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CHAPTER3 SECTION 4: Judaism
SECTION 2: HinduismOTHER
Buddhism, Islam and New Religions/No Religion
The earliest historical reference to the Jewish people comes from the Torah. It describes their exodus from Egypt to Canaan.
Most Historians cite the earliest Jews to exist from around 2000BC.
The Early Origins
Refers to the first five books in the the Hebrew bible, but, can also refer to all all of the Jewish texts.
Christians call the Torah the Old Testament.
Ancient PalestineThe Hebrew people settled in Canaan, a land they believed was promised to them by God. This land was later named Palestine.
AbrahamBorn in Ur, 1800 BC
Creates a covenant, or a promise with god that if he leaves his house god would provide him with a nation.
He was the first one to begin teaching people that there is only one god, monotheism, until then, polytheism was the main belief.
(Attempted) Sacrifice of SonIn order to prove his faith to god, Abraham was asked to sacrifice his son, Isaac.
Abraham agreed to do so, right before the sacrifice, god accepts Abrahams loyalty and allows his son to live.
MOSES & THE EXODUS
The Hebrew bible states that the Israelites migrated to Egypt because of droughts and a threat of famine.
Originally, the Hebrews were accepted, but eventually they were forced into slavery.
MOSES LEADS THE WAY
Let My People Go
Moses around 1300-1200 leads the Israelites out of slavery and helps lead.
-At Mount Sinai Moses prays and speaks to god and brings down two stone tablets in which god gives him the Ten Commandments.
-The Hebrews would return to where Abraham lived in Canaans.
First four minutes + 1:21:00 to 1:47:00
The Kingdom of IsraelCanaan, the land the Jewish people migrated to, had very hard conditions.
Water was never plentiful.
Kingdom of Israel 1020-922BC
-The First King was Saul, followed by King David.
-Around 962BC, Solomon takes over. He was the most powerful of the three Kings. He built many temples in Jerusalem, he also built a royal palace near these temples.
-Many of Solomons buildings strained the Kingdoms finances and required many men for labor. As a result, upon his death the Kingdom divided in two.
Those in the South revolted against those in the North and two new territories were established.
The north was eventually destroyed leaving only the south, thus, the term
Judaism, derives from Judah.
Assyria / BabylonianFrom around 738BC, Judah/Israel had began paying tribute, peace money to a stronger empire, Assyria. By paying tribute, they hoped to maintain peace.
However, despite tributes, the Assyrians came in and conquered Israel. Israel fell by 722BC to the Assyrians. Judah fell around 570BC to the Babylonians.
Following the Assyrians conquest, the Babylonians would take over the Assyrians, also taking over what was Israel and Judah in the process.
By 586BC Solomon's temples in Jerusalem was destroyed and many of the survivors were exiled to Babylon. There was a small positive event in 539BC where the Persian King Cyrus the Great allowed some Jewish people to go back to Jerusalem to rebuild temples, but most remained in Babylon.
Jewish people still honor
Jewish Roman Wars 66-135 ADIn 66-70BC, Jerusalem is under control by the Romans (more to come in Q2) In the failed revolt, one million Jewish people are killed and around 100,000 enslaved.
This ended with the destruction of Jewish Temples, and scattering the Jewish population across Europe.
JUMP FORWARD ALMOST TWO THOUSAND YEARS.
1918-1947 British RuleFollowing the fall of the Ottoman Empire, the British took over Jerusalem starting 1918.
The British begin to accept more Jewish people into the area during this time, drawing criticism and attacks from neighboring nations.
The Jewish population increases by over 300,000 people.
1947 UN Partition PlanA creation of an independent Arab and Jewish state.
The Jewish population accepted the proposal, the Arab states did not.
Leading into an immediate civil war.
1948-49 Arab-Israeli WarThe Israelis won the war.
Israel took 50% of the land which was formerly given to Palestine.
Before 1947 1947 Partition Plan 1967 after civil war 2005
Fighting continues today between Israel & Palestine
Illegal Israeli Settlements
Walls in West bank
Rocket attacks into Israel
Where do Jews live today?
Dietary RulesKashrut, refers to the foods that Jewish people cannot consume. Sometimes, referred to as Kosher.
Jewish people may not eat shellfish, pork, mixing milk with meat.
Chanukah-Eight day Festival,
-Celebrating Jewish victory over the Greeks,
-One candle is lit each day, in many nations people receive one present each day,
-The date is close to Christmas.
ISRAEL & PALESTINE 2223 CRASH COURSEhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1wo2TLlMhiw