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  • JudaismThere is a distinction between Judaism and Jewish people since many Jewish people do not believe in Judaism

  • Judaism: A Chosen Nations TraditionJudaism became a religion of tradition, not the WordJudaism became a religion of the rabbis (not of the priesthood) around 200 BC and solidified at 70 AD.New institutions arose at that time such as The synagogue (the house of worship and study)The office of the rabbi (leader holding religious authority)The yeshivot (religious academies for training rabbis)In 70 AD when the Temple was destroyed and sacrifices ceased the priesthood came to an end, and the rabbis became the authoritiesThe rabbis wrote the Talmud, encyclopedic compendium of Jewish laws, interpretations and traditions from 1st-5th Cent AD

  • Judaisms origin and developmentThough God revealed Himself to Abraham, monotheism not practiced until post-exilic period due to apostasyIn exile the synagogue system was developedDespite corruption and fragmentation of Judaism, it was far superior to heathen religions

  • The Intertestamental PeriodAlexander the Great conquered Israel (332 BC), beginning hellenizationSeptuagint (LXX) translation of OT into Greek 250 BC by Jews in Alexandria and the philosophical writings of PhiloThe merging of Greek philosophy with Bible resulted in the sect of the Sadducees, which modified revelation with Greek rationalismOut of the Maccabean revolt against Antiochus Epiphanes repression came the Hasidim, which developed into the PhariseesBy Christs day the Herodians, the Zealots and the Essenes had developed rival sects

  • The Great Dispersion and the TalmudThe failure of the Jewish revolt against Rome in 66 AD and the destruction of Jerusalem threatened survival of IsraelOnly the sect of the Pharisees survivedRabbi Zakkai wrote down the oral traditions and laws, which developed into the Palestinian Talmud (Mishneh) by 220 ADAfter failure of revolt of 135 AD, Babylon became the center of Jewish population and scholarship, resulting in the Babylonian Talmud by the 5th Cent AD63 volumes of tradition have become central to Jewish survival

  • Medieval PersecutionChristian treatment of Jews deteriorated after ConstantineJews prospered in Baghdad until 11th CentIn Spain, under the Moors, Jews prospered in the golden age of science, religion and philosophyThere the Karaite movement developed to return to follow the OTMoses Maimonides, systematized the Mishneh into 13 cardinal principles, now in the Jewish prayer bookCrusades revived the persecution of Jews forcing them East: expelled from Britain (1290), France (1394) and Spain (1492)

  • Modern PersecutionLuther at first favored winning the Jews, but later hardened his attitude resulting in persecution in GermanyCossack pogroms (mob riots) in Poland slaughtered 500kThe Enlightenment of 1848 saw the release of Jews from the ghettosReform Judaism, repudiated Talmud and Messianism, flourished in the WestAnti-Semitism caused Theodore Hertzl to advocated Zionism in 1896British Balfour Declaration in WWI recognized Palestine as national home for JewsAfter Nazi holocaust the UN recognized State of Israel in 1948

  • Contemporary Jewish DoctrinesSince the 18th cent, three main branches of Judaism developed:Orthodox Judaism: hold to divine inspiration of the OT, esp. the Torah (Pentateuch). Observe traditional Jewish law. An ultra conservative group is the Hasidic movement, which adheres strictly to the law of Moses and is a separatist group.Reform Judaism is the liberal wing. Founded in Germany around 1850 by Abraham Geiger. He was influenced by the Enlightenment so he viewed reason and science as authority. He rejects revelation, messianic hope and the promise land. The primary focus is the ethical teaching of the Jewish law. Conservative Judaism is an intermediate position founded by Zacharias Frankel around 1850. They seek to practice the Law and the traditions, but reinterpret the Law and adapt their practices to contemporary culture.

  • Contemporary Jewish DoctrinesTorah essential the books of Moses, considered all Jewish teaching, legislation, practices and traditionOT not seen as more authoritative then bulk of rabbinic teachings or Talmud, included the Mishnah (legal rulings from around 200 AD) and Gemara (elaborates the Mishnah from around 550 AD). Most consider the Mishnah helpful but not inspired.They reject the doctrine of the Trinity and teach a unified monotheism or Unitarian, emphasizing His singleness, though misunderstanding the composite unity of Dt 6:4Teaches that man is created in the image of God, but does not see humanity as fallen, emphasizing original righteousnessthough acknowledging evil inclination and individual sins, they reject original sin. Study of the Torah can overcome our inclination to evil.Sin is a deficiency that can be remedied by study.

  • Contemporary Jewish DoctrinesWithout a sacrificial system, repentance, prayer and active kindness are substitutesA proper relationship with God can come through repentance, prayer and obedience to the law. Jews do not need Salvation since they already have a relationship with God through their heritage. Conservatives and Reform Jews view salvation as the betterment of self and society. Jews inherit heaven by right through the covenant with AbrahamSome see the suffering of Israel fulfilling the suffering of the MessiahDay of Atonement (Yom Kippur) is the focal point of repentance and confession of sinPresent Life is precious gift, but life after death is vague with little notion of resurrection

  • Practices of JudaismMajority of 20 million Jews today are non-religiousReligious Jews in three categories:Orthodox religion of Talmud and traditionReformModernizing Talmud, as LiberalsConservativeattempts compromise betweenSynagogue is center for worshipHome is key to Sabbath and Passover Seder (order) ritualsCircumcision on the eighth day for boysBar Mitzvah for boys/ Bat Mitzvah for girls which celebrates the thirteenth birthdayJewish weddingFuneral service and mourning for seven days

  • Practices of JudaismFocus on Festivals of Jewish sacred year. They memorialize key events in the history of the Jewish people and honor their unique heritage: Passover (Pesach) Commemorates Gods deliverance from Egypt -- March or AprilPentecost seven weeks after Passover, celebrates the giving of the law at Mt. SinaiTabernacles (Succoth) Fall celebrates the 40 years wandering in the desertNew Year (Rosh Ha-Shana), in September-October marks the beginning of a ten-day period known as High Holy Days. Climaxes on the tenth day calledDay of Atonement (Yom Kippor) everyone fasts, attends the synagogue, recite prayers asking God for forgiveness of their sinsDedication (Hanukkah) honors the victory of the Maccabees over the Syrian armies of Antiochus Epiphanes and the rededication of the second Jerusalem Temple in 165 BC. The lighting of the eight branched menorah is themain feature of this celebration. When Israel was reestablished as a nation in 1948, the menorah became a national symbol. and Purim February/March celebrates the deliverance of the Jews by God told in the story of Esther.

  • Witnessing to the JewsFirst build friendships with Jews and learn from themUnderstand the Jewish perception of Christians and ChristianityTo become a Christian he must reject his/her heritage and distinctivenessHe feels he must become a GentileMany feel resentment for mistreatment by Christians and gentile nationsAfter building trust, encourage them to read their own Scriptures. Few study OT or messianic propheciesRefer to Isa 53 they are taught this refers to Israel, but a review of context points to JesusRefer to Dan 9 when properly calculated, predicts accurately the Messiah in Jerusalem in AD 33. Encourage them to read Matthew, written for Jewish reader

  • Witnessing to the JewsImages in the OT and festivals that point to JesusLamb of God sacrificed and its blood painted on the door to identify and protect the Israelites from Angel of DeathNum 9, the Passover Lamb was without blemish, no broken bones when sacrificed (Num 9:12)This foreshadowed Christ, the unblemished Lamb of God, lived a sinless life, who shed his blood to cover the believer and deliver us from sin and death. The Romans were going to break Jesus leg, but He was already dead, thus meets the requirementsAcknowledgment of Jesus as Messiah, but also one must trust exclusively the atoning work of Jesus death as full payment for their sins for a right relationship with God

  • Promises for the ChosenAre the Jews Gods chosen people? What is their role in Gods plan for the world? -- the answer in the covenantsAbrahamic Covenant (Gen 12): promises he will be the father of a great nation descendents will own Canaan forever those who bless Israel will be blessed the world would be blessed through Israelbut her disobedience warped her purposeLand Covenant (Deut 30) were warned if they were not obedient, they would be scattered from the land, then would be regathered when they return to the Lord.Davidic Covenant (2 Sam 7:11) a descendent of David would establish an eternal rule of peace and righteousness. This is the basis of the hope of Israel who will deliver Israel from the rule of the Gentiles and fulfill the Abrahamic covenant.

  • Promises for the ChosenNew Covenant (Jer 31:31-34) promised to put the law of God in their minds and hearts. Israel was unable to obey because they depended on their own strength. What they needed was a new heart and empowerment to live the law. Several aspects of the covenants have been fulfilled Abrahams descendents have become a nationChrist was the descendent of David and fulfilled the law making it possible to know GodIsrael has yet to possess the land in peace and a Davidic kingdom is yet to be establis


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