korean history midterm review sheet
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10/13/13 8:33 PMBasic Chronology of Korean History:???ca. 5,000 BCEPaleolithic cultureCa. 5,000-500 BCENeolithic: Chulmun comb-mark potteryCa. 500 BCE-Bronze culture/Mumun no-mark potteryCa. 5th c. BCE-Iron cultureCa. 190-108 BCEWiman Choson/Weiman Chaoxian108 BCEHan invades & establishes commanderies313 CEc. 1st BCE-3rd CETHREE HAN peoples in southern peninsula4th c. CE-670THREE KINGDOMS': Koguryo, Paekche, Silla660CESilla-Tang alliance defeats Paekche668CESilla-Tang alliance defeats Koguryo668-935 Unified Silla918-1392Koryo kingdom1392-1910Choson dynasty1897-1910Greater Han Empire1910-1945Colonial period1945-presentKorea divided at 38th parallel
PEOPLETangun:2333 BCEOld ChosnTangun Myth divine origin strengthens/validates leadership Shows that Tan-gun served as both a religious and political ruler and his divine origins enhanced the dignity and authority of his political leadershipSource of spiritual comfort in times of crisis*Taejonggyo (Religion of Tangun Worshippers) founded in 1909King Kwanggaeto of Koguryo:Kogurys expansion (5th C, 399-493)Responsible for conquering ManchuriaLed to Silla & Paekche alliance to combat growing KoguryoLegacy: expanding Koguryo territory to include that lost to Paekche before and ManchuriaChoe Chiwon:a notedKoreanConfucian official, philosopher, and poet of the lateUnified SillaperiodHe studied for many years inTang China, passed the Tangimperial examination, and rose to high office there before returning to Silla, where he made ultimately futile attempts to reform the governmental apparatus of a declining Silla stateHe was of "head rank six" class and as a member of head rank six, Choe was restricted in the level of office he could attainOne outlet advance beyond the traditional confines of the Silla social-political order was to become a Buddhist monk and another was to take up the study of Confucianism. When Choe was twelve years of age, in 869, his father sent him to study in Tang, seeing him off with the admonition that if he did not pass the Chineseimperial examinationwithin ten years he would cease to be his sonIn 894 Choe submitted to Silla'sQueen Jinseong(r. 887-897) his "Ten Urgent Points of Reform" for the Silla but it fell upon deaf earsThe bone-rank system prevented him from attaining political momentum and enacting the reforms he sought for Silla upon his return from ChinaChang Pogo:Rose to prominence in Korea in the lateUnified Sillaperiod as a powerful maritime figure who for several decades effectively controlled the West Sea (Yellow Sea) and Korean coast between southwestern Korea and China'sShandongpeninsulaSilla subjects living in Tang had become a favored target of bandits, who sold their captives into slaveryCommissioned by the king to head a garrison and army to combat attacks on Koreans ang proved instrumental in the seizure of power by Silla'sKing Sinmufollowing the overthrow ofKing Minae. Kim Ujing (later King Sinmu) approached Jang for help in taking the throne from the usurper who had killed Ujings fatherSo influential a figure did Jang become in late Silla politics that he was granted official office as Maritime Commissioner of theCheonghaejin and came near to marrying his daughter into the Silla Royal House before his assassination in 846. He was worshipped as a god following his death.
Wang Kon:was the founder of the GoryeoDynasty, which ruledKorea from the 10th to the 14th centuryHe promoted Buddhism as Goryeo's national religion, and called for the reconquest of the northern parts of Korea and Manchuria, which were controlled byBalhaeUnified the later three kingdoms Wang Gon's unification in 936 was a more complete unification the people of the Korean Peninsula thereafter remained under a single, unified state (even changing dynasties, to theJoseon DynastyTaejo sought to bring even his enemies into his ruling coalition. He gave titles and land to rulers and nobles from the various countries he had defeatedTen InjunctionsKing Kwangjong:The fourth king ofGoryeo. He was known for squashing his political rivals and creating an atmosphere of fear within the political realm at the timeThe focus of his reform was strengthening the power of King. He started to drive out powerful clans from theGoryeo court. He broughtSsang Giand naturalized people fromChinainto his court and started aggressive reforms. He made the law of emancipating slaves958, andthenational civil service examinationin 958the national civil service examination helped theGoryeocourt furnish new faces and expel people of powerful clans.Powerful clans were unhappy because of his aggressive attitude and reforms. They perceived that they would be purged by him intuitively. Finally, some of them had the intention to revolt. However, they were killed by him before the revolt. Typical examples of the executed were Prince Heunghwa and Prince GyeongchunwonChoe Sungno 927-989:Detailed reform proposal Centralized bureaucracyConfucian kingly ruleAn anti-Buddhist? Separation of religion from governmentSlavery?? Sumptuary regulations?only a partial modification Yi Che-hyon:Korean painter, connoisseur, scholar and statesman. In 1301 he won first place in the state examination and thereafter his officialcareertook him steadily to the post, in 1356, of Chief Minister of the Chancellery for State AffairsActive in the Koryo period (918-1392), he served five sovereigns during his years in office and made many trips to Yanjing and to Dadu, the capital of the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368), on behalf of his country. After King Ch'ungson (reg1308-13), who spent more time in Yanjing than in the Koryo capital of Songdo, had built the Man'gwondang (Hall of Ten Thousand Volumes) in Yanjing, Yi Che-hyon was called to China in 1314. Yi Che-hyon is credited with having brought Zhao Mengfu's calligraphic style to Korea, where it remained popular until the 16th century Neo-Confucian reformer Reform proposal restoring civilian ruleCriticizing BuddhismTransferred authority to civil agencies Kim Pusik:WroteSamguk Sagi which is also known as The History of the Three Kingdoms of Korea played a very important role in providing information of early life of Koreans and also the norm of the society, in the ancient period of the three divided countries ofChosunYi Songgye:Pro-Yuan vs. anti-YuanFounding of Ming dynasty (1368): stick with Mongols, or go with Ming?Japanese WAKO pirates The rise of YI Snggye: successful campaigns against Wako raidsReturn of Yis troop in 1388 [Wihwa Island]Establishment of Choson dynasty in 1392Capital at Hanyang (Seoul) in 1395Chong To-jon:First meeting between General YI Snggye and CHNG Tojn in 1383: an alliance of mutual convenienceGeneral Yis overthrow of the Kory ruling order in 1388Establishment of Chosn dynasty in 1392The most influential figure in establishing the fundamental contours of early Chosn government and societyDeath of CHNG and YI Pangwn (King Taejong, r. 1400-18)King Sejong: the fourth king ofJoseon Sejong reinforcedConfucianpolicies and executed major legal amendments He also oversaw the creation ofHangul, encouraged advancements of scientific technology, and instituted many other efforts to stabilize and improve prosperity He dispatched military campaigns to the north and installed Samin Policy to attract new settlers to the region. To the south, he subjugated Japanese raiders and capturedTsushima Island Taejongs consolidating of power of the monarchy by eliminating political opponents such as government ministers who had contributed to the founding of Joseon provided Sejong with unchallenged political authority during his reign. revolutionized government by appointing people throughout different social classes to civil servants. Furthermore, he performed official government events according toConfucianism, and he encouraged people to behave according to Confucianism. As a result, Confucianism became social norm. He also published some books about Confucianism. At first, he suppressedBuddhism, but he alleviated his action by building temples and accepting Buddhism by making a test to become a monk Supported the advancement of Koreanmilitary technology, includingcannondevelopment, gunpowder use, etc. Gihae Eastern Expedition: the ultimate goal of this military expedition to remove the nuisance of Japanese pirates who had been operating out ofTsushima Island. During the expedition, 245 Japanese were killed, and another 110 were captured in combat, while 180 Korean soldiers were killed. 146 Chinese and 8 Korean kidnapped were liberated by this expedition. In September 1419 a truce was made and the Korean army returned to Korea, but theTreaty of Gyehaewas signed in 1443, in which the Daimyo of Tsushima promised to pay tribute to the King of Joseon; in return, the Joseon court rewarded the S clan with preferential rights regarding trade between Japan and Korea. In 1433, Sejong sentKim Jongseo , a prominent general, north to destroy the Manchu. Kim's military campaign captured several castles, pushed north, and restored Korean territory, to theSonghua River helped farmers so he decided to create a farmer's handbook: Nongsa jikseol contained information about the different farming techniques that he told scientists to gather in different regions of Korea. These techniques were needed in order to maintain the newly-adopted methods of intensive, continuous cultivation in Korean agricultureJang Yeong-silbecame known as a prominent inventor but was at the bottom of the social class. Sejong instead believed Jang merited support because of his ability. Jang created new significant designs forwater clocks,armillary spheres, sundials, and rain gaugeHad his astronomers create a calendar with the Korean capital ofSeoulas the primary meridian and this new system allowed Korean astronomers to accurately predict the timing of solar and lunareclipsesTwo important treatises were written during the reign of Sejong. Hyangyak jipseongbang and Euibang yuchwi, His