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_______________________________________________________

Chad

Children and Security

Jeff Schneider

November 20, 2014

1Table of Contents

Acronyms.......................................................................................................................................2

Overview........................................................................................................................................3

Context...............................................................................................................................4

Conflict...............................................................................................................................5

Stakeholders...................................................................................................................................7

The Chadian National Army (ANT)...................................................................................7

Armed Opposition Forces...................................................................................................9

United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT)..........9

The Current Situation...................................................................................................................10

Child Soldiers...................................................................................................................11

Case Study.............................................................................................................11

Trafficking........................................................................................................................11

Case Study............................................................................................................12

National and International Law: Child Protection.......................................................................13

International Law..............................................................................................................13

National Law....................................................................................................................13

Historical Timeline......................................................................................................................13

Endnotes......................................................................................................................................182Acronyms

ANT

Chadian National Army

BINUCAUnited Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in the Central African Republic

CAR

Central African Republic

CRC

United Nations Conventions on the Rights of the Child

CSPA

Child Soldiers Prevention Activities

DDR

Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration

FUC

United Front for Democratic Change

IDP

Internally Displaced Person

JEM

Justice and Equality Movement

MINURCATUnited Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad-Sudan

MISCAAfrican-led International Support Mission to the Central African Republic

PPT

Chad Progressive Party

RFC

Gathering of Forces for Change

SLA

Sudan Liberation Army

UFDD

United Forces for Development and Democracy

UFR

Union of Resistance Force

UN

United Nations

UNICEFUnited Nations Children's Fund

3Overview

Despite many years of international condemnation, the use and recruitment of child soldiers remains a growing problem around the world. In 2013, alone, it was reported by United Nations (UN) that more than 4,000 child soldier cases were documented and thousands of other children were presumed to have been used and recruited.1 Throughout Chads recent conflict, the government and opposition forces have both forcibly conscripted and deployed children. Recently, the UN Secretary General identified 51 armed groups and 16 countries who use and recruit child soldiers.2

The exploitation of child combatants is primarily concentrated in Africa. Nine of the sixteen countries named by the Secretary General are from this region and include: Central African Republic (CAR), Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Mali, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Uganda.

Not only are child soldiers being used but trends have indicated that conflict-affected countries are riddled with significant child rights violations. In particular, there are six grave violations that the UN Secretary General has outlined that need to be focused on, responded to and prevented as they all usually transpire simultaneously (the killing and maiming of a child, recruitment and use of children, attacks against schools and hospitals, rape and sexual violence, abduction, and denial of humanitarian access).3 Chad is known to have one of the most prominent armed forces in Africa, and they have been known to use child soldiers in both their armed forces as well as armed opposition groups. An officer in the Chadian army explains that child soldiers are ideal because they don't complain, they expect to be paid and if you tell them to kill, they kill.4

In order to ensure clarity in discussions surrounding child soldiers, the international community has collaborated to outline definitions, standards, and laws. According to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), a child is defined as a human being below eighteen years of age.5 A child soldier is defined as:

any person below 18 years of age who is or who has been recruited or used by an armed force or armed group in any capacity, including but not limited to children, boys and girls, used as fighters, cooks, porters, messengers, spies or for sexual purposes. It does not only refer to a child who is taking or has taken a direct part in hostilities.6Thus, a child soldier is not necessarily an individual who actively participates in a confrontation with a weapon; since children are susceptible to being coerced or duped into a variety of different roles. Under international humanitarian law and the International Criminal Court (ICC) it is also emphasized that 4conscripting or enlisting children 15 years old or younger or having them actively partake in armed-conflict is a war crime.7 Unfortunately, it is difficult to verify a childs age; as child soldiers do not have any birth records or documentation.

In many lower economic countries, such as Chad, the fundamental right of birth registration is not a norm. A disproportionately small number of childrens births are registered in Africa as there is a lack of knowledge on registering a childs birth and functioning birth registration systems.8 A birth certificate is a line of defense against underage military recruitment. Therefore, the lack of birth registration systems increases the risk of armed-conflict child conscription.

The use and recruitment of child soldiers is a complex societal issue; however, nations from around the globe have come to a consensus: it is essential to protect children from the hostilities of war. By nature children are vulnerable and every task a child soldier is compelled to act affects their physical and mental well-being. Despite visible global efforts to prevent armed-conflict child recruitment, the problem still exists and perpetrators are not being held accountable to the degree that international law has prescribed. To end the victimization of children, it is essential that the recruitment and use of child soldiers is eliminated.Context

Since gaining independence from France in 1960, Chad has had at times some difficulty maintaining stability. There have been numerous civil wars throughout it's history due in part to ethnic and religious tensions. The country has had many issues with it's leaders, beginning with President Francois Tombalbaye. Tombalbaye ran an autocratic style government combined with a distrust of democracy and banned all political parties except his own, the Chadian Progressive Party (PPT). Tombalbaye created tensions across the country, often discriminating against the central and northern regions of Chad, and was extremely harsh with his opponents. Tombalbaye was killed during a coup by N'Djamena's gendarmerie, leading up to the rule of Hissne Habr who had similar ruling styles as Tombalbaye and was involved in the Chadian-Libyan Conflict during the 1980's.

Idriss Dby, Chad's current president, overthrew Habr and took control of government in 1990. Dby was met with resistance and was attacked by opposition forces several times as well as multiple coup attempts. In 1996, a new constitution was approved and the first multiparty presidential election was held, in which Dby won. Dby was met with major rebel offensives for the next decade until peace accords in 2002 and 2003 ended most of the fighting. Dby's government has appeared to be making progress by promoting peace and opportunity for economic disparity but there is still a reality

5of corruption and repressive regime9.

Dby and his administration have been known for repressing individual rights and freedoms as well as the Chadian forces committing serious human rights abuses. He was accused of election fraud as well by his opponents. The economic prosperity he promised has dissipated and the revenue from the oil industry is mostly used for weapons to combat rebel forces rather than support social and economic programs and further development of the country. In 2006, the World Bank froze Chad's bank accounts until the government reached a deal that 70% of revenues would be