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  • Key Findings of 2011 ATRS Global Airport

    Performance Benchmarking project

    Prof. Tae Oum,

    Prof. Chunyan Yu,

    Dr. Yapyin Choo

    The Air Transport Research Society (ATRS)

    www.atrsworld.org

    The ATRS Global Airport Benchmarking Task Force

    Asia Pacific: P. Forsyth, Yeong-Heok Lee, Yuichiro Yoshida, Japhet Law, Shinya Hanaoka

    Europe: Nicole Adler, Jaap de Wit, Hans-Martin Niemeier, Eric Pels

    North America: Tae Oum, Bijan Vasigh, Jia Yan, Chunyan Yu

    Middle East: Paul Hooper

    Air Transport Research Society (ATRS)1

    http://www.atrsworld.org/

  • Outline

    Objective of the ATRS Benchmarking Study

    Airports Included and ATRS Database

    Some Characteristics of Sample Airports

    Methodology

    Key Results on Efficiency and Costs

    User Charge Comparisons

    Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) 2

  • Objective of the Benchmarking Study

    To provide a comprehensive, unbiased

    comparison of airport performance focusing on

    Productivity and Operating/Mgt Efficiency

    Unit Cost Competitiveness

    Comparison of Airport Charge Levels

    Our study does not treat service quality differentials

    across airports for data reasons

    Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) 3

  • Airports Included in the study

    Air Transport Research Society (ATRS)4

    Canada-US 63 airports

    Europe 45 airports (2 New)

    14 airport groups

    Asia 32 airports (5 New)

    5 airport groups

    Oceania 9 airports

    Latin America 7 airports (All New)

    ----------------------------------------------------------

    Total 156 airports

    19 airport groups

  • The ATRS Database The ATRS Database contains time-series information (from year 2001)

    including financial data, traffic and capacity data of the major airports and airport authorities (groups) in the following geographic regions:

    Asia Pacific

    Europe

    North America and

    Latin America (non-financial data only)

    The data includes

    Characteristics of Airport (capacity, type of ownership etc)

    Traffic (ATM, passengers, freight, etc.)

    Aeronautical Revenue

    Non-Aeronautical Revenue including concession, car parking

    Operating Statistics and Operating Expenses

    Balance Sheet

    1.5 year lag in data (due to airport annual reporting lag)

    Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) 5

  • Data Sources: FY 2001-2009

    Airports Financial Statements, Annual Reports and direct data requests;

    US FAA, DOT statistics;Association of European Airlines (AEA) Statistics ICAO Digest of Statistics:

    annual and monthly traffic data annual financial data - not for all airports

    ACI; IATA annual traffic statistics; capacity information; airport charges general information surveys (Asia Pacific and Europe)

    occasional and not complete

    IMF and World Bank various price indices including GDP deflators for service sectors and PPP

    US Census Bureau, Statistics Canada regionally based Cost of Living Index

    Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) 6

  • Outline

    Objective of the ATRS Benchmarking Study

    Airports Included and ATRS Database

    Some Characteristics of Sample

    Airports

    Methodology

    Key Results on Efficiency and Costs

    User Charge Comparisons

    Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) 7

  • Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) 8

    Passenger Traffic - Top 10 Airports (000 passengers) :2009, 2007, 2005

    0

    10,000

    20,000

    30,000

    40,000

    50,000

    60,000

    70,000

    80,000

    90,000

    100,000

    2009 2007 2005

    Asia Pacific Europe North America

  • Aircraft Movements, 2009 (000 ATM)

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1000

    1200

    PEK

    DX

    B

    CG

    K

    DEL

    BO

    M

    ICN

    SHA

    TPE

    MA

    A

    NG

    O

    PER

    PEN

    CN

    X

    HD

    Y

    CD

    G

    MA

    D

    FCO

    ZRH

    CP

    H

    OSL

    AR

    N

    GV

    A

    STN

    TXL

    EDI

    BH

    X

    CIA

    KEF

    BTS

    ATL

    DEN LA

    S

    PH

    L

    EWR

    LGA

    IAD

    SEA

    HN

    L

    FLL

    YUL

    STL

    MD

    W

    MK

    E

    YWG

    PIT

    SMF

    AB

    Q

    SNA

    YHZ

    RIC

    2009 Mean

    Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) 9

    Asia Pacific Europe North America

  • Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) 10

    Air Cargo - Top 10 Airports (000 metric tons)

    2009, 2007, 2005

    0

    500

    1,000

    1,500

    2,000

    2,500

    3,000

    3,500

    4,000

    4,500

    HK

    G

    PV

    G

    ICN

    DX

    B

    NR

    T

    SIN

    PE

    K

    TP

    E

    BK

    K

    CA

    N

    CD

    G

    FR

    A

    LH

    R

    AM

    S

    IST

    CG

    N

    BR

    U

    TL

    V

    ZR

    H

    MX

    P

    ME

    M

    SD

    F

    MIA

    LA

    X

    JFK

    OR

    D

    IND

    EW

    R

    DF

    W

    OA

    K

    Me

    tric

    To

    nn

    es

    ('0

    00

    )

    2009 2007 2005

    Asia Pacific Europe North America

  • % Non-Aero Revenue, 2009

    0.00%

    10.00%

    20.00%

    30.00%

    40.00%

    50.00%

    60.00%

    70.00%

    80.00%

    90.00%

    SIN

    ICN

    MEL

    /AP

    AC

    SEL

    CN

    S

    BK

    K

    XM

    N

    KU

    L

    AP

    II

    FRA

    OR

    Y

    IST

    ATH

    FCO

    TLL

    GV

    A

    HA

    M EDI

    SOF

    MX

    P

    CG

    N

    MA

    D

    HEL

    JAX

    MC

    I

    SMF

    PH

    X

    FLL

    IND

    SJC

    ALB LA

    S

    DC

    A

    SEA

    SFO

    CLE

    IAH

    MIA

    STL

    2009 Mean

    Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) 11

    North AmericaEuropeAsia Pacific

  • Outline

    Objective of the ATRS Benchmarking Study

    Airports Included and ATRS Database

    Some Characteristics of Sample Airports

    MethodologyKey Results on Efficiency and Costs

    User Charge Comparisons

    Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) 12

  • Methodology:

    Efficiency Measurement

    Variable Factor Productivity (VFP) Index Total Factor Productivity (TFP) - Impossible because of

    capital input cost accounting problem

    VFP is essentially the ratio of total (aggregate)

    output index divided by total (aggregate) variable

    input index, namely labor and soft cost input (total

    non-labor variable inputs).

    In fact, we compute VFP using the multilateral

    index procedure proposed by Caves, Christensen and

    Diewert (1982).

    Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) 13

  • Airport Productivity Index

    Outputs Inputs

    14

    Aircraft movement

    Passengers

    Non-aeronautical

    revenues

    (Cargo tonnes handled)

    Labour

    Other non-labor, non-capital (soft cost) inputs i.e., catch all expenses deflated by price index

  • Potential Reasons for the Measured

    Productivity (gross VFP) Differentials

    Factors Beyond Managerial Control:

    Airport size (Scale of aggregate output)

    Average aircraft size using the airport

    Share of international traffic

    Share of air cargo traffic

    Extent of capacity shortage - congestion delay

    Connecting/transfer ratio

    We compute residual (Net) variable factor productivity (RVFP) measures after removing effects of these Factors

    Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) 15

  • Outline

    Objective of the ATRS Benchmarking Study

    Airports Included and ATRS Database

    Some Characteristics of Sample Airports

    Methodology

    Key Results on Efficiency and Costs

    User Charge Comparisons

    Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) 16

  • Gross VFP Vs Residual (Net) VFP(after removing factors

    beyond managerial control ) :

    Oceania (SYD=1.0)

    Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) 17

    After removing factors beyond managerial control such as capacity constraint, average aircraft size, % international traffic, etc, CHCs relative performance in term of Net VFP improved significantly.

    0

    0.1

    0.2

    0.3

    0.4

    0.5

    0.6

    0.7

    0.8

    0.9

    1

    SYD CHC MEL AKL BNE PER ADL WLG Mean

    Gross VFP Net VFP

  • Residual (Net) Variable Factor Productivity:

    Asia (HKG=1.0)

    Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) 18

    0.000

    0.200

    0.400

    0.600

    0.800

    1.000

    1.200

    HKG SIN CAN HAK ICN SEL BKK KUL XMN PEN KIX SZX NGO NRT PEK PVG Mean AOT APII MAHB SAA Mean

  • Residual (Net) Variable Factor Productivity:

    Europe ( CPH=1.0)

    Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) 19

    0

    0.2

    0.4

    0.6

    0.8

    1

    1.2

    CPH

    OSL

    ATH

    BRU

    MA

    DZR

    HBC

    NA

    MS

    DU

    BST

    NCD

    GM

    AN

    VIE

    ARN

    LGW

    ORY LH

    RD

    US

    FRA

    MU

    CFC

    OM

    ean

    GVA KE

    FLI

    STL

    VCI

    ACR

    LED

    IBH

    XTL

    LH

    AM LJU

    HEL

    MLA TX

    LW

    AW BTS

    BUD

    CGN

    SOF

    Mea

    n

    AD

    RPP

    LSc

    hiph

    olA

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