killer whale vocal response to vessel traffic

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Killer Whale Vocal Response to Vessel Traffic. Celia Barroso Beam Reach Marine Science and Sustainability School Fall 2005 California State University, Long Beach Long Beach, California. Southern resident killer whales (SRKW) declared “depleted” under the Marine Mammal Protection Act - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Killer Whale Vocal Response to Vessel Traffic

    Celia BarrosoBeam Reach Marine Science and Sustainability SchoolFall 2005

    California State University, Long BeachLong Beach, California

  • Southern resident killer whales (SRKW) declared depleted under the Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Possible causes according to NOAA/NMFS Conservation Plan:Pollutants/Contaminants (c.f. PCB, DDT)Decreased prey availabilityAnthropogenic noise pollution

  • Population Structure and Communication

    Different pods (J-pod, K-pod, and L-pod)Different dialectsPod specific calls (Ford, 1990)S1 (J-pod, K-pod)S16 (K-pod, L-pod)S19 (L-pod)Dominant calls

  • Research that sparked my curiosityVessel traffic has increased five fold over between 1990 and 2000 (Foote et. al., 2004)

    During the period of 2001-2003 all pods exhibited a significant (15%) increase in call duration in the presence of whale-watching vessels.

  • My questions

    Do SRKWs exhibit short-term changes in call duration in response to daily exposure to vessel noise?

    Do they modify their calls to avoid masking by boat noise?Examples: motor , ship , quiet

  • How did I conduct my experiment?I attempted to recreate Andrew Footes and Richard Osbournes published research over a shorter time scale.

    We used a hydrophone, amplifier and digital recorder to receive and record the sounds.

    Viewed spectrograms of S1, S16, and S19

  • How did I conduct my experiment?Calculated call duration of the second harmonics for S1 and S16 calls, the third harmonic for S19 high frequency component and fundamental for low frequency component

    S1S16 S19 Low S19 High

  • What did I find?

    The mean I calculated for S16 calls compares to the mean S16 call published by Foote et. al. I did not record S16 or S19 calls that were quantifiable using my methods when vessels were absent

    Chart2

    0.901250.2080.208

    Mean S16 call duration (s)

    Sheet1

    DateFile Name/Time found in fileTimeVessels (Y/N?)Call type (S1, S16, S19?)Call Duration (s to the nearest 0.01)S19 High Freq. DurationNumer of Vessels (incl. us)Types of VesselsVessel FrequencyShip/Tanker RangeVessel IntensityObserved KW LocationCommentsFile/Start timeS1 HarmonicsMeanCommentsFile/Start timeS16 harmonicsMeanCommentsFile/Start timeS19 - Low FreqMeanCommentsS19 - High FreqMeanComments

    10/3/05Sounds 10-3-05/Obs 1/033/36.9s13:24YS11.4373 motoring fast; incl Explorer thorSounds 10-3-05/Obs 1/033/36.9s1.22First harmonic- masked at end; fundamental not calculated due to maskingSounds 10-3-05 Obs 1/033/ 5.3s0.92this is second harmonic; fundamental and first harmonic masked10-4-05/greeting ceremony/002/~30smasked by background noise0.6masked by background noise

    10/4/0510-4-05/greeting ceremony/002/~30s17:02YS190.720.851Stellar Sea idling and Us1.640.88masked by background noise0.6masked by a click train at end

    10/4/0510-4-05/greeting ceremony/004/~11.8s17:04YS190.350.671Steller Sea idling and us1.451.36masked by background noise0.49

    10-4-05/greeting ceremony/005/1.80sS190.380.560.20.83

    10/4/0510-4-05/greeting ceremony/005/46.53s17:05YS190.410.661Calls masked at end a little; steller sea idling and us1.43Sounds 10-3-05 Obs 1/034/45.8s0.46second harmonic - masked a bit at end; fund. And first harm. Masked1.69

    10/3/05Sounds 10-3-05 Obs 1/033/ 5.3s13:24YS161.0373 motoring fast; incl Explorer thorSounds 10-3-05/Obs 1/033/40s1.2First harmonic - masked at end; fundamental masked0.6710-4-05/greeting ceremony/004/~11.8s0.360.7

    10/3/05Sounds 10-3-05/Obs 1/033/36.9s13:24YS11.6473 motoring fast; incl Explorer thor1.050.450.380.7

    10/11/05Sounds 10-11-05 Obs 3/017/12.518:59NS10.921.131.580.37

    10/11/05Sounds 10-11-05 Obs 3/014/15s18:56NS10.9Sounds 10-11-05 Obs 3/017/12.50.86Sound 10-4-05 obs 1/006/54.9s0.45fundamental - possibly not S160.37

    10/11/05Sounds 10-11-05/obs 3/016/33s18:58NS11.880.960.4410-4-05/greeting ceremony/004/~42.30s0.36masked at endneed to calculate - much masking

    10/11/05Sounds 10-11-05/obs 1/016/2.5s15:38YS11.6942 far away; one motoring far away; CWR motoring0.910.390.33

    10/11/05Sounds 10-11-05/obs 3/016/53s18:58NS10.76Sounds 10-11-05 Obs 3/014/15s0.920.430.24

    10/11/05Sounds 10-11-05/obs 3/017/56s18:59NS11.150.910.31

    10/11/05Sounds 10-11-05/obs 3/018/48s19:00NS11.55Could not see all of harmonic0.84not too strong10-4-05/greeting ceremony/005/1.80s0.410.69

    10/11/05Sounds 10-11-05/obs 3/019/34.519:01NS10.882.110.290.69

    10/11/05Sounds 10-11-05/obs 3/019/46s19:01NS10.99Sounds 10-11-05/obs 3/016/33s20.33

    10/11/05Sounds 10-1105/obs 3/019/35s19:01NS10.77this harmonic is shorter than the rest1.870.34

    10/11/05Sounds 10-11-05/obs 3/019/42s19:01NS11.511.94

    10/11/05Sounds 10-11-05/obs 3/019/46s19:01NS10.851.94

    10/21/05Sounds 10-21-05/obs 4/015/7s12:38YS160.841POW idling and motoring - boats in far distance0.24

    10/21/05Sounds 10-21-05/obs 4/015/17s12:38YS160.81POW idling and motoring - boats in far distance

    10/21/05Sounds 10-21-05/obs 4/015/32s12:38YS161.11POW idling and motoring - boats in far distance

    10/21/05Sounds 10-21-05/obs 4/015/37s12:38YS160.941POW idling and motoring - boats in far distance

    10/21/05Sounds 10-21-05/obs 4/023/30s12:46YS10.921POW idling and motoring - boats in far distance

    10/21/05Sounds 10-21-05/obs 4/023/32s12:46YS11.131POW idling and motoring - boats in far distance10-4-05/greeting ceremony/005/46.53s0.540.65

    10/21/05Sounds 10-21-05/obs 4/029/7s12:52YS161.171POW idling and motoring - boats in far distance0.510.57

    10/21/05Sounds 10-21-05/obs 4/038/28s1:01YS11.061POW idling and motoring - boats in far distance0.520.51

    10/21/05Sounds 10-21-05/obs 4/038/32s1:01YS11.161POW idling and motoring - boats in far distance0.520.58

    10/21/05Sounds 10-21-05obs 4/038/43s1:01YS11.071POW idling and motoring - boats in far distance10-4-05/greeting ceremony/006/25.30s0.560.61fundamental - masked by another call at end; rest of calls not easily calculated

    10/21/05Sounds 10-21-05obs 4/038/46s1:01YS111POW idling and motoring - boats in far distance0.450.61

    10/21/05Sounds 10-21-05/obs 4/038/56s1:01YS10.71POW idling and motoring - boats in far distance0.51

    10/6/05Sounds 10-6-05/obs 2/012/11s12:44YS190.65Low freq masked

    10/6/05Sounds 10-6-5/obs 2/012/16s12:44YS190.360.47

    10/6/05Sounds 10-6-05/obs 2/013/34s12:45YS11.14

    10/6/05Sounds 10-6-05/obs 2/014/43s12:46YS190.32High freq unclear

    10/6/05Sounds 10-6-05/obs 2/015/54sYS11.71

    10/6/05Sounds 10-6-05/0bs 2/018/3sYS190.710.95

    10/6/05Sounds 10-6-05/Obs 2/023/36sYS190.951.4

    10/6/05Sounds 10-6-05/obs 2/023/53sYS190.750.97

    10/6/05Sounds 10-6-05/obs 2/024/31sYS190.680.88

    10/6/05Sounds 10-6-05/obs 2/024/39sYS190.770.56

    10/6/05Sounds 10-6-05/obs 2/024/41sYS190.540.55

    10/6/05Sounds 10-6-05/obs 2/029/23sYS11.24

    10/6/05Sounds 10-6-05/obs 2/035/14sYS10.87

    10/6/05Sounds 10-6-05/obs 2b/005/4sYS11.05

    10/6/05Sounds 10-6-05obs 2b/006/3sYS11.03

    10/6/05Sounds 10-6-05/obs 2b/006/16sYS11.09

    10/6/05Sounds 10-6-05/obs 2b/013/7sYS160.51

    10/21/05Sounds 10-21-05/Obs 12/029/19sYS160.82Some sort of tug or tanker in background

    S1 with vesselsS1 without vesselsS1 Call DurationNumber of VesselsS19 Low WithS19 High WithS16 with

    1.1721.1051.4370.720.851.03

    1.6470.350.670.84

    1.6940.410.660.8

    0.9210.360.651.1

    1.1310.320.470.94

    1.0610.710.951.17

    S1 withS1 without1.1610.951.40.51

    1.430.921.0710.750.970.82

    1.640.9110.680.88mean ---->0.901250.90125

    1.691.880.710.770.56std dev0.2082194927

    0.920.760.9200.540.55

    1.131.150.90mean--->0.59636363640.7827272727

    1.061.551.880std dev--->0.21091575220.2655217848

    1.160.880.760S19 Low WithS19 High With

    1.070.991.1500.59640.7827

    10.771.550

    0.71.510.880

    1.140.850.9900.782727273

    1.710.7700.901250.596363636

    1.241.510

    0.870.850

    1.05

    1.03

    1.09

    Mean1.17235294121.1054545455

    Std Dev0.28752237760.3743090604

    Sheet1

    Number of Vessels

    Number of Vessels

    S1 Call Duration (s)

    Sheet2

    0.28752237760.28752237760.37430906040.3743090604

    S1 with

    S1 without

    With WithoutVessels Vessels

    Mean S1 Call Duration (s)

    Sheet3

    S16 S19 Low S19 High Frequency Frequency

    Mean Call Duration (s)

    Sheet4

    Number of Vessels

    Number of vessels

    S1 Call Duration (s)

    Sheet5

    0.2080.208

    Mean S16 call duration (s)

    Sheet6

    Sheet7

    Sheet8

    Sheet9

  • What did I find?Average S1 call duration in the presence of vessels is 1.17s and 1.105s in the absence of vessel noise.

    Chart3

    1.1741.1050.28752237760.28752237760.37430906040.3743090604

    S1 with

    S1 without

    With WithoutVessels Vessels

    Mean S1 Call Duration (s)

    Sheet1

    DateFile Name/Time found in fileTimeVessels (Y/N?)Call type (S1, S16, S19?)Call Duration (s to the nearest 0.01)S19 High Freq. DurationNumer of Vessels (incl. us)Types of VesselsVessel FrequencyShip/Tanker RangeVessel IntensityObserved KW LocationCommentsFile/Start timeS1 HarmonicsMeanCommentsFile/Start timeS16 harmonicsMeanCommentsFile/Start timeS19 - Low FreqMeanCommentsS19 - High FreqMeanComments

    10/3/05Sounds 10-3-05/Obs 1/033/36.9s13:24YS11.4373 motoring fast; incl Explorer thorSounds 10-3-05/Obs 1/033/36.9s1.22First harmonic- masked at end; fundamental not calculated due to maskingSounds 10-3-05 Obs 1/033/ 5.3s0.92this is second harmonic; fundament