Special thanks </p><p>to my lifetime supporter, my Godmother Chris Tsettos. </p><p>About the author </p><p>Kosmas Lapatas studied Piano, Harmony, Counterpoint, Fugue, Composition, </p><p>Musicology, Music Technology and Music Therapy under the world-renowned </p><p>celebrities Dmitri Toufexis, Danae Kara, Marcos Alexiou, Bruce Miller, Bobby Owsinski </p><p>and Nordorff-Robbins. He is a Teaching Artist in prestigious schools, colleges, </p><p>conservatories and institutions, and has performed at prestigious concert halls and </p><p>cultural centers His awards include the 1st Prize in Piano Performance, the 1st Prize in </p><p>Music Composition, and the Classical Music Education Initiative. His is a member of </p><p>EEME, HEjMEC, IACOMP, ISME, ISPME, MPG, NAfME and WPTA. </p></li><li><p>1. Introduction </p></li><li><p> Music education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music. It </p><p>touches on all learning domains, including </p><p> The psychomotor domain (the development of skills) </p><p> The cognitive domain (the acquisition of knowledge) and The affective domain (the learner's willingness to receive, internalize, and share </p><p>what is learned), including music appreciation and sensitivity. </p><p>Music training from preschool through post-secondary education is common in most </p><p>nations because involvement with music is considered a fundamental component of </p><p>human culture and behavior. Music, like language, is an accomplishment that </p><p>distinguishes humans as a species. </p></li><li><p>2. Music Education Models </p></li><li><p>During the past century, many distinctive approaches were developed for the teaching </p><p>of music, some of which have had widespread impact. </p><p> The Dalcroze method (eurhythmics) was developed in the early 20th century by Swiss musician and educator mile Jaques-Dalcroze. </p><p> The Kodly Method emphasizes the benefits of physical instruction and response to </p><p>music. </p><p> The Orff Schulwerk "approach" to music education leads students to develop their music abilities in a way that parallels the development of western music. </p><p> The Suzuki method creates the same environment for learning music that a person has for learning their native language. </p><p> The Gordon Music Learning Theory provides the music teacher with a comprehensive method for teaching musicianship through audiation, Gordon's term for hearing music in the mind with understanding. </p><p> The Manhattanville Music Curriculum Project is presenting music as changing and evolving rather than static and increases the interest in new creation. </p><p>Students act as musicians and not spectators, discovering comprehensive meaning on many levels of understanding. </p></li><li><p>3. Overview </p></li><li><p>In primary schools in European countries, children often learn to play instruments such </p><p>as keyboards or recorders, sing in small choirs, and learn about the elements of music </p><p>and history of music. </p><p>In countries such as India, the harmonium is used in schools, but instruments like </p><p>keyboards and violin are also common. Students are normally taught basics of Indian </p><p>Raga music. </p><p>In primary and secondary schools, students may often have the opportunity to perform </p><p>in some type of musical ensemble, such as a choir, orchestra, or school band: concert </p><p>band, marching band, or jazz band. </p><p>In some secondary schools, additional music classes may also be available. In junior high </p><p>school or its equivalent, music usually continues to be a required part of the curriculum. </p><p>At the university level, students in most arts and humanities programs receive academic </p><p>credit for music courses such as music history, typically of Western art music, or music </p><p>appreciation, which focuses on listening and learning about different musical styles. </p><p>In addition, most North American and European universities offer music ensembles - </p><p>such as choir, concert band, marching band, or orchestra - that are open to students from </p><p>various fields of study. </p><p>Most universities also offer degree programs in music education, certifying students as </p><p>primary and secondary music educators. Advanced degrees such as the D.M.A. or the </p><p>PhD can lead to university employment. These degrees are awarded upon completion of </p><p>music theory, music history, technique classes, and private instruction with a specific </p><p>instrument, ensemble participation, and in depth observations of experienced educators. </p></li><li><p>Music education departments in North American and European universities also support </p><p>interdisciplinary research in such areas as music psychology, music education </p><p>historiography, educational ethnomusicology, sociomusicology, and philosophy of </p><p>education. </p><p>The study of western art music is increasingly common in music education outside of </p><p>North America and Europe, including Asian nations such as South Korea, Japan, and </p><p>China. At the same time, Western universities and colleges are widening their curriculum </p><p>to include music of outside the Western art music canon, including music of West Africa, </p><p>of Indonesia (e.g. Gamelan music), Mexico (e.g., mariachi music, Zimbabwe (marimba </p><p>music), as well as popular music. </p><p>Music education also takes place in individualized, lifelong learning, and in community </p><p>contexts. Both amateur and professional musicians typically take music lessons, short </p><p>private sessions with an individual teacher. </p></li><li><p>4. Music education methods </p></li><li><p>4.1 Dalcroze method </p><p>The Dalcroze method was developed in the early 20th century by Swiss musician and </p><p>educator mile Jaques-Dalcroze. The method is divided into three fundamental concepts </p><p> The use of solfge </p><p> Improvisation, and Eurhythmics. </p><p>Sometimes referred to as "rhythmic gymnastics," eurhythmics teaches concepts of </p><p>rhythm, structure, and musical expression using movement, and is the concept for which </p><p>Dalcroze is best known. It focuses on allowing the student to gain physical awareness </p><p>and experience of music through training that engages all of the senses, particularly </p><p>kinesthetic. </p><p>According to the Dalcroze method, music is the fundamental language of the human </p><p>brain and therefore deeply connected to who we are. Eurhythmics classes are often </p><p>offered as an addition to general education programs, whether in preschools, grade </p><p>schools, or secondary schools. In this setting, the objectives of eurhythmics classes are to </p><p>introduce students with a variety of musical backgrounds to musical concepts through </p><p>movement without a specific performance-related goal. </p><p>For younger students, eurhythmics activities often imitate play. Games include musical </p><p>storytelling, which associates different types of music with corresponding movements of </p><p>the characters in a story. The youngest of students, who are typically experiencing their </p><p>first exposure to musical knowledge in a eurhythmics class, learn to correlate types of </p><p>notes with familiar movement; for example the quarter note is represented as a walking </p><p>note. As they progress, their musical vocabulary is expanded and reinforced through </p><p>movement. </p></li><li><p> While eurhythmics classes can be taught to general populations of students, they are also </p><p>effective when geared toward music schools, either preparing students to begin </p><p>instrumental studies or serving as a supplement to students who have already begun </p><p>musical performance. </p><p>Vocabulary </p><p>Eurhythmics classes for students in elementary school through college and beyond can </p><p>benefit from a rhythmic curriculum that explores rhythmic vocabulary. This vocabulary </p><p>can be introduced and utilized in a number of different ways, but the primary objective </p><p>of this component is to familiarize students with rhythmic possibilities and expand their </p><p>horizons. Activities such as rhythmic dictation, composition, and the performance of </p><p>rhythmic canons and polyrhythms can accommodate a wide range of meters and </p><p>vocabulary. In particular, vocabulary can be organized according to number of </p><p>subdivisions of the pulse. </p><p>Movement </p><p>A key component of a rhythmic education, movement provides another way of </p><p>reinforcing rhythmic concepts - kinesthetic learning serves as a supplement to visual and </p><p>aural learning. While the study of traditional classroom music theory reinforces concepts </p><p>visually and encourages students to develop aural skills, the study of eurhythmics </p><p>solidifies these concepts through movement. In younger students, the movement aspect </p><p>of a rhythmic curriculum also develops musculature and gross motor skills. Ideally, most </p><p>activities that are explored in eurhythmics classes should include some sort of kinesthetic </p><p>reinforcement. </p><p>Meter and Syncopation </p><p>Another element of a rhythmic curriculum is the exploration of meter and syncopation. </p><p>In particular, the study of meter should incorporate an organization of pulses and </p></li><li><p>subdivisions. This organization can be expressed in a meter chart, which can include </p><p>both equal-beat and unequal-beat meters. </p><p>Experiment </p><p>A group of 72 pre-school children were tested on their rhythmic ability; half of the </p><p>children had free-play (3540 min.) twice a week for a 10-week period while the other </p><p>half had rhythmic movement classes for the same amount of time. The group that had </p><p>classes (experimental group) did significantly better than the group that just had free-</p><p>play (control group). The experiment group scored four or more points better in every </p><p>area tested than the control group in the final test. This shows that eurhythmic classes </p><p>can benefit a childs sense of rhythm. </p><p>List of Institutions implementing the Dalcroze method: </p><p>Carnegie Mellon University, Cleveland Institute of Music, Colorado State University, </p><p>Hope College, Longy School of Music of Bard College, Oberlin Conservatory of Music, </p><p>Stony Brook University </p><p>4.2 Kodly method </p><p>Zoltn Kodly was a prominent Hungarian music educator and composer who stressed </p><p>the benefits of physical instruction and response to music. Although not really an </p><p>educational method, his teachings reside within a fun, educational framework built on a </p><p>solid grasp of basic music theory and music notation in various verbal and written forms. </p><p>Kodly's primary goal was to instill a lifelong love of music in his students and felt that </p><p>it was the duty of the child's school to provide this vital element of education. </p></li><li><p>Some of Kodly's trademark teaching methods include </p><p> The use of solfge hand signs </p><p> Musical shorthand notation (stick notation), and Rhythm solmization (verbalization). </p><p>Most countries have used their own folk music traditions to construct their own </p><p>instruction sequence, but the United States primarily uses the Hungarian sequence. </p><p>Child-developmental approach </p><p>The Kodly Method uses a child-developmental approach to sequence, introducing skills </p><p>according to the capabilities of the child. New concepts are introduced beginning with </p><p>what is easiest for the child and progressing to the more difficult. Children are first </p><p>introduced to musical concepts through experiences such as listening, singing, or </p><p>movement. It is only after the child becomes familiar with a concept that he or she learns </p><p>how to notate it, similar to methods like Suzuki and Simply Music. Concepts are </p><p>constantly reviewed and reinforced through games, movement, songs, and exercises. </p><p>Rhythm syllables </p><p>The Kodly Method incorporates rhythm syllables similar to those created by nineteenth-</p><p>century French theoretician Emile-Joseph Chv. In this system, note values are assigned </p><p>specific syllables that express their durations. </p><p>Rhythm and movement </p><p>The Kodly Method also includes the use of rhythmic movement, a technique inspired </p><p>by the work of Swiss music educator Emile Jaques-Dalcroze. Kodly was familiar with </p><p>Dalcrozes techniques and agreed that movement is an important tool for the </p><p>internalization of rhythm. To reinforce new rhythmic concepts, the Kodly Method uses </p><p>a variety of rhythmic movements, such as walking, running, marching, and clapping. </p></li><li><p>These may be performed while listening to music or singing. Some singing exercises call </p><p>for the teacher to invent appropriate rhythmic movements to accompany the songs. </p><p>Rhythm sequence and notation </p><p>Rhythmic concepts are introduced in a child-developmentally appropriate manner based </p><p>upon the rhythmic patterns of their folk music. Rhythms are first experienced by </p><p>listening, speaking in rhythm syllables, singing, and performing various kinds of </p><p>rhythmic movement. Only after students internalize these rhythms is notation </p><p>introduced. The Kodly Method uses a simplified method of rhythmic notation, writing </p><p>note heads only when necessary, such as for half notes and whole notes. </p><p>Movable-do solfege </p><p>The Kodly Method uses a system of movable-do solfege syllables, in which, during </p><p>sight-singing, scale degrees are sung using corresponding syllable names (do, re, mi, fa, </p><p>so, la, and ti). The syllables show function within the key and the relationships between </p><p>pitches, not absolute pitch. Kodly found movable-do solfege to be helpful in developing </p><p>a sense of tonal function, thus improving students sight-singing abilities. Kodly felt that </p><p>movable-do solfege should precede acquaintance with the staff, and developed a type of </p><p>shorthand using solfege initials with simplified rhythmic notation. </p><p>Melodic sequence and pentatony </p><p>Scale degrees are introduced in accordance with child-developmental patterns. The first </p><p>Kodly exercise books were based on the diatonic scale, but educators soon found that </p><p>children struggled to sing half steps in tune and to navigate within such a wide range. It </p><p>is thus that the pentatonic scale came to be used as a sort of stepping stone. Kodly stated </p><p>that each nation should create its own melodic sequence based upon its own folk music. </p></li><li><p>Hand signs </p><p>Hand signs, are performed during singing exercises to provide a visual aid. This </p><p>technique assigns to each scale degree a hand sign that shows its particular tonal function. </p><p>The signs are made in front of the body, with do falling about at waist level and la at eye </p><p>level. Their distance in space corresponds with the size of the interval they represent. The </p><p>hand signs were featured in the 1977 film, Close Encounters of the Third Kind. </p><p>Studies have shown that the Kodly Method improves intonation, rhythm skills, music </p><p>literacy, and the ability to sing in increasingly complex parts. Outside of music, it ha...</p></li></ul>