just felt it!

Click here to load reader

Post on 21-Jan-2017

117 views

Category:

Design

1 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Just Felt It!

    Research Report by:Zaiba Yasmeen

    Textile Design for Interiors2012-2016

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    The success and final outcome of this project required a lot of guidance and assistance from many people and I am extremely fortunate to have got this all along the completion of my project work. Whatever I have done is only due to such guidance and assistance and I would not forget to thank them.

    I owe my profound gratitude to my project guide Mrs. Pavni Gupta, who took keen interest in the project work and guided me all along, till the completion of my project work by providing all the necessary information for improvement in the project.

    I would like to express my special gratitude and thanks to industry persons for giving me such attention and time.

    I am thankful to and fortunate enough to get constant encouragement, support and guidance from all the teaching staffs of Textile Department which helped me in successfully completing my project work. Also, I would like to extend my sincere regards to all friends for their timely support. Any omission in this brief acknowledgement does not mean lack of gratitude.

  • DECLARATION

    I, ZAIBA YASMEEN, student of 7th semester BA (Hons.) in Textile Design for Interior, Pearl Academy, New Delhi, hereby declare that the project work entitled JUST FELT IT submitted during the academic year 2015 is a record of an original work done by me under the guidance of Mrs. Pavni Gupta, . This project work is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of BA(Hons.) in Textile Design. The results embodied in this report have not been submitted to any other University or Institute for the award of any degree.

    Date: Zaiba Yasmeen Place: New Delhi

  • ABSTRACT

    If you have ever MISTAKENLY THROWN A WOOL SWEATER IN A WASHING MACHINE, you know about felting-the process by which certain animal fibres exposed to water and agitation grab onto each other to CREATE A DENSE, SOLID FABRIC.

    Technically, the term FELTING refers to the process of making felt out of unspun fibre and FULLING refers to the process of making felt out of knitted or woven fabric. However, the term FELTING is now commonly used for both processes.

    Ever since I heard about the process of making felt, I have been intrigued by its magic. Even though it really isnt magic, just water and agitation. But there still seems to be something magical about it. And what's more magical about it that the texture of it when combined with other fabrics and the feel of it. So the main objective of this report is to see what kind of different textures can be achieved by combining other fabrics with felt. And I want to see how people will accept nuno felts in home decor and home furnishing. Or with which sector they can associate felt more with.

  • OBJECTIVES

    To make a non-woven or non-knitted fabric.

    To see amalgamation of different fabrics with felt.

    To study felt and nuno felts future in Indian market.

    To make a finished product in lesser time.

  • INTRODUCTION

  • Felt is a non-woven fabric formed when sheep's wool or animal fur is subjected to heat, moisture and pressure or agitation. Soap, or an alkaline environment, helps the felting process. Heat and moisture cause the outer scales along the fiber to open, and the soap allows the fibers to slide easily over one another thereby causing them to become entangled. The wool fibers are made up of a protein called keratin. The keratin in the fibers becomes chemically bound to the protein of the other fibers thereby resulting in a permanent bond between the fibers, making the felting process irreversible.

  • Felting is a simple technique requiring very little equipment. The main advantage felting has over other textile techniques is producing a finished product in much less time. No one knows for certain how humans first discovered the felting properties of wool and animal fur, but several ideas suggest how early humans may have become interested in making felt. Matted wool may have been noticed on sheep. Wool shed from wild sheep may have been found formed into a mass of fibers as a result of the elements. Perhaps they stuffed their footwear, presumably animal hide, with wool to keep their feet warm. After walking on the wool for a while they found that it became stiff and formed a kind of fabric.

    The oldest archaeological finds containing evidence of the use of felt are in Turkey. Wall paintings that date from 6500 to 3000 B.C. have been found which have the motif of felt appliqu. At Pazyryk in Southern Siberia archeological evidence of felt was found inside a frozen tomb of a nomadic tribal chief that dates from the fifth century B.C. The evidence from this find shows a highly developed technology of feltmaking. (These felts are in the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, Russia. Some pieces can be seen on the museum's web site, www.hermitagemuseum.org) The Romans and Greeks knew of felt. Roman soldiers were equipped with felt breastplates (for protection from arrows), tunics, boots and socks. The earliest felt found in Scandinavia dates back to the Iron Age. Felt sheets believed to be from about 500 A.D. were found covering a body in a tomb in Hordaland, Norway.

    Today felt is still in use in many parts of the world especially in areas with harsh climates. In Mongolia, nomads live in felt tents called yurts or gers. In Turkey, rugs, hats and other items are made of felt. In South Central Asia nomadic tribes use felt as tent coverings, rugs and blankets. Shepherds use felt cloaks (kepenek) and hats to protect them from the harsh climate. In Scandinavia and Russia, felt boots are produced and widely used. More recently there has been a revival in the interest in felt making especially in Great Britain and Scandinavia and also in the United States with contemporary felt making design and techniques becoming more widespread.

  • Nuno felts

  • Nuno felting is a fabric felting technique developed by Polly Stirling, a fiber artist from New South Wales, Australia, around 1992. The technique bonds loose fibre, usually wool, into a sheer fabric such as silk gauze, creating a lightweight felt. The fibres can completely cover the background fabric, or they may be used as a decorative design that allows the backing fabric to show. Nuno felting often incorporates several layers of loose fibres combined to build up colour, texture, and/or design elements in the finished fabric.

    The word nuno means cloth in japanese, and nuno felt, as its name implies, is a combination of felt and cloth. It is a versatile felted fabric, which can vary from diaphanous to heavily textured depending on the proportion and weight of fabric used.

    The process combines wool fibres with lightweight, fairly open-weave fabrics, such as silk chiffon, silk organza or cotton gauze. It is advisable that the fabric should not be too shiny or the wool fibres will slip over the surface instead of penetrating the weave. The wool fibres are persuaded to make their way through the chosen fabric and the wool is then felted to make it shrink. The background fabric does not shrink but is pulled along by the wool as it felts and this creates interesting gathered effects within the fabric. The patterns and textures created can be controlled by the position, quantity and type of wool. The weight of the final fabric will be determined by the quality and quantity of the wool and the type of base fabric.

    Wool used for nuno felt should be fine and quick to shrink.

    Wool is only one kind of fiber that can be used in making this nonwoven cloth. There are hundreds of different wools and fibers to choose from, each with its own unique properties and handling abilities. Different fibers create different surface textures. Other types of fiber that will felt other than sheep's wool are: camel, llama, alpaca, Mohair goat, Cashmere goat, yak, Angora rabbit, beaver, dog, cat, human hair.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felthttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woolhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silk

  • HISTORY

  • No one is quite sure when felt was first discovered but it is considered to be one of the oldest textile forms and thought to have originated in Asia about 5000 years old. Archaeological evidence indicates from very early on people had discovered the tendency for fibres to mat together when warm and damp long before they learned to spin or weave. It is believed the nomadic people of Central Asia were the first to learn the techniques for making felt. Caps of thick solid felt from the early Bronze Age are preserved at the National Museum in Copenhagen. These date back some 3500 years and were found in the prehistoric burial mounds of Jutland and North Slesvig. The oldest archaeological finds containing evidence of the use of felt are in Turkey. Wall paintings that date from 6500 to 3000 B.C. have been found which have the motif of felt appliqu. At Pazyryk in Southern Siberia archeological evidence of felt was found inside a frozen tomb of a nomadic tribal chief that dates from the fifth century B.C. The evidence from this find shows a highly developed technology of felt making. (These felts are in the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, Russia).

    The Romans and Greeks both used felt and the Roman soldiers were equipped with felt breastplates (for protection from arrows), tunics, boots and socks. The earliest felt found in Scandinavia dates back to the Iron Age. Felt sheets believed to be from about 500 A.D. were found covering a body in a tomb in Hordaland, Norway. Felt was used for many things including hats, wall coverings, blankets and boots.

    http://www.hermitagemuseum.org/wps/portal/hermitage/?lng=enhttp://www.hermitagemuseum.org/wps/portal/hermitage/?lng=enhttp://www.hermitagemuseum.org/wps/portal/hermitage/?lng=en

  • Felt boots can be traced to Siberia and was called the Valenki. Archaeological finds include dainty low riding boots of a Scythian woman of high rank which also contained a pair of felt socks of the same cut and sewn from two pieces of thin white felt. The remains of travelers caught in ice glaciers also support felting in shoes was used to keep the feet warm. Not only was felt used for clothing but also for saddles, curtains, rugs, coffin coverings, bottle cases, mattresses, shelter and for ceremonial purposes as well. In prehistory properties of felt, were greatly appreciated and exploited with felt relics found dating back to 1500-1000 B.C. in Mongolia, Scandinavia, Germany, Turkey and Siberia. Excavations at Antinoe in Upper Egypt revealed clothing items of wool felt in graves of the Coptic period. These goods may have reached the Nile valley through trade from Persia.

    Ancient Chinese historical records refer to felt as early as 2300 B.C. China's warriors equipped themselves with shields, clothes, and hats made of felt, for protection; they also used felt boats. At public functions, the Chinese emperor was carried into the presence of his subjects sitting on a large felt mat.

  • By the Middle Ages many legends existed as to the origins of felting including the claim Noah discovered it. According to the legend when he built an ark he covered the floor with sheep's wool and loaded it with his family, their household belongings, and livestock for food. However, the weather suddenly turned bad and rainwater came pouring in. Inside were many people and animals moving about; the heat produced from this was almost overwhelming. The water and heat combined with repeated trampling on the wool made become a flat sheet of felt. Another variation on the theological theme described a barefoot holy man walking through the desert, leading his camel. With the mid-day sun the sand became too hot and he could no longer walk. Almost by divine guidance he suddenly tore off clumps of the camel's hair and wrapped them around his feet. Finally sunset came and the heat subsided. Removing the clumps of camel hair, he noticed that the camel hair on the soles of his feet had become flat and solid. His sweat had added moisture, the sand had added heat, and the action of walking on the camel hair had entangled it, turning it into flat sheets of felt.

    Perhaps the complete seal of approval came when a Pope during the Middle Ages was troubled with sore feet and decided to use some animal wool to pad his shoes. Bliss resulted and felt tootsie rolls were given the papal, pedal seal of approval.

  • There is no geographic term to properly describe the large contiguous region that has been home to a rich and substantial felt making tradition in the east. I am taking the liberty of coining the term Felt Belt to more accurately describe the region. The Felt Belt includes all of Central Asia, some of the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and Eastern Asia, or more specifically the lands occupied by modern day Mongolia, Tibet, Nepal, Northern India, all the stans including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Turkey, Armenia and Georgia, some of China, and some of Russia.

    The Felt Belt includes deserts, mountains, semi-arid treeless steppes, and fertile farmland. Both modernly and during the SCA period this area was very culturally and ethnically diverse. Over the centuries parts of the Felt Belt have been ruled by several vast empires including, the Romans, Persians, Arabs, Seljuks, Ottomans, and Mongols. Many trade routes including the Silk Road run through this region. Throughout the SCA period there was much cross cultural fertilization. Both ideas and goods traveled far across the region.

    It is important not to over generalize the cultures in the Felt Belt, however some similarities exist that set this region apart from the Western European felt making tradition. Pastoral Nomadism has been very prevalent in this region throughout history. Pastoral Nomads depend on herding animals such as sheep, goats and cattle for their livelihood. They move their herds seasonally to fresher or more seasonally appropriate pastures. The whole community generally travels with the herd, and all members of the community help in some way with the care of the herd or processing of the products produced by the herd. Sheep are generally sheared twice a year, in the spring and fall. At this time felt making cultures will process their wool into felt. Felt making is particularly suited to the nomadic way of life, as it requires little specialized equipment, and compared to other fabric making techniques it is very quick. In northern climates felt is very useful as an insulating material both for clothing and structures. It is very warm and sheds water. It is said that before Genghis Khan the Mongolians had very little woven fabric, they wore mostly felt and leather. They never developed much of a weaving tradition and obtained all of their woven fabrics through raiding, trading and tribute.

    FELT BELT

  • Throughout the Felt Belt, both settled farmers and urban dwellers also produced and used felt, although perhaps to a lesser extent. In many urban areas there is evidence that felt making was organized into guilds. In her book, Hand Felting in Europe and Asia from the Middle Ages to the 20Th Century, Irena Turnau notes several places in the Felt Belt which had documented guild level organization, including the 16Th c. Ottoman Empire and 10Th c. Armenia and Georgia. The existence of specialized craftspeople indicates a demand for felt products and possibly a more technically difficult product than was likely produced by the general populace once or twice a year. In regions where guild organization is not documented, more complex felt products may still indicate a felt making industry.

  • History of felt making in

    MONGOLIA

    The felt is the earliest known form of textile fabric and played an important part in the life of early man. Over the centuries, felt has been made in many countries for various applications. For example Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkey herdsmen using -felt coat kepeneks and felt rug, India-embroidery felt, Scandinavia-felt boot, Britain- beaver hat. Nomads in Central Asia are using felt mainly for ger. (yurta)

    The tradition of felt making in Mongolia first referred to by Hunnu Empire. Mongolian Hunnu's Felt Carpet was found in the Hunnu tombs at Noyon Uul and has been dated to between the third century BCE( before the common era) and first century. Now the carpet is hanging on display in the National History Museum. Detail of a fragment from an Hunnu carpet depicting a highly stylized image of an animal figure, central panel showing spirals pattern. The technique and design is unique earliest Mongolian handwork style.

  • Mongolia often calls itself the "Felt Nation". The traditional Mongolian dwelling is known as a yurt-Ger. The entire ger is covered by a layer of thick felt.The felt insulation and the shape of the ger allow it to stay cool in the summer and warm in the winter with little heat. Mongolian nomadic type like travel. During travel, felt is light and it has no transport problem. Mongolian traditional felt making process

    The technique used by the Mongolian nomads in the production of felt was simple and classical. Felt making process is implemented non washing wool, not using soap and additional substance only using water. Both the new wool and the mother felt are then rolled up tightly around the pole. Wet hides are wrapped around the felt and then a strong rope binds the roll together. Ropes are then attached to horses or camels which then pull the roll across the steppe. About Mongolian felt rug-Shirmel shirdeg

    Felt has played an essential role in Mongolian life. Its basic function cover for the ger, Mongolians making felt rug Shirdeg, cup of plates bag, clothing, cushions, purses and much more. Geometric, animal, plants and nature forms motifs can be used to designing felt items. Beige color and camel yarn can be used to hand stitch as a Specific Feature of Mongolian felt rug.

  • "YOROOL"Yurool- It is the poetry of good wishes. Yurools are said when a new ger is set up, during a wedding ceremony, when making airag, shearing sheep or making felt. It is a mongolian tradition, when you have met someone during making felt. You need to say:

    Your felt is Whiter than snowHarder than boneSmoother than ice More valuable than silver

    Yorool for feltingOn the fine virgin landFamily and relations work togetherTo create art with their ten fingersPreparing the airag and the yoghurtChoosing a time in summerThe white grease filled woolOf one hundred million sheepLaid out and pieced togetherThe laid out wool sprinkledWith the waters of one hundred streamsCarefully rolled upProperly tied up

    Rolled again and againDrawn by a gelding horse:May this fabric named feltBe boundless in sizeWhite felt unbrokenWithout blemish here or thereWhiter than snowHarder than boneSmoother than ice More valuable than silverMay this fine compressed feltBecome the cover of seventy homesAnd may the people who made itLive to see one hundred autumnsMay its back be as silkWhite as a shellMay it be too tough to fall apartToo eternal too wear out

  • History of felt making in

    TURKESTAN

    When Turkestan was not yet conquered by Turks, who were then confined to southern Mongolia, but was densely populated by Iranian tribes, members of the Indo-European family, who had a highly flourishing civilization. The Iranian stock at that time covered an immense territory, stretching from the confines of China on the west through the plains of Chinese and Russian Turkestan far into the steppes of southern Russia; for the Scythians so called by the Greek historians are members of the same group, and all of them are close relatives of the Persians. All the tribes belonging to this great Iranian family were active and energetic producers of felt and it may even very well be the case that they were the initiators of the technique. Certain it is that woven rugs and carpets were first produced in their midst, and as in my estimation carpet-weaving sprang up after and as a consequence of felted rugs, it stands to reason that it was Iranians who invented the manufacture of felt.

  • Felting is now practiced in different cities of Iran including Khorasan(a historical region lying in the northeast of Persia) , Mazandaran, Semnan (the capital city of Semnan Province), Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari and Bandar Torkaman(a city in and capital of Torkaman County, Golestan Province). Turkmen felt is well-known for its high quality and various and unique patterns used in felting. The best Turkmen felt is practiced by Yamut tribe. Despite the fact that felting requires high physical strength and it is usually practiced by men, in Bandar Turkmen it is almost exclusively the business of women.

  • Every carpet tells a story. But few tell one as fascinating as the oldest intact carpet ever found. It is the Pazyryk carpet, discovered frozen in a tomb beneath the Siberian steppe.

    The carpet was woven sometime in the 5th century BC and recovered almost 2,500 years later when, in 1949, Russian scientists opened one of many burial mounds in the Pazyryk valley, in the Altai mountains south of Novosibirsk.

    Because the tombs, where Russia borders with China, Kazakhstan and Mongolia, were dug deep into the permafrost and covered with piles of timber and stone, the carpet and the mummified bodies of the nobles it accompanied emerged in a remarkably well preserved state.

    The 5th century was the time of the Greek-Persian wars, of Herodotus completing his History, of the construction of the Parthenon, of Sophocles writing Antigone, and, finally, of the ruinous Peloponnesian war between Athens and Sparta.

    But the story the carpet tells is a very different one from that of the ancient Greeks. It tells the story of the Scythians, a partly settled, partly nomadic people whose home was the vast expanse of Eurasia north of Greece, Mesopotamia, Persia and China.

    The World's Oldest Carpet Story: The PAZYRYK

  • The other great nomadic people of northern Eurasia at this time, located farther east, were the Turkic-speaking tribes. Later the Turkic-speaking nomads would sweep west in a centuries-long confrontation with the Persian speakers that would be chronicled in classical Persian epic poems. Still, if much is known today about the Scythians due to their mention in ancient histories and the excavation of their burial mounds, very little is known about their carpets and carpet culture. The only certainty is that their carpets included both pile rugs and felt rugs. Both the pile and felt work show a level of technical sophistication that makes it clear they belong to a very old artistic tradition. But whether that tradition was the Scythians own or was borrowed from neighbors is impossible to know for sure. Most carpet scholars believe the Pazyryk pile carpet could not have been woven in a nomadic setting in such a remote corner of the Siberian steppe.

    Murray Eiland Jr. and Murray Eiland III note in their book 'Oriental Carpets' (1998) that the carpet "raises the question as to how pastoral nomads could have acquired such a technically proficient work of art." They answer that "it could have been through trade, as some Chinese silk fabrics were found at Pazyryk and other early nomadic burials on the steppes." Theories of the carpet's origin generally assume it was woven in either a major population center of Achaemenid Persia or perhaps an outpost of the Persian Empire nearer to Pazyryk itself.

    Today, the Pazyryk carpet is regularly reproduced by modern carpet weavers who find its design still has a magical appeal. This high-quality replica is produced by weavers working in northern Afghanistan using natural dyes and handspun wool. It is available from Nomad Rugs in San Francisco. It is interesting to think of the Pazyryk carpet, placed in a royal tent, as the worlds earliest known example of a room with a rug. And it is even more fascinating to think that this earliest known example is so stunning in its beauty that it can equally express all the pleasure and excitement people have taken in furnishing their rooms with rugs ever since.

    Here is a close-up of a felt saddle blanket found in the Pazyryk tombs.

    http://www.nomadrugs.com/

  • HOW IS FELT MADE?

    Felt is produced in buildings termed as "mills". Traditionally these

    mills were located in rural areas where the wool was easily attainable

    and in a location adjacent to a source of water. Producing wool felt is

    an extensive and specialized process and only a handful of wool felt

    mills exist today utilizing the same process (and many times, the

    machinery) that has been used for over a century.

  • TRADITIONAL METHOD

    FELT IN TIBET

    The wool, having been first picked over, is spread out a handful at a time on a large piece of felt on the ground, each handful overlapping the preceding the one in such a way that a piece of uniform thickness and of whatever size is desired is made. This is rolled up tightly and with much pounding of the closed fist and the unrolled, and this work is kept up for an hour or more; then the roll is soaked in water and the work of rolling, unrolling, kneading and beating with the closed fist goes on for another hour or two. After the roll had been left to dry for a while it is opened, and by pulling it slightly in different directions the surface is made smooth, and the edges are trimmed with a knife. Sometimes, it is bleached. Altogether, Tibetan and Mongol felt is vastly inferior to that made by chinese.

  • For the making of felt the summer wool of sheep is preferred, especially the first wool of the lambs born in the spring. Oil-cake serves as size, and is mixed with the water which is sprinkled over the wool spread over a reed mat. It is first beaten with rods until the mass reaches the same level. The wool is usually arranged in two layers, a lower one of brown cheaper wool and an upper one of white wool. The mat is then rolled up as tightly as possible and tied with cords. This package is rolled to and fro over the ground, pulled along with a rope by some experienced old people, and pushed with the feet by a number of girls following it. The cords are tightened from time to time. Finally the mat is removed, the wool is rolled up again and rerolled for several hours, while water is continually sprinkled on it. The woolen layers are then spread out, dried at the sun, and the felt is ready, supple and smooth like cloth. Patterns are cut out of coloured felt, laid on the felt rug and beaten into it.

    Among the Turkish tribes of Central Asia The white wool is first separated from the dark one. The layers are spread out on horse skins and are beaten. They are then sprinkled with the water and rolled between two reed mats until the mass is solid. First it is rolled with the hands, then continued with the feet, while six or eight women with arms akimbo shove the roll along in equal pace not unlike the movement of a dance, and songs are chanted at the same time. Patterns, if desired, are laid out in dyed wool.

    FELT AMONG IRANIANS AND TURKS

  • FELT IN CHINA

    The method employed by the Chinese in preparing felt is the same as that used by the Tibetans, Mongols, and Turks, with a single exception: the first step they take is to loosen the wool by means of a large bow by tightening the string and jerking it off in a rapid motion. This process is derived from that of treating cotton, and the bow in either case is identical. The layers of wool are heaped up on a bamboo mat and carefully moistened with the water sprayed. Then the wool is rolled up in the mat which is rolled to and fro, and pressed by means of the feat.

    FELT AMONG THE MONGOLS

    The Mongols, in making felt, wet and beat sheeps wool with the sticks, then press it, and tie the rough strips of wool to grazing horses who drag them across the smooth surface of the plain and thus complete them.

  • MODERN METHOD

    WOOL

    Wool colors are separated into white, grey, and brown wool bales. Since the sheep are free-roaming grazing animals, vegetable matter from plants and shrubs can get caught in the fleece as the sheep brushes against it. To remove this debris, the wool must be cleaned. By washing with water, some of this vegetable matter and lanolin is removed. However if a more regular color is required with white wool, it can be carbonized to whiten and remove more of this debris.

    Wool Nepps

  • WILLOWING

    The first step in the process of making felt is to mix, loosen, and separate the fibers from the clumps they form naturally. The willowing machine combs the wool pulling the fibers apart and beginning to align them.

    CARDING

    Carding is the act of combing and untangling the wool. Feeders allow a specific weight of fibers to pass into the cylinder to form a standardized web and the fibers are combed (or carded) so that they are parallel to each other. Several layers of this fluffy, even sheet of wool are combined (with the fibers alternating in direction) to create a batt. These batts are then rolled up and stored in preparation for felting.

    Carding

  • FELTING

    Multiple layers of batts are laid out on a steamy conveyor belt, adding moisture to the wool and preparing it for the felting process. The sheet is then moved below a plate-hardener that lowers a large 2.5 ton plate onto the batts and oscillates, compressing and matting the material. As shown under a microscope, wool fibers have scales like a fish. The outer skeleton of each fiber is made up of the overlapping scales. When heat and moisture is introduced, the scales on the fibers raise and open up. The agitation then interlocks the fibers as the scales hook into one another to form a strong, resilient bond. Merino wool is typically the finest wool fiber and unlike synthetic fibers has scales that allow for natural felting. Natural felting is only possible with fibers with such scales.

  • FULLING

    While the felt has bound together significantly, added density is needed to provide the durability needed. The batts are fed through upper and lower steel rollers that are covered by hard rubber molded with treads like a tire. The pressure, heat, moisture, and movement cause the batts to shrink in length, making it denser. The more the wool is manipulated and hammered, the tighter the fibers engage and lock together.

    The felt can lose as much as 50% of its elasticity and some length during this part of the process. For example, a single piece of felt that is 31 meters (34 yards) long may come out of the fuller at 25 meters (27 yards) in length.

    WASHING

    In preparation for dyeing, the felt is washed to remove any impurities and to assure uniform dye penetration.

    Washing

  • DYEING

    25 meter bolts are hand-sewn together to create one dye lot. Dye lot sizes vary based on thickness and weight and are typically 100 meters (109 yards) for 2mm, 75 meters (82 yards) for 3mm, and 50 meters (55 yards) for 5mm, 8mm, and 10mm. Plant-based textile dyes are introduced in a dye vat and heat is added to set the dyes. The process can take up to six hours and the color is matched to a control sample to ensure a suitable color has been achieved.

    DRYING

    The felt is stretched across the drying bed and dried with heat to prepare for its final finishing. Dyeing

  • SHAVING

    Since the felt is a nonwoven, loose or errant fibers can be left on the surface of the material. The felt is shaved on each side to remove these fibers and to create a smooth hand.

    PRESSING

    During the manufacturing process, the felt tends to be thicker in the middle and thinner at the edges. In order to provide a consistent thickness, the felt is pressed and measured to assure that the material meets the acceptable thickness tolerances.

    ROLL-UP

    The felt is rolled up and ready!Roll-up

  • CONTEMPORARY FELT TEXTILE ARTISTS

    Felting for art has had somewhat of a resurgence in recent years. Felt artists previously featured on TextileArtist.org like Andrea Graham and Molly Williams have proven just how exciting artwork primarily made from felt can be. In this article, we feature 5 more contemporary felt textile artists whose work highlights the versatility of this enduring material.

    http://www.textileartist.org/http://www.textileartist.org/andrea-graham-interview-feltmaking-a-spiritual-experience/http://www.textileartist.org/memory-and-metaphor-molly-williams/http://www.textileartist.org/memory-and-metaphor-molly-williams/

  • Mary-Ann Williams is often referred to as the Queen of Felt, and it is easy to see why. This artist creates astonishing works with the cleanest lines imaginable while using felt. Williams studied textiles in both her home country and in Germany and has been there ever since.

    Williamss felt acoustic wall panels are some of her most impressive works. These pieces take an entirely functional piece of wall decor and makes them the centerpiece of the room. These walls are sculptural in nature, drawing off such inspiration as origami and blades of grass. All of her wall panels are available in a multitude of colors, as well, so there is something for every home. A spectacular design produced by Williams is a chaise lounge that is entirely made from felt. No added fillers or padding were used to expand the chair, just interwoven felted wool

    Williams creates an astounding array of products, from laptop bags and apparel to wool felt greeting cards and cushions. Minimalism is a desired goal, but embellishments are used when necessary. The goal is to remove the waste, and Williams succeeds at this immensely. All of her work is made with the highest German design in mind, with a crispness rarely seen outside Europe.

    To find out more about the work of Mary-Ann Williams visit www.illu-stration.com.

    MARY-ANN WILLIAMS

    http://www.illu-stration.com/http://www.illu-stration.com/

  • LISA KLAKULAK

    Lisa Klakulak has lived all across the United States. She grew up outside of Detroit, and has since lived in Colorado, Taos, New Mexico, and Tennessee. She is currently based in Asheville, North Carolina. Klakulak finds a great amount of power in working with techniques and materials that have historically been the domain of women.

    Klakulaks work showcases design aesthetics that are indicative of North American indigenous cultures. She produces apparel, from gauntlets, scarves, and handbags, to sculptural works. Her felted rings and earrings are particularly interesting, ornate and exquisite. Her dye process uses only natural dyes, from submersion baths of barks, berries, flowers and other products used before the invention of synthetic dye. Her work espouses the nativist side of felting, and truly brings forth an American sensation that honors the heritage of indigenous American populations and the pioneers that settled the US.

    To find out more about Lisa Klakulak visit www.strongfelt.com.

    http://www.strongfelt.com/portfoliohttp://www.strongfelt.com/portfoliohttp://www.strongfelt.com/portfolio

  • Janice Arnold, the daughter of a cartographer, has been interested in unique fabrics from a very young age. Based in Washington state, in the United States, she eventually fell in love with the storied history of felt-making, and attempts to blend the material with a 21st century aesthetic and mindset. She has honed her concepts of felt through travels and studies in Mongolia and elsewhere in Asia, where industrial felting is both an art and a necessity.

    She has brought these concepts back to the US, where she created a site-specific yurt (a Central Asian portable tent, designed for nomadic use) in the Smithsonian Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum in 2009. In addition to this, she has exhibited an immense amount of versatility, designing costumes for the Los Angeles Opera and a recreational space for the offices of the advertising agency Wieden + Kennedy.

    Her pieces exhibit a miraculous variety of textures, from silk through tough, durable wool. Her use of color is specifically impressive, showing what an absolute master Arnold is at designing and utilizing felt.

    For more information about Janice Arnold visit www.jafelt.com.

    JANICE ARNOLD

    http://www.jafelt.com/palaceyurt.htmlhttp://www.jafelt.com/

  • Joi Rae, also known as Jorie Johnson, is a fine art feltmaker who was born and raised in Boston, where she studied her craft and developed her design aesthetic at RISD. Her initial exposure to the art of feltmaking arrived in an intensive course in Finland, where she had gone to learn how to craft traditional Scandinavian felt boots. For the past 26 years, she has lived in Japan, and her designs are greatly influenced by Japanese culture. Her work is muted and calm, with a lyrical sense of motion derived from her adopted home. She has taught at an immensely broad array of institutions, as she takes each spring off from the studio solely to teach.

    She produces mainly apparel and home decor, but has ventured into making felted jewelry. Her work is influenced from painterly sources, and its not hard to see the impact of calligraphy on her clothing.

    JORIE JOHNSON

    Johnsons color use is distinctly derived from the earthly relations of her craft, with rich browns and greys dominating her pallette.

    For more information about Jorie Johnson visit www.joirae.com.

    http://www.joirae.com/http://www.joirae.com/http://www.risd.edu/http://www.joirae.com/

  • Marjolein Dallinga is a Dutch textile artist who has lived in Canada since 1989. Always interested in found fabrics, she fell in love with the history and endless possibility that came with felting wool. Her work creates a new, mysterious world created in her imagination. These pieces emulate skin, formulating new creatures that could never exist in reality. Large, multicolored spikes protrude from the ground, a tree, or a human. Her work is notably inspired by Andy Goldsworthy, taking brilliant colors and connecting them with the landscape in a way that startles the mind. She also claims to take inspiration from FLUXUS artist Joseph Beuys, which makes sense due to the expansive use of felt in his art.

    Her work has been featured in the costumes and set design of Cirque du Soleil, and intense fashion and theatrical set design play a role in her designs. She creates many pieces of wearable art, playing with her concepts of grotesque, yet whimsical creatures, allowing the wearer to hide inside a world of fantasy and become something entirely new.

    To find out more about A costume by textile artist and designer Marjolein Dallinga visit www.bloomfelt.com.

    MARJOLEIN DALLINGA

    http://www.bloomfelt.com/

  • 100% organic. Benefits of wool

  • COMPLETELY NATURAL

    NATURAL: Wool is grown year-round by Australias 71 million sheep, consuming a simple blend of water, air, sunshine and grass.

    BIODEGRADABLE: When a wool fibre is disposed of, it will naturally decompose in soil in a matter of years, slowly releasing valuable nutrients back into the earth.

    RENEWABLE: Sheep produce a new fleece, making wool a completely renewable fibre.

  • REASSURINGLY SAFE

    FIRE RESISTANT: Wools inherent chemical structure makes wool naturally flame resistant. It is a highly trusted natural fibre in public areas such as hotels, aircraft, hospitals and theatres. Wool is harder to ignite than many common textile fibres. Whilst cotton catches alight at 255C, the temperature must reach 570-600C before wool will ignite; while polyester melts at 252-292C and nylon succumbs at an even lower 160-260C, wool never melts so it cant stick to the skin like many common synthetics.

    UV RESISTANCE: Merino wool clothing provides good protection from the sun, compared with the protection from other fibres. As a natural fibre, evolved over millions of years to protect sheep against the elements, Merino wool absorbs UV radiation providing protection from the sun. This makes it a good choice for a wide range of outdoor activities.

  • HEALTH BENEFITS

    There is pre-existing research which shows that wool, as a fibre, has a great story to tell. In addition, there is also active research under way

    promoting the health and wellbeing benefits of wool, strengthening the fibres environmental credentials. Science is showing that as well as being

    a natural, renewable and biodegradable fibre wool bedding and sleepwear appear to promote a better nights sleep, and fine wool knitwear can

    assist people that suffer from particular types of skin conditions. Consistent with earlier science findings, the early results from a study undertaken

    by the University of Sydney, Australia, are showing that wool sleeping apparel and bedding increases total sleep time, promotes sleep onset and

    improves sleep efficiency. Science is also showing that Merino wool assists those suffering from chronic skin conditions, and challenges

    misconceptions that wool is prickly and itchy.

    A dedicated research team at the Queensland Institute of Dermatology (QID) in Australia has been exploring the role that superfine Merino wool

    knitwear has in the treatment of chronic dermatitis conditions. A pilot study undertaken in 2012 by the QID team has shown that wearing suitably

    specified fine Merino wool products will not irritate the skins surface, but in fact benefit those suffering from skin conditions, such as atopic

    dermatitis. Merino wool has moisture and temperature management properties, and naturally assists regulation of body temperature. The inherent

    breathability and active moisture management properties of the fibre also help prevent the skin from becoming clammy, which can provide a more

    comfortable environment.

  • The study involves the collection of primary as well as secondary data. The primary data was collected from an online survey. For this purpose a questionnaire was prepared for obtaining necessary information. The form was made on Google Forms, an online site to conduct surveys. And as the research is descriptive as well as experimentative, samples have been made to have a thorough understanding of the objectives of the research.

    The secondary data relating to felt industry was collected from the recorded reports from the textiles artists blog and papers, published and unpublished literature and also internet source has been referred to. The secondary data was also collected from the websites of textile artists who practice felt making.

    The collected data was tabulated and analysed properly in accordance with the objectives of the present study. The collected data has been analysed and interpreted with the use of some statistical tools such as frequency distribution, percentage, mean, standard deviation to arrive at aforesaid objectives.

    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • ANALYSIS AND

    OBSERVATION

  • INTRODUCTION

    The online survey was conducted as a part of the textile related research report entitled JUST FELT IT. The survey was conducted to study the market and customer interest in felted fabrics and products. The survey was conducted on two different levels. Firstly it was conducted among the students who are in design colleges and later it was conducted among the age group of 20-40.

    A questionnaire was prepared of 6 questions which was made on Google Forms and then sent to the people for their responses. A total of 116 responses were received and then the analysis is based on the responses received.

    The link to the form is mentioned below.

    https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1cD5cMq-9gZU1TgbqkSTLA880uRxyAdvHM-UsehaO8s8/viewform

    The link to the summary of response is mentioned below.

    https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1cD5cMq-9gZU1TgbqkSTLA880uRxyAdvHM-UsehaO8s8/viewanalytics

    The survey form was made on October 16, 2015. The form was made by Zaiba Yasmeen, Textile design Student of Pearl Academy, New Delhi. The form was made to study the market and customer interest in felted fabrics and products as a part of Textile Related Research Report as

    part of the academic curriculum.

    https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1cD5cMq-9gZU1TgbqkSTLA880uRxyAdvHM-UsehaO8s8/viewformhttps://docs.google.com/forms/d/1cD5cMq-9gZU1TgbqkSTLA880uRxyAdvHM-UsehaO8s8/viewformhttps://docs.google.com/forms/d/1cD5cMq-9gZU1TgbqkSTLA880uRxyAdvHM-UsehaO8s8/viewanalyticshttps://docs.google.com/forms/d/1cD5cMq-9gZU1TgbqkSTLA880uRxyAdvHM-UsehaO8s8/viewanalytics

  • SURVEY QUESTIONS

    Do you know what felting is?

    This question was asked to know whether the audience know about felting process. For people to answer the questions later in the survey, they should know what the product is. The question was a multiple choice.

    OBSERVATIONMost of the people knew about felting, and the people who were not familiar with it were ready to use the felt products.

  • What products have you seen made from felted fabric?

    This question was asked to know what kind of felt products people have seen in the market and what all products are available in the market.

    This question was asked keeping in mind that what are the things which can be done with felt which will be different from the existing range of products in the market.

    OBSERVATIONThe other things which already exists are jewellery, stationery material, art work, toys, accessories and carpets.

  • Do you know what nuno felts are?

    This question was asked to know the awareness of nuno felts among people who already know what felt is.

    OBSERVATIONMost of the people does not know what what nuno felts are. So it would be interesting to launch the products made from nuno felts in the market. And as the product made by nuno felts have amazing textures and effects it would be a new experience among the people who know what felting is but they don't know what kind of interesting things can be made and what kind of amazing texture can be achieved when felt is combined with other fabrics.

  • Have you ever made or experiments with nuno felts?

    When asked this question only 1.8% have made or experimented with nuno felt out of 23.7%.

    OBSERVATIONOut of the 23.7% who know what nuno felts are, havent tried making it. So it hasnt actually been introduced in the market which gives an edge over the existing felt products.

  • What products do you think can be made from this fabric?

    When asked this question garments is the most popular option people opted for.

    OBSERVATIONThe most popular product among people made from this fabric are garments. So it will be more easier to sell garments rather than home decor products or home furnishings.

  • In your opinion, in which sector will felt find more application?

    This was asked to know in what sector people expect felt and nuno felts products more to make it easier to sell the product in the future.

    OBSERVATIONThe sector in which felt and nuno felt will be most popular is fashion industry mainly garments, accessories, and bags. But products made for home decor also have a chance. The limitation is that right now people dont see it apt for the home furnishings or home decor as these have a very delicate appearance.

  • SAMPLE

    INTERPRETATION

  • SAMPLE 1

    The first sample was made to understand how felting is done, to understand how wool fibres form a fabrics just by agitation in an alkaline medium.

    ProcessThe tufts of wool fibres were laid down on a bubble wrap side by side in a straight row. And then this was repeated until the required area was covered.To make the medium alkaline cool soapy water was sprinkled on the laid down fibres.And then the entire area was covered with plastic sheet and roller was placed at the end of the package and roll up tightly. Each end of the roll was tied firmly.Then the package was rolled 100-200 times backwards and forwards.

    The natural colour of the wool fibres have been used to make the felt. The fibres were laid down in 2 layers horizontally and vertically overlapping each layer.

  • SAMPLE 2

    The second sample was made to understand how to make a thicker felt and how long do we have to repeat the process for the fibres to open their scales and get entangled.

    ProcessThe tufts of wool fibres were laid down on a bubble wrap side by side in a straight row. And then this was repeated until the required area was covered.To make the medium alkaline cool soapy water was sprinkled on the laid down fibres.And then the entire area was covered with plastic sheet and roller was placed at the end of the package and roll up tightly. Each end of the roll was tied firmly.Then the package was rolled 400-500 times backwards and forwards.

    The undyed wool fibres were used to make this sample. The fibres were laid down horizontally and vertically in 4 layers overlapping each layer.

  • SAMPLE 3

    This sample was made to understand how to make felt giving it an ombre effect.

    ProcessThe wool fibre was dyed in different shades of blue.The tufts of wool fibres were laid down on a bubble wrap side by side in a straight row. And then this was repeated until the required area was covered.The tufts were laid down in such a manner that the resulting fabric comes out in an ombre effect, that is dark shades emerging towards lighter shades.To make the medium alkaline cool soapy water was sprinkled on the laid down fibres.And then the entire area was covered with plastic sheet and roller was placed at the end of the package and roll up tightly. Each end of the roll was tied firmly.Then the package was rolled 300-400 times backwards and forwards.

    The wool fibres were dyed in acid dyes. The wool fibres were laid down horizontally and vertically in 2 layers.

  • SAMPLE 4

    This sample was made to understand how wool nepps were made and what will be the texture of the final fabric when combined in making felt.

    ProcessThe tufts of the wool were rolled manually in soapy water to make wool nepps.The tufts of wool fibres were laid down on a bubble wrap side by side in a straight row. And then this was repeated until the required area was covered. And the wool nepps were placed on the laid out fibres and then covered with very thin layer of fibres.To make the medium alkaline cool soapy water was sprinkled on the laid down fibres.And then the entire area was covered with plastic sheet and roller was placed at the end of the package and roll up tightly. Each end of the roll was tied firmly.Then the package was rolled 200-300 times backwards and forwards.

    The wool fibres were dyes using acid dyes. The colours used were yellow, purple, two shades of green and blue. The fibres were laid down in 2 layers horizontally and vertically overlapping each layer.

  • SAMPLE 5

    This sample was made to understand how pencil roving will felt, as the felting area is very small and how will the grid structure will look.

    ProcessThe tufts of wool pencil roving were laid down on a bubble wrap side by side in a straight row. And then this was repeated until the required area was covered. And then the other were placed perpendicularly to make a grip like structure.To make the medium alkaline cool soapy water was sprinkled on the laid down fibres.And then the entire area was covered with plastic sheet and roller was placed at the end of the package and roll up tightly. Each end of the roll was tied firmly.Then the package was rolled 300-400 times backwards and forwards.

    The colours used was green. Only 1 layer of pencil roving was used. The wool fibres were dyed using acid dyes.

  • SAMPLE 6

    This sample was made to understand how two grids will felt together and what will be the stability of the fabric made.

    ProcessThe tufts of wool pencil roving were laid down on a bubble wrap side by side in a straight row. And then this was repeated until the required area was covered. And then the other were placed perpendicularly to make a grip like structure.The grid made with green wool fibre was 1/1 inches and the grid made by yellow wool fibres was 0.5-0.7 inchesTo make the medium alkaline cool soapy water was sprinkled on the laid down fibres.And then the entire area was covered with plastic sheet and roller was placed at the end of the package and roll up tightly. Each end of the roll was tied firmly.Then the package was rolled 300-400 times backwards and forwards.

    The colours used was yellow and green. Only 1 layer of pencil roving was used. The wool fibres were dyed using acid dyes.

  • SAMPLE 7

    This sample was made to understand how fancy wool yarn will felt with the wool fibres.

    ProcessThe tufts of wool fibres were laid down on a bubble wrap side by side in a straight row. And then this was repeated until the required area was covered.The fancy yarns were laid out on the wool fibres in a grid structure.To make the medium alkaline cool soapy water was sprinkled on the laid down fibres.And then the entire area was covered with plastic sheet and roller was placed at the end of the package and roll up tightly. Each end of the roll was tied firmly.Then the package was rolled 300-400 times backwards and forwards.

    Orange colour fancy yarns have been used. The natural colour of the wool fibres have been used to make the felt. The fibres were laid down in 2 layers horizontally and vertically overlapping each layer.

  • SAMPLE 8

    This sample was made to understand how cotton gauze will felt with the wool fibres.

    ProcessThe tufts of wool fibres were laid down on a bubble wrap side by side in a straight row. And then this was repeated until the required area was covered.The cotton gauzes were laid out on the wool fibres in a horizontally.To make the medium alkaline cool soapy water was sprinkled on the laid down fibres.And then the entire area was covered with plastic sheet and roller was placed at the end of the package and roll up tightly. Each end of the roll was tied firmly.Then the package was rolled 300-400 times backwards and forwards.

    Wool fibres have been dyed in acid dyes. Light blue colour wool fibres have been used to make the felt. The fibres were laid down in 2 layers horizontally and vertically overlapping each layer.

  • SAMPLE 9

    This sample was made to understand how silk chiffon fabric will felt with the wool fibres.

    ProcessThe tufts of wool fibres were laid down on a bubble wrap side by side in a straight row. And then this was repeated until the required area was covered.Silk chiffon fabric was laid out on the entire area.To make the medium alkaline cool soapy water was sprinkled on the laid down fibres.And then the entire area was covered with plastic sheet and roller was placed at the end of the package and roll up tightly. Each end of the roll was tied firmly.Then the package was rolled 300-400 times backwards and forwards.

    Wool fibres have been dyed in acid dyes. The fibres were laid down in 1 layers in arc like form. Light blue, white and purple colour wool fibres have been used to make the felt.

  • SAMPLE 10

    This sample was made to understand how cotton laces will felt with the wool fibres and pencil roving.

    ProcessThe tufts of wool fibres were laid down on a bubble wrap side by side in a straight row. And then this was repeated until the required area was covered.Cotton laces were laid onto the wool fibres horizontally and alternatively pencil roving were placed in zigzag way.To make the medium alkaline cool soapy water was sprinkled on the laid down fibres.And then the entire area was covered with plastic sheet and roller was placed at the end of the package and roll up tightly. Each end of the roll was tied firmly.Then the package was rolled 300-400 times backwards and forwards.

    The natural colour of the wool fibres have been used to make the felt. The fibres were laid down in 2 layers horizontally and vertically overlapping each layer.

  • SAMPLE 11

    This sample was made to understand how kota silk will felt with the wool fibres.

    ProcessThe tufts of wool fibres were laid down on a bubble wrap side by side in a straight row. And then this was repeated until the required area was covered and this was made into felt following the process used in making the first sample but it was rolled only 50-60 times.And when the felt has begun to get entangled. The desired design is cut and put on the kota silk fabric.To make the medium alkaline again cool soapy water was sprinkled on the laid down fibres.And then the entire area was covered with plastic sheet and roller was placed at the end of the package and roll up tightly. Each end of the roll was tied firmly.Then the package was rolled 300-400 times backwards and forwards.

    The natural colour of the wool fibres have been used to make the felt. The fibres were laid down in 2 layers horizontally and vertically overlapping each layer.

  • SAMPLE 12

    This sample was made to understand how net fabric will felt with the wool fibres.

    ProcessThe tufts of wool fibres were laid down on a bubble wrap side by side in a straight row. And then this was repeated until the required area was covered.The first layer of the fibres laid out was in purple colour and the second layer was of blue.Net fabric was cut into zigzag shape strips and then put onto the base felt.To make the medium alkaline cool soapy water was sprinkled on the laid down fibres.And then the entire area was covered with plastic sheet and roller was placed at the end of the package and roll up tightly. Each end of the roll was tied firmly.Then the package was rolled 300-400 times backwards and forwards.

    Wool fibres have been dyes in acid dyes. Purple and light blue colour of the wool fibres have been used to make the felt. The fibres were laid down in 2 layers horizontally and vertically overlapping each layer.

  • SAMPLE 13

    This sample was made to understand how silk net will felt with the wool fibres.

    ProcessThe tufts of green wool fibres were laid down on a bubble wrap side by side in a straight row. And then this was repeated until the required area was covered.Silk net was laid onto the base wool fibres.To make the medium alkaline cool soapy water was sprinkled on the laid down fibres.And then the entire area was covered with plastic sheet and roller was placed at the end of the package and roll up tightly. Each end of the roll was tied firmly.Then the package was rolled 300-400 times backwards and forwards.

    Wool fibres have been dyed in acid dyes. Green colour of the wool fibres have been used to make the felt. The fibres were laid down in 2 layers horizontally and vertically overlapping each layer.

  • SAMPLE 14

    This sample was made to understand how cut out designs of silk net will felt with the wool fibres.

    ProcessThe tufts of blue wool fibres were laid down on a bubble wrap side by side in a straight row. And then this was repeated until the required area was covered.Cut out designs of silk net were laid onto the base wool fibres.To make the medium alkaline cool soapy water was sprinkled on the laid down fibres.And then the entire area was covered with plastic sheet and roller was placed at the end of the package and roll up tightly. Each end of the roll was tied firmly.Then the package was rolled 300-400 times backwards and forwards.

    Wool fibres have been dyed in acid dyes. Light blue colour of the wool fibres have been used to make the felt. The fibres were laid down in 2 layers horizontally and vertically overlapping each layer.

  • SAMPLE 15

    This sample was made to understand how shrinkage of felt can be used to create textures.

    ProcessCotton crepe was laid down on the bubble wrap. And tufts of green wool were laid down on the fabric in a grid structure.To make the medium alkaline cool soapy water was sprinkled on the laid down fibres.And then the entire area was covered with plastic sheet and roller was placed at the end of the package and roll up tightly. Each end of the roll was tied firmly.Then the package was rolled 300-400 times backwards and forwards.The package was folded into a package, with wool on the inside and rubbed with soap.The package was thrown on the table gently for approximately 15-20 minutes.The package was refolded and the same steps were followed until the desired effect was obtained.

    Wool fibres have been dyed in acid dyes. Light green colour of the wool fibres have been used to make the felt. The result was obtained due to the shrinkage of the wool fibres, as wool shrinks but the fabric does not thus the result.

  • SAMPLE 16

    This sample was made to understand how wool will felt on loosely woven fabrics.

    ProcessWarp and weft of linen fabrics were removed to make the fabric very loose.And then the fabric was laid down on the bubble wrap and wool was laid down on the fabric in circular forms.To make the medium alkaline cool soapy water was sprinkled on the laid down fibres.And then the entire area was covered with plastic sheet and roller was placed at the end of the package and roll up tightly. Each end of the roll was tied firmly.Then the package was rolled 300-400 times backwards and forwards.

    Wool fibres have been dyes in acid dyes. Untwisted silk yarns have also been used. Natural colour of the wool fibres have been used to make the felt.

  • SAMPLE 17

    This sample was made to understand how wool will felt by rubbing and how silk fibres will felt with wool fibres.

    ProcessThe tufts of wool fibres were laid down on a bubble wrap side by side in a straight row. And then this was repeated until the required area was covered.Untwisted silk yarns and anchor embroidery threads were laids down on the wool tufts vertically. To make the medium alkaline cool soapy water was sprinkled on the laid down fibres.And then the entire area was covered with plastic sheet and roller was placed at the end of the package and roll up tightly. Each end of the roll was tied firmly. Then the package was rolled 400-500 times backwards and forwards.The fabric was folded into a package and covered with plastic sheets, dipped in soapy water and then rubbed manually by hands for approximately 15-20 minutes.The fabric was re-rolled and then same steps were repeated until the desired result was obtained.

    Anchor threads and untwisted yarns were used of silk yarns. Natural colour of the wool fibres have been used to make the felt.

  • LIMITATIONS

  • The limitation faced during the research project are

    In India there are no textile artists that are working with felt or nuno felts so it was hard to collect primary data. So I had to find the kind of objectives for my research so that wont be a problem.

    The major limitation faced was the time constraint. Three month is a very short time to research about felt and then make samples. It takes a lot of time to make felt and even more when different fabrics are combined with it.

    Another limitation faced was the limited varieties of wool tops. Different types of wool fibres react with different types of fabrics. As I had only one type of wool top it was a bit hard to make nuno felts with all kinds of fabrics.

    As the research was experimental at some point I got stuck because the samples were not coming out exactly the way I wanted. So I had ran out of ideas to experiment with it.

    The soap solution was also hard to make as there was no fixed quantity mentioned anywhere that was used to make felt. So every time I would end up with different solution and it was even harder to work with it as sometimes the solution would be soapy and other times it would be so mild.

  • CONCLUSION

  • As one of the object of the research was to study the future of nuno felts in Indian market. After conducting the survey I came to realise that the nuno felts will be very popular in the fashion industry. As most of the peoples responses felt can be used in home decor and home furnishings but nuno felts, as their delicate structure will more successful when used in garments. But people will be fascinated by the texture of it and the feel of it, so there is a possibility that it can also be popular in home decor.

    While making felt and then combining it with different fabrics I figured that not all the fabrics or yarns react in the same manner when felted. So I had to work accordingly.

    The wool fibres are easy to felt rather than wool yarn. But when felted together they behave in the same manner.

    As another of my objective it take less time to make accessories or scarves or stoles of felt but it take about the same time to make a finished product as for other fabrics.

    As this was a research project and I wanted to focus more on how the fabrics react when felted together rather than focusing on the design perspective of the same. So the samples are not design oriented they are more experimental.

  • ANNEXURE

  • Industries contacted for wool tops: Wool top sourced from

    -Gaurav Woollen Mills -M K Manufacturing Co. -A K WoollensOpp. Power Sub-Station Kabri Road No. 329, Industrial Area-A Shop No. 1267/1Panipat, Haryana Cheena Chowk, Ludhiana Opp. Central Bank132103 141003 Sadar Bazar.Ph: 08048112392 Ph: 09654210721 Ph: 09811040524

    -Dev Woollen Mills -Allied InternationalNo. 345, Industrial Area-A New Market, Lawrence RoadLudhiana, Punjab Amritsar, Punjab141003 143001Ph: 09953355356 Ph: 0183-221417

    -Bansal Wool -ESS ESS WOOLTEXF-26, Phase 7 834/1, Baba Gajja Jain ColonyLudhiana, Punjab Punjab, Ludhiana141010 141010Ph: 09317524508 Ph: 09988035100

    -Asian Woollen MillsSwaran Palace Road, SherpurKalan, Ludhiana, Punjab141008Ph: 09643202772

  • SURVEY

    FORM

  • RESPONSE

    SUMMARY

  • RESPONSES

  • BIBLIOGRAPHY

    BLOGS

    Willsford, A. 2012. Vilte nuno felt workshop in the Blue Mountains. 14 June 2012. F i b r e r e f l e c t i o n s. [Online]. [28 August 2015]. Available from: https://fibrereflections.wordpress.com/2012/06/14/vilte-nuno-felt-workshop-in-the-blue-mountains/

    Raissnia, M.A.R.Y. 2015. Turkotekcom. [Online]. [31 August 2015]. Available from: http://www.turkotek.com/salon_00104/salon.html

    Co-creator of textileartistorg, J.O.E. 2014. 5 Contemporary felt textile artists. 22 January 2014. TextileArtistorg. [Online]. [6 August 2015]. Available from: http://www.textileartist.org/5-contemporary-felt-textile-artists/

    Kippen, C. 2006. Chiropody Felt: A brief history. 15th February. Blogspotin. [Online]. [31 August 2015]. Available from: http://foottalk.blogspot.in/2006/02/felting.html

    And carpet, T.E.A. 2010. The World's Oldest Carpet Story: The Pazyryk. 27th February. Blogspotin. [Online]. [31 August 2015]. Available from: http://tea-and-carpets.blogspot.in/2010/02/worlds-oldest-carpet-story-pazyryk.html

    https://fibrereflections.wordpress.com/2012/06/14/vilte-nuno-felt-workshop-in-the-blue-mountains/https://fibrereflections.wordpress.com/2012/06/14/vilte-nuno-felt-workshop-in-the-blue-mountains/https://fibrereflections.wordpress.com/2012/06/14/vilte-nuno-felt-workshop-in-the-blue-mountains/http://www.turkotek.com/salon_00104/salon.htmlhttp://www.textileartist.org/5-contemporary-felt-textile-artists/http://www.textileartist.org/5-contemporary-felt-textile-artists/http://www.textileartist.org/5-contemporary-felt-textile-artists/http://foottalk.blogspot.in/2006/02/felting.htmlhttp://foottalk.blogspot.in/2006/02/felting.htmlhttp://foottalk.blogspot.in/2006/02/felting.htmlhttp://tea-and-carpets.blogspot.in/2010/02/worlds-oldest-carpet-story-pazyryk.htmlhttp://tea-and-carpets.blogspot.in/2010/02/worlds-oldest-carpet-story-pazyryk.htmlhttp://tea-and-carpets.blogspot.in/2010/02/worlds-oldest-carpet-story-pazyryk.htmlhttp://tea-and-carpets.blogspot.in/2010/02/worlds-oldest-carpet-story-pazyryk.html

  • BOOKS

    Quinn, B. 2013. India Flint. In: Sermon, G & Kaubi, L eds. Textile Visionaries. London: Laurence King Publishing, pp. 132-141 Smith, S (2013). Felt fabric designs. (1st ed.). London: Batsford. Smith, S (2006). Felt to Stitch. United Kingdom: Batsford

    WEBSITES

    Burkett, M.A.R.Y. c2007. International Feltmakers Association. [Online]. [2 August 2015]. Available from: http://www.feltmakers.com Electricpulpcom. 2015. Iranicaonlineorg. [Online]. [31 August 2015]. Available from: http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/felt Laufer, B. 1930. Early history of felt. American Anthropologist. [Online]. 32(1), 1-8. [31 August 2015]. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.

    wiley.com/store/10.1525/aa.1930.32.1.02a00020/asset/aa.1930.32.1.02a00020.pdf;jsessionid=666E5DD691F652EF8289FAFE4A9240C7.f03t01?v=1&t=idzmnmg9&s=50cf85d5732eb0f7dafe5aa728f8d1b776e8f3dd

    http://www.feltmakers.comhttp://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/felthttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1525/aa.1930.32.1.02a00020/asset/aa.1930.32.1.02a00020.pdf;jsessionid=666E5DD691F652EF8289FAFE4A9240C7.f03t01?v=1&t=idzmnmg9&s=50cf85d5732eb0f7dafe5aa728f8d1b776e8f3ddhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1525/aa.1930.32.1.02a00020/asset/aa.1930.32.1.02a00020.pdf;jsessionid=666E5DD691F652EF8289FAFE4A9240C7.f03t01?v=1&t=idzmnmg9&s=50cf85d5732eb0f7dafe5aa728f8d1b776e8f3ddhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1525/aa.1930.32.1.02a00020/asset/aa.1930.32.1.02a00020.pdf;jsessionid=666E5DD691F652EF8289FAFE4A9240C7.f03t01?v=1&t=idzmnmg9&s=50cf85d5732eb0f7dafe5aa728f8d1b776e8f3ddhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1525/aa.1930.32.1.02a00020/asset/aa.1930.32.1.02a00020.pdf;jsessionid=666E5DD691F652EF8289FAFE4A9240C7.f03t01?v=1&t=idzmnmg9&s=50cf85d5732eb0f7dafe5aa728f8d1b776e8f3dd