kashmiri shawls

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  • 1. Presented by : Salien Malik BBA 6TH SEM 110241166

2. Handicrafts in Jammu and Kashmir present a fascinating spectrum of creative imagination It is a cottage-based industry, which does not require heavy capital investment and infrastructure Being labor intensive in nature, the handicraft sector has high employment potential. As per official estimates handicraft sector provides employment to about 3.78 lakh workers engaged in different types of handicraft activities From the production point of view, this sector occupies a prominent place in the industrial scene of the state. The handicraft production has gone up to an amount of Rs. 1650.30 crores at the end of the year 2012-13 the handicraft sector of Jammu and Kashmir is important from the export point of view as well. During 2012-13 handicraft goods worth Rs. 1080.80 crore were exported 3. A shawl (persian): , Shl, from (Sanskrit): ) is a simple item of clothin , loosely worn over the shoulders, upper body and arms, and sometimes also over the head However, the founder of the cashmere wool industry is traditionally held to be the 15th century ruler of Kashmir, Zayn-ul-Abidin, who introduced weavers from central asia 4. Pashmina The majority of the woollen fabrics of Kashmir, and particularly the best quality shawls, were and are still made of Pashmina, which is the wool of capra hircus,a species of the wild Asian mountain goat The embroidery stitch employed is rather like the parallel darning stitch and is rarely allowed to penetrate the entire fabric. 5. The Emperor Akbar was a great admirer of the shawls of Kashmir. It was he who began the fashion of wearing them in duplicate, sewn back to back, so that the under surfaces of the shawls were never seen. During that time the most desired shawls were those worked in gold and silver thread or shawls with border ornamented with fringes of gold, silver and silk thread. The Do-shala, as the name designates ("two-shawl"), are always sold in pairs, there being many varieties of them. 6. Shahtoosh, the legendary ring shawl is incredible for its lightness, softness and warmth. The astronomical price it commands in the market is due to the scarcity of raw- material. Yarn is spun either from shahtoosh alone, or with pashmina, bringing down the cost somewhat. In the case of pure shahtoosh too, there are many qualities-the yarn can be spun so skillfully as to resemble a strand of silk 7. It is said that the shawls were famous from Kashmir even in the times of emperor Ashok (3rd C BC) but many writers credited Sultan Zain-Ul-Abidin (1420-1470 A.D) as the initiator of Shawl industry in Kashmir. Jamawar or grown piece, is a special type of shawl made in Kashmir. "Jama" means robe and "war" is yard. Today, the best and the most expensive Jamawar is woven in Kashmir. 8. Three districts of Kashmir valley, viz. Srinagar,Budgam and Ganderbal where shawl making is more prevalent were selected for the study. Artisans including both spinners and weavers were selected for the study As per the information gathered from the artisans, the traditional method of shawl making/processing in Kashmir is divided into four broad heads A) Pre-spinning B) Spinning C) Weaving D) Finishing 9. Harvesting: The Shawl is harvested during spring season, when animal naturally shed their under coat. On the basis of weather conditions and season, the goat starts moulting over a period from mid March to late May. It is done manually by combing (Fig. 2). As pashmina fibers (Fig. 3)are intermingled with coarse outer coat called guard hairs, so the process of combing is followed by manual de hairing. 10. Sorting/dehairing means separation of undercoat/ pashmina from guard hair. The sorting of pashmina is done manually, mostly by women folk (Fig. 4). Now-a-days, at some places the process of manual dehairing is being replaced by machine dehairing. 11. Glueing means application of glueing material to pashmina. This is done by applying pounded rice. The pashmina is placed in a container over which pounded powdered rice (kharioat) is sprinkled and left on pashmina for a night or two (Fig. 5). The purpose of glueing is to provide extra strength, moisture and softness to the fiber. 12. Spinning converts continuous untwisted strand of fibers into required yarn count and twist suitable for further processing Traditionally, spinning is being carried out on a spinning wheel termed yander or charkha In this method, a small tuft/thumb of pashmina is held between the second and third finger of the left hand supported by the thumb. As the spinner turns the wheel with her right hand, she raises and lowers the hand holding the fiber in a perfect harmony to the rhythm of turning wheel. This is a skillful operation. 13. Weaving is started with opening of the hanks (Fig. 10) on the large wooden stand locally called thanjoor (Fig. 11) and is mounted on a wooden spindle termed as prech (Fig. 12 This process is called yarun (Fig. 13). About 1200 threads are stretched in this manner to form warp locally called yaen which is enough for 4 to 6 shawls. 14. The washed fabric is now sent to the purzgar. Here the fabric is tweezed, clipped or brushed out to rid it of any superficial flaw on the surface 15. The fabric is now washed by washer man or dhobi who washes the fabric in running water, by repeatedly striking it against a hard smooth surface or stone 16. If the fabric needs to be dyed, it is sent to the dyer who dyes it as per the demand and requirement 17. Huge Market potential Flexible Production & design Cheap labor Suitable to Climatic conditions Huge employment opportunities Foreign revenue generation Eco-friendly. Needs less investment. Export oriented. 18. Underdeveloped infrastructure Lacks global exposure Lack of customer feedback system. Less interest among youths. Confined mostly to rural areas. Still old techniques prevail. Low wage structure in handicrafts. Unorganized sector 19. Huge demand in both domestic as well as international markets. Develops Tourism industry of J&K E-commerce to channelize handicraft products of J&K. Handicraft products are also preferred by Real Estate players to add value in their businesses. Design sensibility 20. Stiff competition ahead. Deficit balance between supply & demand of J&K handicrafts. Better technological support and R&D facility in competing countries. Translation of skill to next generation. Huge inflating rates of raw material. Introducing low skilled labor. 21. The handicraft sector has a large potential to generate a gainful employment opportunities to unemployed people and has a great potential for economic development of a country/region like Kashmir, which is known all world with its traditional crafts. But the state of Jammu and Kashmir and in particular the Kashmir Valley has suffered severe economic setbacks due to turmoil in the region over the past 20 years. Every sector of economy has been affected, be it handicrafts production, the horticulture sector, medium and small-scale industrial units, the tourism sector etc. Not withstanding the fact that Kashmiri arts and crafts have enjoyed worldwide fame and name, their production suffered to a large extent with the broke down of turmoil in the valley in 1989. From 2003-08 there has been an increasing trend but thereafter it has declined due to turmoil and unrest during the peak seasons that is, summer 2008, 2009 and 2010 in Kashmir. Besides exacting extensive damage to the infrastructure of the region, the violent conflict has discouraged private investment, pushing the economy over the towards stagnation. 22. Thank you ..