Job Satisfaction as Predictor of Life Satisfaction

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The present study aims to find out the job-satisfaction and life satisfaction of the government and private lecturers of Jammu district. A total of 60 lecturers (30 male and 30 female) were selected using random sampling technique. The data was obtained through questionnaires which were administered personally. Results indicated a significant difference in the job-satisfaction of government and private college lecturers with government college lecturers having higher job-satisfaction. Government and private college lecturers do not differ significantly on life-satisfaction scores. A significant positive correlation between job-satisfaction and life-satisfaction of overall sample was found. Positive correlation between these two variables has important implications for managers and supervisors

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Job Satisfaction as predictor of Life Satisfaction: A study on Lecturers in Govt. & Private Colleges in Jammu.Dr. Arti Bakhshi (Reader) Kuldeep Kumar (JRF) Ph. 09469212552, e-mail: kkmalhotra1@yahoo.co.in Shallu Sharma (Res. Scholar) Ambica Sharma (Res. Scholar) University of Jammu.

AbstractThe present study aims to find out the job-satisfaction and life satisfaction of the government and private lecturers of Jammu district. A total of 60 lecturers (30 male and 30 female) were selected using random sampling technique. The data was obtained through questionnaires which were administered personally. Results indicated a significant difference in the jobsatisfaction of government and private college lecturers with government college lecturers having higher job-satisfaction. Government and private college lecturers do not differ significantly on life-satisfaction scores. A significant positive correlation between jobsatisfaction and life-satisfaction of overall sample was found. Positive correlation between these two variables has important implications for managers and supervisors

Keywords: Job-Satisfaction, Life-Satisfaction, Lecturers

Job Satisfaction as predictor of Life Satisfaction: A study on Lecturers in Govt. & Private Colleges in Jammu. IntroductionJob satisfaction or Employee Satisfaction (also referred to as morale) is one of the most used variables in Organizational Behavior. It is an employee's attitudinal response to his or her organization. As an attitude, job satisfaction is summarized in evaluative component and comprised of cognitive, affective, behavioral components. As with all attitudes, the relationship between satisfaction and behavior, most specifically job performance and membership, is complex. Job satisfaction plays an important role in determining the quality of ones life. If one is satisfied with ones job, it will boost ones morale and one will always aspire to rise further in life. Job satisfaction not only improves quality of life but it also makes a person more confident & secures future. Job satisfaction also brings to fore ones hidden potential which otherwise would have remained untapped if one is dissatisfied with job. A steady & a secure job give a person the much needed financial security which is directly linked to a life full of contentment and satisfaction. The job become more gratifying if one get a job of ones own choice and one enjoy work to the best of ones abilities. Thus, a job in which a person is satisfied makes him or her happy, prosperous, financially secure and gives much needed life satisfaction.

Operational definitions of the terms usedJob-satisfactionJob-satisfaction is an employee's attitudinal response to his or her organization. As an attitude, job satisfaction is summarized in evaluative component and comprised of cognitive, affective, behavioral components. As with all attitudes, the relationship between satisfaction and behavior, most specifically job performance and membership, is complex. But for the present study the level of job-satisfaction was measured in two types of areasjob-intrinsic (factors residing in the job itself) and job-extrinsic (factors lying outside the job).job-intrinsic area was further conceptualized as job-concrete (say: excursions, working conditions etc.) and job-abstract (say: cooperating, democratic functioning etc.); and job-extrinsic areas as consisting of three components, viz., psycho-social aspects, financial aspects and community/nation growth aspect.

Life-satisfactionThe term life satisfaction indicates general well being. It has been defined as the function of the physical, psychological and social well being of an individual. In other words life satisfaction is the physical fitness (actual and perceived by an individual) and psychological health as the leisure activities and social support network derived from the environment by an individual.

Objectives1. To study the job- satisfaction of govt. and private college lecturers. 2. To study the life- satisfaction of govt. and private college lecturers. 3. To study the relationship between life- satisfaction and job- satisfaction of govt. and private college lecturers.

Hypothesis1. There will be significant difference in job- satisfaction of govt. and private college lecturers. 2. There will be significant difference in life- satisfaction of govt. and private college lecturers. 3. There will be significant correlation between job-satisfaction and life- satisfaction of govt. and private college lecturers. .

Significance of the studyJob-satisfaction and life- satisfaction of an individual are closely related to each other. Jobsatisfaction leads to life- satisfaction which brings in its wake a positive impact on ones life. A person who is wholly satisfied with his job is bubbling with positive energy, vigor, selfconfidence, ever ready to delve further into his choice field of study. As per the maxim, nothing succeeds like success. A self confident person achieves one success after another and aims higher and higher in his life because job satisfaction has given him or her much needed confidence to achieve satisfaction in life.

SampleThe sample for the present study consists of lecturers of various private and government colleges of Jammu district. A total of 60 lecturers were selected using random sampling technique. 30 lecturers (15 male &15 female) were selected from government colleges. Similarly, 30 lecturers (15 male &15 female) were selected from private colleges.

Tools used:Job-satisfaction Scale developed by Dr. Amar Singh and Dr. T.R.Sharma. Life-satisfaction scale developed by Dr. Promila Singh and Dr. George Joseph.

VariablesIndependent Variable: Type of College (Government/Private) & gender. Dependent Variable: Job Satisfaction and Life Satisfaction.

Statistical toolsThe SPSS 12 will be used to analyse the obtained data.

Results and DiscussionTABLE-I SUMMARY TABLE SHOWING THE MEAN AND S.D. OF JOBSATISFACTION AND LIFE-SATISFACTION SCORES OF COLLEGE LECTURERS

Type of college Pvt.

Gender Female

Male

Total

Govt.

Female

Male

Total

Total

Female

Male

Total

N Mean Std. Deviation N Mean Std. Deviation N Mean Std. Deviation N Mean Std. Deviation N Mean Std. Deviation N Mean Std. Deviation N Mean Std. Deviation N Mean Std. Deviation N Mean Std. Deviation

Job-satisfaction 15 125.6000 6.79075 15 124.4667 6.57774 30 125.0333 6.59406 15 131.2000 7.59887 15 129.1333 7.59574 30 130.1667 7.53879 30 128.4000 7.63206 30 126.8000 7.37377 60 127.6000 7.48377

Life-satisfaction 15 149.5333 10.77608 15 148.6000 10.82194 30 149.0667 10.62182 15 150.5333 10.88161 15 148.5333 10.88161 30 149.5333 10.74062 30 150.0333 10.65277 30 148.5667 10.66313 60 149.3000 10.59309

TABLE-II COMPARISON OF THE MEANS OF JOB-SATISFACTION AND LIFESATISFACTION OF MALE AND FEMALE LECTURERS

Variables t-test for Equality of Means t Job-satisfaction Life-satisfaction Equal variances assumed Equal variances assumed -0.826 -0.533 df 58 58 Sig. (2-tailed) 0.012 0.596 Mean Difference -1.60000 -1.46667 Std. Error Difference 1.93753 2.75187

TABLE-III COMPARISON OF THE MEANS OF JOB-SATISFACTION AND LIFESATISFACTION OF GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE LECTURERS

Variables t Job-satisfaction Life-satisfaction Equal variances assumed Equal variances assumed 2.807 0.169 df 58 58

t-test for Equality of Means Sig. (2-tailed) 0.007 0.866 Mean Difference 5.13333 0.46667 Std. Error Difference 1.82861 2.75792

TABLE IV CORRELATION BETWEEN JOB-SATISFACTION AND LIFE-SATISFACTION

Variables Job-satisfaction

Life-satisfaction 0.505**

Table-I shows that female private college lecturers have higher job-satisfaction (M= 125.6, SD= 6.79) than male (M= 124.4, SD= 6.50). However the difference is not statistically significant at 0.05 level of significance. Similar is the case in government colleges; females are high on jobsatisfaction (M= 131.2, SD= 7.59) than male lecturers (M= 129.13, SD= 7.5). This is due to the fact that for most of the women doing job is a matter of choice and not necessity as for male and moreover, they are doing extra role besides their primary role of home making. This produces in them a sense of achievement and a raised self esteem which in turn raises their job-satisfaction. The overall job-satisfaction of the female lecturers in the total sample (M= 128.4, SD= 7.63) is higher than their male counterparts (M= 120.8, SD= 7.37) and as the t-test (Table II) indicates this difference is statistically significant (t = -0.82, p< 0.05) at 0.0.5 level of significance. The results also indicate that female lecturers have higher life-satisfaction scores in both government and private colleges as compared to male lecturers. However t-table (table III) shows that there is no significant difference (t = 0.169, p > 0.05) in the life-satisfaction of male and female, government as well as private college lecturers. From Table IV, it is clear that there is a positive correlation (0.505) between job-satisfaction and life satisfaction of overall sample. It indicates that as the job satisfaction of an individual increases so does the life satisfaction of an individual. Thus it is clear that job-satisfaction is an important factor that determines the life-satisfaction of an individual. However, the obtained results and the methodology used do not permit us to conclude that there is a causal relationship between these two variables. Thus, there may not be direct relationship between job-satisfaction and life satisfaction but it may effect the life satisfaction through its effect on various other variables such as quality of life, social network, support etc. which contributes positively to the life-satisfaction of an individual.

Result clearly shows that there is a significant difference in job-satisfaction of male and female college lecturers and also there is a positive correlation between job-satisfaction and lifesatisfaction, still there is no significant difference in the life satisfaction of male and female lecturers. These results simply conclude that job satisfaction is not the only factor that determines the life-satisfaction of an individual but there are other factors too.

Conclusions of the study There is a significant difference in the job-satisfaction of government and private college lecturers with government college lecturers having higher job-satisfaction. Government and private college lecturers do not differ significantly on life-satisfaction scores. There is a significant positive correlation between job-satisfaction and life-satisfaction of overall sample.

Limitations of the study1. The study was restricted to the colleges of Jammu Province only. 2. A sample of 60 makes it difficult to generalize the results. 3. The data was obtained through questionnaire and it has its own limitations.

References:Chadha, N.K. & Kanwara, P. (1993). Quality of life among aged Indians. Journal of Psychiatry, 68 (1&2) 15-21 Rogers, J. D., Clow, K. E., & Kash, T. J. (1994). Increasing job satisfaction of service personnel. Journal of Services Marketing, 8,(1), 14-26. Singh, A. &.Sharma, T.R. Manual for Job-satisfaction Scale. NPC Agra Singh, P. And Joseph, G. Manual For Life Satisfaction Scale. NPC Agra

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