knight light led chess - ucf department of .1 executive summary the knight light led chess set is

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  • KnightLightLEDChessSeniorDesignDocumentationGroup16

    NickDeSantisAlexanderHaasBryanSalicco

    UniversityofCentralFloridaDecember2012

    1

  • TableofContents1ExecutiveSummary2ProjectDescription

    2.1MotivationandGoals2.1.1ChessPieceSensingandTracking2.1.2Display2.1.3GameboardHousing2.1.4Humanvs.HumanGameplay2.1.5Humanvs.ComputerGameplay2.1.6EaseofUse2.1.7ChessComputerPlayer

    2.2Objectives2.2.1LEDDisplay2.2.2LCDDisplay2.2.3Humanvs.HumanGameplay2.2.4Humanvs.ComputerGameplay2.2.5ChessComputer

    3Requirements3.1SoftwareRequirements3.2HardwareRequirements

    4Research4.1SimilarExistingProducts

    4.1.1MephistoChessTrainer4.1.2ExcaliburGrandmasterChessComputer4.1.3ProductComparisonSummary

    4.2Hardware4.2.1Microcontrollers

    4.2.1.1MicrocontrollerSpecifications4.2.1.2ProgrammingLanguages

    4.2.1.2.1Assembly4.2.1.2.2BASIC4.2.1.2.3Pascal4.2.1.2.4TheCProgrammingLanguage

    4.2.1.3MicrocontrollerProductResearch4.2.1.3.1CPUandArchitecturalDesign4.2.1.3.2FlashMemoryandRAM4.2.1.3.3Timers4.2.1.3.4SPISerialI/OController

    2

  • 4.2.1.3.5I2C(InterIntegratedCircuit)busserialI/OController4.2.2Sensors

    4.2.2.1HallEffectSensors4.2.2.2ReedSwitches4.2.2.3Photocells4.2.2.4OpticalDetectorsandPhototransistors

    4.2.3LEDsandLCDs4.2.3.1LiquidCrystalDisplays(LCDs)

    4.2.3.1.1BlueMode4.2.3.1.2FilmMode4.2.3.1.3ColorandDouble4.2.3.1.4Segmentvs.Graphical4.2.3.1.5Reflectivevs.Transmissive4.2.3.1.6AdditionalLCDSpecifications

    4.2.3.2LEDs4.2.3.2.1DisplayingInformation4.2.3.2.2BiColorandTriColor

    4.2.4LEDDrivers4.2.4.1TypesofLEDPowerConverters

    4.2.5PowerSupply4.2.6ShiftRegistersandI/OExpanders

    4.2.6.1ShiftRegisters4.2.6.2I/OExpanders

    4.2.7DevelopmentBoards4.3Software

    4.3.1GeneralChessGameplay4.3.2GamePieceProperties

    4.3.2.1Pawns4.3.2.2Knights4.3.2.3Rooks4.3.2.4Bishops4.3.2.5Queens4.3.2.6Kings

    4.3.3SpecialMoves4.3.3.1Castling4.3.3.2EnPassant4.3.3.3PawnPromotion

    4.3.4VictoryConditionsandEndgameScenarios4.3.4.1Check4.3.4.2Checkmate4.3.4.3Stalemate

    3

  • 5Design5.1GameBoardHousing5.2Visualization5.3PiecePlacementSensing5.4GeneralGameLogic

    5.4.1AlgebraicNotation5.4.1.1Ambiguity

    5.4.2PieceMovementAlgorithms5.4.3GameplayPseudoCode

    5.5ArtificiallyIntelligentChessComputer5.5.1ChessPieceRelativeValue

    5.6PowerSource5.7LCDDisplayandButtons5.8MicrocontrollerLayout5.9PCBPlan

    6DesignSummary6.1SoftwareDesignSummary6.2HardwareDesignSummary

    7ProjectPrototypeTesting7.1HardwareTestEnvironment7.2HardwareSpecificTesting

    7.2.1ChessPieceSensing7.2.1.1OpticalDetectorsandPhototransistorsSensing

    7.2.2LEDandLCDTesting7.2.2.1LEDTesting7.2.2.2LCDTesting

    7.2.3PowerSourceTesting7.3SoftwareTestEnvironment7.4SoftwareSpecificTesting

    7.4.1PieceTracking7.4.2ArtificialIntelligenceTracking

    8Administrative8.1SeniorDesign1Milestones8.2SeniorDesign2Milestones8.3BudgetandFinances8.3ProjectSummary8.4Conclusion

    9Appendix9.1ContentAuthorization

    4

  • TableofFiguresFigure4.1.1:SaiteksMephistoChessTrainerFigure4.1.2:ExcaliburGrandmasterChessComputerFigure4.2.2.1:HallEffectSensorFigure4.2.2.2:ReedSwitchFigure4.2.2.3:PhotocellFigure4.2.2.4:QRD1114PhototransistorFigure4.2.4.11:TLC59116Figure4.2.4.12:TLC59116AvailablePackageViewsFigure4.2.51:FixedoutputGeneratorFigure4.2.52:GenericWallWartFigure4.2.53:GenericWallWartwithaUSBPortFigure4.2.54:BarrelJackInputConnectorFigure4.2.55:USBBInputConnectorFigure4.2.6.21:MCP23017BlockDiagramFigure4.2.6.22:MCP23017AvailablePackagesFigure4.2.71:LPC2148HeaderBoardSchematicFigure4.2.72:LPC2148DevelopmentBoardFigure4.3.2:ChessBoardLayout,StartingPositionsFigure4.3.2.1:PawnMovementFigure4.3.2.2:KnightMovementFigure4.3.2.3:RookMovementFigure4.3.2.4:BishopMovementFigure4.3.2.5:QueenMovementFigure4.3.2.6:KingMovementFigure4.3.3.1:CastlingFigure4.3.3.2:EnPassantFigure5.11:ChessboardLayoutwithHolesforSensorsandLEDsFigure5.12:ChessboardProfileFigure5.13:ChessboardPerspectiveFigure5.21:AvailablemovesshownbygreenLEDsFigure5.22:TLC59116EVM390EvaluationModuleFigure5.23:TITLC59116EvaluationBoardFigure5.24:TLC59116Figure5.25:Single3DriverLEDArrangementClusterFigure5.26:EntireConceptualLEDArrangementFigure5.31:I/OExpanderConfigurationFigure5.32:I/OExpanderSubsystemQuarterFigure5.33:FullI/OExpanderSubsystemConfiguration

    5

  • Figure5.61:BarrelJacktoON/OFFSwitchFigure5.62:5VRegulatorCircuitFigure5.63:3.3VRegulatorCircuitFigure5.71:LCDScreenWiringFigure5.72:ModeButtonsFigure5.81:JTAGWiringFigure5.82:RESETCircuitFigure5.83:CrystalOscillatorforCLCKFigure5.84:TheoreticalEntireSchematicFigure5.85:MainMicroCircuitSchematicFigure5.86:I/OExpanderandButtonsSchematicFigure5.87:LEDDriverSchematicFigure5.91:MainPCBCircuitLayoutFigure5.92:I/OExpanderPCBCircuitLayout

    TableofTablesTable4.2.1.31:MicrocontrollerComparisonTable4.2.1.32:MicrocontrollerAcronymListTable4.3.1:ChessPieceAllotmentTable5.1:ChessBoardComponentDimensionsTable5.4.21:PawnMovementAlgorithmsTable5.4.22:KnightMovementAlgorithmsTable5.4.23:BishopMovementAlgorithmsTable5.4.24:RookMovementAlgorithmsTable5.4.25:QueenMovementAlgorithmsTable5.4.26:KingMovementAlgorithmsTable5.5.1:StandardValuationsTable8.1:SeniorDesign1ProjectMilestonesTable8.2:SeniorDesign2ProjectMilestonesTable8.3:BudgetSummaryTable

    6

  • 1ExecutiveSummaryThe Knight Light LED Chess Set is an interactive chessboard that can be used as a tool to learn the classical game of chess. This will be accomplished by tracking the movement of chess pieces during the game and by showing a player the possible moves they can make whenever they lift a piece off the board by lighting up all of the squares on the game board that this piece can move into. The chess set will have the functionality to allow two human players to play against one another and will include an artificially intelligent computer player for a singleplayer mode. When playing against the computer, the user will be shown where to place its pieces by illuminating the appropriate spot on the game board. This chessboard will include an eightbyeight matrix of LEDs controlled by LED drivers, an eightbyeight matrix of sensors to be detailed upon, LCDs to display text as appropriate, buttons to turn the game on and off and to control the game mode, and a microcontroller containing all appropriate chessrelated rules, logic, andalgorithms.

    The primary motivation for the design and implementation of the Knight Light LED Chess Set is to provide a more interesting version of the classic game of chess, as well as provide a learning tool for new players. A learning tool must be user friendly, so the goal is to create something that will show a user what moves are available and take into account players changing their minds when they pick up a piece. Another motivation for this project includes taking a game that many people are fairly familiar with and put a new spin on it that has not been seen before. Chess games are readily available on computers or on mobile devices and the standard chess set is easily found in stores. Combinations of the two are not as prevalent or common. Bridging the gap between this classic board game and its digital renditions will create an intriguing product that will appeal to multipledemographics.

    Research for this project comes from numerous sources. Research on the hardware side of the project includes topics such as PCB design, how to sense pieces, how to be able to control a large array of sensors or LEDs, what type of microcontroller to use, and how to power it all. Much time has also been spent looking into creating an artificially intelligent computer player and how to determine what moves to make and when. Significant contributors of information for research include technical forums, data sheets, user manuals and schematics, anddocumentationofsimilarexistingprojects.

    7

  • 2ProjectDescriptionTo compile a thorough description of this product, numerous aspects of the devices functionality and motivations behind each feature must be detailed upon.

    2.1MotivationandGoalsThe motivation behind the Knight Light LED Chess Set is to create a fun learning tool for the game of chess. Chess is a complicated game and can be very intimidating for new players. However, as a classic board game, there is still a desire by many to learn how to play the game and creating something that will ease young players into the complicated moves and strategies involved in chess will be a rewarding project. LEDs are the preferred method of communicating to a user where they are allowed to move because it allows the game to avoid using chess jargon that new players may not understand. Instead of verbally telling the player or giving a text command the game board will show them visually where they can move with the piece that they pick up. With these thoughts in mind, the motivationandgoalsforthedifferentfeaturesofourprojectareasfollows.

    2.1.1ChessPieceSensingandTrackingThe Knight Light LED Chess Set shall sense whenever a piece is lifted from the game board this can be done through the use of hall effect sensors. The board will then show the user the moves that are available for that piece. When the player puts the piece down on the board it will recognize the new placement and determine if it is valid. A valid placement will include the original space of the piece as well as the l

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