Judaism, Early Christianity, and Islam The Spirit of Monotheism.

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Judaism, Early Christianity, and Islam The Spirit of Monotheism Slide 2 The Judaic Tradition Judaism preceded the Christian faith Great influence on Western civilization Monotheistic religion Old Testament--mans relationship with God Slide 3 History and the Israelites Patriarchs David (c.1000-961 B.C.) Solomon (961-922 B.C.)Temple of Jerusalem Babylonian exile (587-450 B.C.) Aramaic, the Devil Return to Palestine, Temple rebuilt Herod d. 4 B.C. Diaspora, persecution Slide 4 The Hebrew Bible Yaweh Bible transmitted orally until 1,000 B.C Torah-- instruction Prophets--duty to God Writings-- psalms, wisdom Slide 5 Book of Job Apocalypse-- coming of the messiah: overthrow foreign rulers, restore glories of King David. Slide 6 The Rise of Christianity By 400, Christianity religion of Roman Empire Forgiveness of sins, everlasting life after death: Sermon on the Mount Peter given the keys; first pope Slide 7 Jesus of Nazareth Love one another, forsake material goods Teacher: parables From his death came the beginning of the new religious faith Slide 8 The Growth of Christianity Paul (d. 64?) Roman army sacked Jerusalem destroyed Second Temple.(70) Gospels written after 70 Christianity separate from Judaism in 2nd century. Eucharist: Christs last supper Slide 9 Early Christianity Baptism: a new beginning Constantine: baptism before death New Testament written in Greek Pauls letters followed by four gospels Early Christians worshipped in catacombs Catacomb wall paintings depicted religious scenes Slide 10 Christianity in the Late Roman Empire Christianitys equality before God was attractive to slaves and the poor Art--blend of Christian figures and classical style: Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus. Symbols--ikons: sacred images Slide 11 Constantine and Christianity Constantines dream In this sign you will conquer. Spread Christianity throughout the Roman Empire By the 5th century, the Christian church was the most powerful institution in the world. Slide 12 Christian Philosophy Pagan philosophies: Manicheanism and Neoplatonism Hypatia: killed by Christian zealots Library at Alexandria burned Eventually classical beliefs were synthesized into the Churchs beliefs. Patristic tradition: Four Fathers of Church Slide 13 Augustine of Hippo Christian soul always at war with itself. Original sin Romes sacking in 410 was blamed on Christians not doing civic duties Augustine asked Christians to obey the state Slide 14 The Christian Empires:Rome and Byzantium Grand new capital of Roman Empire: Constantinople in Turkey Rome, sacked by barbarians went into decline and turmoil Difference in the Christian Greek Church: Byzantine Orthodox and the Latin: Catholic. Slide 15 St. Peters and the Pope St. Peters was built over the saints tomb outside Rome Basilica-style structure for early churches Narthex, aisles, nave, transept and apse Rome moved to Ravenna; 476, last Roman emperor abdicated to the Goths Pope supreme authority of the Roman Church Slide 16 Justinian and the Byzantine World Byzantine Empire stable: Church under the rule of the emperor Emperor Justinian, 6th century, reformed Roman law, fostered culture; co-ruled with wife Theodora Commissioned the Hagia Sophia: Largest church in Christendom Slide 17 Hagia Sophia Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus: built it in 6 yearsrebuilt after fire destroyed it. Domed basilica: rectangular hall with a dome in the center. Pendentive construction. Dome: 180 feet in height Intricate decoration, mosaics, windows, gold. Slide 18 Ravenna: Showcase of the Christian Arts Mosaic representations of Bible stories SantApollinaire Nuovo: Procession of Virgin Martyrs Christ depicted as royalty--to please royal patrons Decline of naturalism-- spiritual, symbolic representation Slide 19 San Vitale of Ravenna San Vitale: truly Byzantine; central plan Second story gallery for female worshippers Mosaics of Justinian and Theodora Royal power and Church power Slide 20 Christianity and the Arts Struggle of early church against music and theater Music, associated with paganism, banned from Christian worship Vocal music: Chants: Gregorian chants (plainchant or plainsong) Monophonic until the 12th century Boethius Slide 21 The Christians and Theater Actors could not be baptized Virtually disappeared from society until the 10th century Iconoclasm: Icons removed from Byzantine churches and destroyed Struggles between the Christian faith and creative arts Slide 22 The Rise of Islam Founded by the prophet Muhammad (570- 632) Began in the Arabian peninsula and spread as far west as Spain and as far east as Pakistan by the 8 th century. The Quran contains the revelations to Muhammad from Allah. Slide 23 Five Pillars of Islam Bearing witness to Allah as the one true God Prayer performed five times daily facing Mecca Giving alms to the poor and Islamic state Fasting performed during the holy month of Ramadan Pilgrimage (or hajj) to the Qaaba in Mecca Slide 24 Islamic Arts and Science Mosques Typical decorations arabesques Medicine practiced, surgery Mathematics number system based on zero, algebra Centers preserved classical learning

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