kapco internship report

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KAPCO field study of six weeks.


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    Chapter 01


    Kot Addu Power Plant (the "Power Plant") was built by the Pakistan Water and Power

    Development Authority ("WAPDA") in five phases between 1985 and 1996 at its present

    location in Kot Addu, District Muzaffargarh, and Punjab. In April 1996, Kot Addu Power

    Company Limited ("KAPCO") was incorporated as a public limited company under the

    Companies Ordinance, 1984 with the objective of acquiring the Power Plant from WAPDA.

    The principal activities of KAPCO include the ownership, operation and maintenance of the

    Power Plant.

    Kot Addu Power Company Limited ("KAPCO") was incorporated in 1996 with the purpose to

    contribute economic power to the national grid. KAPCO has shown exceptional results in the

    area of plant maintenance, availability, quality standards and financial performance. In April

    2005 KAPCO was formally listed on all the three Stock Exchanges.

    KAPCO is committed to contributing to Pakistan's economy by powering the lives of its

    people by continuously improving its performance through efficient systems, capable

    workforce and good governance.

    Kot Addu site is situated in District Muzaffargah, 100 KM north east of Multan on the left

    bank of river INDUS at a distance of 16 Km from TAUNSA BARRAGE. The area is surrounded

    by agricultural land stretched on the north and west side of Kot Addu. There are some

    adjacent areas covered with wind blown sand dunes which were formed with the passage of

    time. These sand dunes too are being gradually converted into agricultural land.

    Apart from above, there were very little educational facilities available in the area prior to

    setting up of this Power Station which has now almost been doubled and some of the

    School has been upgraded. The essential amenities are also now made available to the


    1.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF POWER HOUSE COMPLEX The complex comprises three blocks, 1, 2, and 3. Each block is independent in it and can be

    considered a separate power station. There are 2 combined cycle modules in each block no.

    1 and 2 whereas block 3 has only one module. This is the physical distribution. For the

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    commercial purpose the complex is divided into three blocks called Energy block 1, 2, and 3.

    The power purchase agreement provides different energy charges for the electricity

    generated and dispatched from each block. The energy block 1 (plant block 3) is the latest

    and was in commissioning stage when NP took over management in June 1996 whereas

    other blocks were completed and commissioned between 1986-1995. The plant block 3,

    being latest, is the most efficient plant and provides the cheapest electricity to customer. Its

    total capacity is 397 MW. In order of priority, whenever there is generation demand from

    the customer, this block is run first. When the demand exceeds then only other plants are

    run. The complex history over past 4 years shows that plant block 3 runs round the clock

    throughout the year at maximum capacity. In case this plant can not run at full capacity due

    to any fault or break down of machines, the customer need is made up from other available

    plants that are relatively expensive but the customer pays lowest energy charges (of block

    3) for the deficit generation. This results in significant loss. Therefore this block is the most

    valuable asset of the company.


    The gas turbines, despite of their low installation cost, easy and speedy erection and high

    loading rate could not win the deserving popularity over the steam turbines due to the poor

    efficiency of the former. In the conventional gas turbine unit, substantial amount of heat

    energy was lost through the turbine exhaust gases which leave the turbine at about 580

    Deg. Centigrade. To make use of this wasteful energy, an innovative concept of combined

    cycle plant, now has been introduced by the gas turbine manufacturers. Under this design,

    the exhaust of the gas turbine is made to pass through a conduction type boiler (commonly

    called as HEAT RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR). High-pressure steam so generated is then

    used to run the steam turbine, which thus produces power without any fuel. This raises the

    plant efficiency to nearly 49 % against the 28 % of the conventional gas turbine.


    WAPDA entered into an agreement with KAPCO for the purchase of the power for next 25

    years from this plant. The tariff covered two kinds of payments viz. capacity and energy

    payment. The capacity payment is made on the available capacity of the plant and is mainly

    used by the company to meet the fixed expenses and 756 million dollar debt liability that it

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    inherited from WAPDA. The energy payment is done on the actual dispatch from the plant.

    It covers the fuel cost and there is hardly and saving from this part.

    The agreement allows 36 complex days for the scheduled outages and 500 complex hours

    for the unscheduled / forced outages. In case the accumulated outage period over the year

    exceeds the agreed allowance, the company is liable to pay the liquidated damages at a rate

    of 1.6 times of what it gets as capacity payment.

    The first year of the business went very well. WAPDA was prompt in making payments, but

    it did not lost very long. WAPDA as well as Govt. of Pakistan were in financial crises because

    of corruption and in efficiencies. Ultimately WAPDA engaged KAPCO and National Power in

    a complicated legal battle over the tariff issue by filing petitions in the high court. The court

    finally passed an interim order in October 1998 that restricts KAPCO to receive Rs. 1.98 per

    KWh of electricity. The objective behind this legal wrangling was to pressurize KAPCO /

    National Power to agree and out of court settlement for deduction of tariff. With the

    incoming of present Govt. the matters have been solved to fair extent.


    To be a leading power generation company, driven to exceed shareholders expectations

    and meet customers requirements.


    To be a responsible corporate citizen

    To maximize shareholders' return

    To provide reliable and economic power for our customer

    To excel in all aspects relating to safety, quality and environment

    1.3 Blocks

    There are three blocks in the power plant.


    GT 1,2,3,4 and ST 9, 10

    GT 1, 2

    Manufacturer Siemens, Germany

    Base load rating of GT at 15 C 125 MW (HSD)

    Base load rating of GT at 50 C 96 MW (HSD)

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    GT 3, 4

    Manufacturer GIE, Italy

    Base load rating of GT at 15 C 96 MW (HSD)

    Base load rating of GT at 50 C 73 MW (HSD)

    ST 9, 10

    Manufacturer ABB, Germany

    Rated power Steam turbine 112 MW with 2 HRSGs


    GT 5,6,7,8 and ST 11, 12

    GT 5,6,7,8

    Manufacturer Alstom, France

    Base load rating of GT at 15 C 106 MW (HSD)

    Base load rating of GT at 50 C 81 MW (HSD)

    ST 11, 12

    Manufacturer RATEAU, France

    Rated power Steam turbine 103.4 MW with 2 HRSGs


    GT 13, 14 and ST 15

    GT 13, 14

    Manufacturer Siemens, Germany

    Base load rating of GT at 15 C 139 MW (HSD)

    Base load rating of GT at 50 C 108.6 MW (HSD)

    ST 11, 12

    Manufacturer Siemens, Germany

    Rated power Steam turbine 148.6 MW with 2 HRSGs

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    Chapter 02


    The basic need of the safety is to prevent human being from any type of injury.

    2.1 General Safety:

    Security is first stage of safety.

    When we working in the plant area we should use PPEs (Personal Protection Equipments)

    They are mention as below:



    Safety shoes


    Ear plug/ muff



    It prevent us from the head injury.


    Its a special type of dress and this dress is fit to body. Loose dress may be cause of any


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    Safety Shoes:

    They are prevent us from slipping and if something fell down they can bear 25kg weight by

    its toe and prevent us by feet injury.


    It is used to save our eyes from dust.

    Ear Plugs:

    An earplug is a device that is meant to be inserted in the ear canal to protect the user's ears

    from loud noises produced by the heavy machines, dust or excessive wind.




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