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KEMISKINAN Minggu 12 | Departemen Ilmu Keluarga dan Konsumen

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KEMISKINANMinggu 12

| Departemen Ilmu Keluarga dan Konsumen

LEARNING OUTCOME

Mahasiswa mampu menjelaskan definisi dan jenis-jenis kemiskinan

Mahasiswa mampu menjelaskan penyebab dan akibat dari kemiskinan

Mahasiswa mampu mengukur tingkat kemiskinan baik di tingkat keluarga maupun

masyarakat

GRAFIK PERKEMBANGAN PENDUDUK MISKIN INDONESIA

Poverty is:

What is poverty?

Think about some of the signs that might alert you to the

presence of poverty, whether in the UK or overseas

and try to define poverty in a

sentence.Insufficient food

Inadequate nourishment

Poor housing

Inadequate clothing

No access to clean

drinking water

Poor sanitation

Poor education

Poor health

Unemployment

Vulnerability

Lack of power

Low status

Persons, families and groups of persons whose resources (material, cultural and social) are so limited as to exclude them from the minimum acceptable way of life in the Member State to which they belong.

The European Unions working definition of poverty is:

Definitions change with time, but this is now the most commonly used

definition of poverty in the industrialised world.

It recognises that poverty is not just about income but about the

effective exclusion of people living in poverty from ordinary living

patterns, customs and activities.

Accidents and natural disasters, with inadequate insurance

Family breakdown

Changes in government policy

Employment-related problems eg. short-term job contracts, low pay,

decline in local traditional industries, unemployment

Social exclusion and no access to benefits or inadequate benefits

Drink and drugs dependency

Poor health (clinical, medical and emotional)

Inadequate pensions

Personal debt

Some causes of poverty in Canada are:

Unfair trade

HIV and AIDS

Debt

Conflict

Unfair land distribution

Natural disasters

Lack of access to education

Some causes of poverty in developing countries are:

Sebab-sebab KemiskinanFaktor eksternal : Hambatan kelembagaan atau

struktur

Faktor internal : faktor dalam diri seseorang

Pandangan Konservatif:

Kemiskinan diakibatkan oleh nilai-nilai dan

kebudayaan, seperti: malas, boros, tidak punya

rencana, dll.

Pandangan Modern:

1. Pemilikan faktor produksi yang rendah

2. Kualitas SDM rendah

3. Tingkat tabungan rendah

4. Lemahnya jiwa kewiraswastaan

Pola-Pola Kemiskinan

1

1. Persistent poverty

kronis atau turun-temurun

2. Cyclical poverty

siklus ekonomi

3. Seasonal poverty

musiman

2

3

4

4. Accidental poverty dampak bencana alam atau

lainnya

Poverty is complex; many aspects are interconnected.

Some of its causes and effects make a cycle:

Poor farming methods

Poor education

Health care

Low paid job/ no job

Food

Housing

Education

Less money for: Erosion

Poor crop

Less to sell

Hunger

Poverty

Who lives in Poverty?

Poverty is greatest amongst families with children.

Single parent families are twice as likely to be poverty as families with two adults.

On average women have lower incomes than men. Women who are single parents or have given up careers to act as carers are more likely to be in poverty.

Elderly people are now in a better position because many of them are in houses which are worth a lot of money. Although many elderly do live in poverty.

PENYEBAB KEMISKINAN

Pengangguran

Pendapatan rendah

Umur

Jenis kelamin

Suku

Kebijakan Pemerintah

AKIBAT KEMISKINAN: BIAYA KEMISKINAN

Kriminalitas

Fasilitas kesehatan

Pengangguran

Investasi penanggulangan kemiskinan

Perumahan

Kelaparan

Pendidikan

Listrik dan air

Anggaran penanggulangan kemiskinan

Absolute poverty is measured by comparing a persons total income against

the total cost of a specific basket of essential goods and services. People with

inadequate income to purchase this basket of items are considered to be living

in absolute poverty.

Relative poverty compares a persons total income and spending patterns with

those of the general population. People with lower income who spend a larger

portion of their income on a basket of goods and services, compared with a

threshold typical of the general population, are considered to be living in

relative poverty.(Source: http://canadianeconomy.gc.ca)

The World Bank defines absolute (or extreme) poverty as living on below US$1 a day, and moderate poverty as living on US$1 - US$2 a day. Based on these figures, half the worlds population about three billion people - are considered poor, with one in six living in extreme poverty.

How is poverty measured?

http://canadianeconomy.gc.ca/

BEBERAPA UKURAN KEMISKINAN

Garis Kemiskinan

WORLD BANK: US$ 1 per day : extreme poverty

US$ 1,25 per day

US$ 2 per day

BPS : garis kemiskinan Makanan (GKM) + non makanan (GKBM) : dibedakan antara perdesaan dan perkotaan

Ukuran kemiskinan menurut Sajogya

Kategori Desa Kota

Miskin 320 kg 480 kg

Miskin sekali 240 kg 360 kg

Paling miskin 180 kg 270 kg

1. Hidup dalam rumah dengan ukuran lebih kecil dari 8m2

2. Hidup dalam rumah dengan lantai tanah atau

lantai kayu berkualitas rendah

3. Hidup dalam rumah dengan dinding terbuat

dari kayu berkualitas rendah

4. Hidup dalam rumah yang tidak dilengkapi

dengan WC

5. Hidup dalam rumah tanpa listrik

6. Tidak mendapatkan fasilitas air bersih

7. Menggunakan kayu bakar, arang atau minyak

tanah untuk memasak

8. Mengkonsumsi daging atau susu seminggu sekali

(Jika memenuhi salah

satu kriteria dikategorikan

sebagai miskin)

16 Kriteria

RUMAH

TANGGA

MISKIN (BPS)

SOCIAL METRICS MATRIX

Poverty/Social Metrics Index is measured against social metrics cut-offs: 8-15 = non poor

16-23 = poor

24-32 = very poor

Social Metrics: 8 different areas related to poverty:

Food Security

Education

Healthcare

Housing

Social Capital

Empowerment

Literacy

Vulnerabilities

Each area is scored based on a corresponding question with four possible answers.

All areas are then totaled to create a poverty/social metrics index

(Jika memenuhi salah satu kriteria dikategorikan sebagai miskin)

9. Belanja satu set pakaian baru setahun sekali

10. Makan hanya sekali atau dua kali sehari

11. Tidak mampu membayar biaya kesehatan pada

Puskesmas terdekat

12. Pendapatan keluarga kurang dari Rp. 600.000,per bulan

13. Pendidikan Kepala Keluarga hanya setingkat

Sekolah Dasar

14. Memilik tabungan kurang dari Rp. 500.000,15. Mempekerjakan anak di bawah umur

16. Tidak mampu membiayai anak untuk sekolah.

16 Kriteria

Kemiskinan

16 Kriteria

RUMAH

TANGGA

MISKIN (BPS)

Indicators 1 2 3 4Food Security Household always has

enough food and the kinds

they want to eat

Household always has

enough food but not always

the food they want to eat

Household sometimes doesn't

have enough food to eat

Household often does not

have enough food to eat

Edcuation Household can support education for children up to

& including university

Household can support

education for children up to

& including secondary school

Household can support

education for children up to

& including primary school

Household cannot support

education for children even at

the primary school level

Healthcare Household can always afford the medicine and healthcare

services they need

Household usually can afford

the medicine and healthcare

they need

Household sometimes can not

afford to buy medicine or

healthcare services

Household never can afford

to buy medicine or healthcare

services

Housing Household has all utilities, including potable water,

electricity, sanitation & phone

Household has 3 of 4 utilities Household has 2 of 4 utilities Household has 1 or no utilities

Social Capital* Client is very involved in community activities

Client is somewhat active in

his or her community

Client is rarely involved in

community activities

Client never gest involved in

community activities

Empowerment** Client always feels respected Client sometimes feels respected

Client seldom feels respected Client never feels respected

Literacy Client reads, writes and performs basic math

Client can perform 2 of 3 Client can perform 1 of 3 Client is not able to perform

any of them

Vulnerabilities*** 0 vulnerabilities within household

1 vulnerability 2 vulnerabilities 3 vulnerabilities

Social Metrics Matrix

A Simple Poverty Scorecard for IndonesiaNO INDIKATOR

1. Jumlah anggota keluarga (semakin banyak skor makin rendah)

2. Jumlah anggota keluarga berumur 5-18 tahun yang masih sekolah (semakin banyak, skor semakin tinggi)

3. Jumlah anggota keluarga berumur 11 tahun ke atas yang bekerja dan seminggu terakhir tidak bekerja

4. Bahan bakar utama untuk memasak

5. Tipe toilet

6. Jenis lantai rumah

7. Jenis atap rumah

8. Kepemilikan kulkas

9. Kepemilikan sepeda motor

10. Kepemilikan televisi