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<p>TH</p> <p>F-,</p> <p>Jewish EncyclopediaA DESCRIPTIVE RECORD OF</p> <p>THK HISTORY, RELIGION, LITERATURE, AND CUSTOMS OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE PRESENT DAYPrepared by More than Four Hundred Scholars and SpecialistsUNIlER</p> <p>THE DIRECTION OF THE KOI.LOWING EDITORIAL BOAKD(Departmentsof Post</p> <p>Cyrus Adler, Ph.D.Biblical Antiquities:</p> <p>KaukmannTheology</p> <p>Kohi.ek,</p> <p>Ph.D.</p> <p>(Departments</p> <p>o;</p> <p>the Jews of America).</p> <p>and</p> <p>Philosophy).</p> <p>GOTTHARD Deutsch, Ph.D.History from J4g2to iqof).</p> <p>^.Department of</p> <p>H^.rmx'S Kos^srn.Ki, (Department of the Jews of Russia and Poland\.</p> <p>Richard Gottheii., Ph.D.u History from hzra ^,</p> <p>,</p> <p>lahnudic</p> <p>.7,</p> <p>,</p> <p>,!</p> <p>. to T , i \ Literature).</p> <p>1402</p> <p>;</p> <p>(Departments or IS- , f Posta . Ht story of</p> <p>,.</p> <p>SoLOMo.N Schechter, ^ r t^ js ment of the Talmud). '.,1,</p> <p>,.</p> <p>,.</p> <p>M..\..</p> <p>,</p> <p>T^ . {DcpartLirr.D.t</p> <p>-'</p> <p>Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D. (Department ofthe Bible).</p> <p>Isidore Singer, Ph.D. (Department ,f Biography from 17jo to igof).</p> <p>.\fadern</p> <p>Joseph Jacobs, B.A (Departments of the Jews of England and Anthropology; Revising Editor).</p> <p>Crawford H. Toy,</p> <p>D.D.. LL.D. (Departments of Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic Literature).</p> <p>ISAAC</p> <p>K.</p> <p>FUNK,</p> <p>Cfiairmafi of the</p> <p>D.D., Board</p> <p>LL.D</p> <p>FRANK</p> <p>H.</p> <p>VIZETELLV,</p> <p>F.S.A.</p> <p>Secretary rf the boitrd</p> <p>William Popper, M.A., Ph.D.Associate Revising Editor;</p> <p>Chief of the Bureau of Tramlation</p> <p>ISIDORE SINGER.Projector</p> <p>Ph.D.</p> <p>and Managing Editor</p> <p>ASSISTED BY AMERICAN AND FOREIGN HOARDS OF CONSULTING EDITORS</p> <p>COMPLETE</p> <p>IN</p> <p>TWELVE VOLUMES</p> <p>EMBELLISHED WITH MORE THAN TWO THOUSAND ILLUSTRATIONS</p> <p>ILLUMINATED PAGE FROM THE SARAJEVOWRITTEN PROBABLY EARLYIN</p> <p>HAGGADAH.</p> <p>THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY.</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>IHE</p> <p>Jewish EncyclopediaA DESCRIPTIVE R.ECORD OF</p> <p>THE HISTORY, RELIGION, LITERATURE, AND CUSTOMS OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE FRON4 THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE PRESENT DAYPrepared by More than</p> <p>Four Hundred Scholars and Specialistsllh'</p> <p>TNIIER THE IJIRECLIUN</p> <p>THE FOLLOWING EDTroKIAL</p> <p>KOAKll</p> <p>Cyrus Adlek,Biblical</p> <p>1'ilD.</p> <p>(Departmentsthe Jews of</p> <p>of Post-</p> <p>Kaukmann Kohler,Theology</p> <p>Ph.D.</p> <p>(Departments</p> <p>of</p> <p>A tttiquities ;</p> <p>A merUa)</p> <p>and</p> <p>Philosophy){De/&gt;iir/me&gt;it of the</p> <p>GOTTHARI) Deutsch, Ph.D. History from 14^2 to igof).</p> <p>[Department of</p> <p>HERMAN RosenthalRussia</p> <p>/ews</p> <p>o/</p> <p>and Poland</p> <p>).</p> <p>RlCHAKD Coi'fHEIL,rHistory horn Ezra</p> <p>,,.</p> <p>,</p> <p>,</p> <p>.</p> <p>,/ Talmudtc,</p> <p>to&gt;</p> <p>-^</p> <p>Ph.D. [Departments of nr- J 1402: History of Post-</p> <p>in.</p> <p>r Literature)., .</p> <p>,. ^, ... \t \ 1 n [Deparl/i a M.A., .SoLOMON hCHECHTER, j- ,, . t' j\ ment the Talmud). of '/ 1 '</p> <p>Emil G. Htrsch, Ph.D., LL.D. [Departmentthe Bible).</p> <p>of</p> <p>Isidore Singer, Ph.D. (Department of Biography from 17jo to ig04).</p> <p>Modem</p> <p>Joseph Jacobs, B.A, (Departments of</p> <p>the</p> <p>Jews</p> <p>Crawford H. Toy,of Hebrew Philology</p> <p>D.D., LL.D. (Departnietili</p> <p>of England and Anthropology: Re-jising Editor\.</p> <p>and</p> <p>Hellenistic Literature).</p> <p>ISAAC</p> <p>K. FUNK, D.D., Chairman of the Board</p> <p>LI,.l).</p> <p>FRANK</p> <p>H.</p> <p>VIZETELLV.</p> <p>F.S.A.</p> <p>Secretary cp the Hoard</p> <p>WilliamAssociate</p> <p>I'opfer, M.A., Ph.D.:</p> <p>ReviMng</p> <p>F.dttov</p> <p>Chief of the Bureau of Trajislation</p> <p>ISIDORE SINGER, Ph.D.Projector</p> <p>and Managing Editor</p> <p>A.SSISTKD KV</p> <p>AMERICAN AND FOREIGN BOARDS OF CONSULTING EDITORS</p> <p>VOLUME</p> <p>VI</p> <p>GOD ISTRIA</p> <p>Copyright,</p> <p>1904,</p> <p>by</p> <p>FUNK</p> <p>&amp;</p> <p>WAGNALLS COMPANYof traftslaiion reserved</p> <p>A II rights</p> <p>Registered at Stationers' Hall, London, England</p> <p>\_</p> <p>Printed</p> <p>in the</p> <p>Unitai States of America'\</p> <p>; ;</p> <p>CollegeLibrai-y</p> <p>litei:ai{v</p> <p>diuf/tokate</p> <p>EDITORIAL BOARDCYRUS ABLER,IDepartmcnlsi&gt;!</p> <p>Ph.D.Jews ufChief of</p> <p>HERMAN ROSENTHAL.(Dfixlitnniit ofI</p> <p>I'list-llihlKul .liili'jiiitus: the</p> <p>tlo: ./cics of</p> <p>liussia ontt I'olnnd.)</p> <p>Anicrica.)President of the .American Jewish Historical Society: Librarian, Smithsonian Institution. Wasliington, D. C.</p> <p>lie</p> <p>Slavonic Department,</p> <p>New York</p> <p>Library.</p> <p>SOLOMON SCHECHTER,[Di ixtrtnittit(if till</p> <p>M.A., Litt.D.</p> <p>GOTTHARD DEUTSCH,ilJciiaiiincid uf lliatoin fniinI'/.i,':</p> <p>Tidiiiud.t</p> <p>Ph.D.IdI'.iii.;.)</p> <p>President of</p> <p>tiie</p> <p>America.</p> <p>New York</p> <p>Facully of the Jewish Theological Sermnary of Author of " studies in Judaism.";</p> <p>Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew finion College, Cincinnati. Ohio Editor of " Deborah."</p> <p>ISIDORE SINGER, Ph.D.Ma.naging Editor.U}fp(xrtntent of ^^odcr}l rsiogynjihii from V.'otol'io.3.)</p> <p>RICHARD GOTTHEIL,</p> <p>Ph.D.</p> <p>^Deparlmcnta o/ llistni!/ frmn Ezra to lliK; Nixt'irii af Post-Tttliiutdic Litt raiitrf.)Professor of Semitic Lan^uat^s, Columbia University, New York Chief of the OrienUil Depai'tment, New York Public Library;</p> <p>CRAWFORD HOWELL[Depiirtmcnts of lldinirProfessor of</p> <p>TOY, D.D., LL.D.andlliHiiii.slir</p> <p>I'liiloloini</p> <p>Literature.)</p> <p>President of the Federation of American Zionists.</p> <p>Hebrew in Harvard University, Canihrirlge. Mass.; Author of " The Religion of Israel," etc.I.</p> <p>EMIl, G. HIRSCH, Ph.D., LL.D.\l)i</p> <p>K. FTJNK, D.D., LL.D.(i^liairniau of the Hoard.)</p> <p>[Hirtliunt</p> <p>III</p> <p>tin:</p> <p>nUih:.)</p> <p>Rabbi of Chicai?o Slnal Congregation, Chicago, III.; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of Chicago; Editor of " The Reform Advocate."</p> <p>Editor-in-Chief ot the</p> <p>Standard Dictio.varv ok LANdTAGE, etc.</p> <p>tiik F.nolisii</p> <p>JOSEPH JACOBS,fievining Eftllor.)</p> <p>FRANKB.A.</p> <p>H. VIZETELLY, F.S.A.</p> <p>(Serrctarii of the Board.)Associate Editor of the Sta.vdard Dictio.nary, "'The Colum-</p> <p>iDepartmcnts of tlicJeivs of Emihtud and AuthropohJumFormerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England .\uthorof "Jews of Angevin England," etc.</p> <p>bian Cyclopedia," etc.</p> <p>WILLIAM POPPER,{Axfiinii</p> <p>M.A., Ph.D.ot tin</p> <p>KATJFMANN KOHLER,{Drpartiiiiiits</p> <p>Ph.D.(iustav(iottheil</p> <p>Kditor: Chief TranMatlon.)Semiti</p> <p>n</p> <p>//</p> <p>DJf</p> <p>p k"1</p> <p>w:</p> <p>2</p> <p>k</p> <p>'</p> <p>^</p> <p>Note5.</p> <p>The presence of dagesh leneletter.</p> <p>is</p> <p>not noted exce]it in the case of z.</p> <p>Dagesh</p> <p>forte</p> <p>is</p> <p>indi-</p> <p>cated by doubling the</p> <p>The vowels have been</p> <p>tr.anscribed as follows,</p> <p>:</p> <p>~</p> <p>(kamez) a</p> <p>uee</p> <p>a ~o</p> <p>~'!1</p> <p>^</p> <p>So</p> <p>(kamez hatuf)ei</p> <p>o.</p> <p> The6.Tlieletter.</p> <p>i</p> <p>a</p> <p>uis</p> <p>so-called " Continental " pronunciation of the English vowels</p> <p>implied.</p> <p>Hebrew</p> <p>article is transcribed as lia, followed by a hyphen, without doubling the following [Not litik-Knhen or hale- Cohen, nor liosli, ha-sh.shnnah.'[</p> <p>B. Rules1.</p> <p>for the Transliteration of English readers in other are transliterated according to the following system,</p> <p>All Arabic</p> <p>names and words, except such as have become familiar</p> <p>forms, as^</p> <p>Mohammed. Koran, mosque,See above</p> <p>^J</p> <p>A:/i</p> <p>j sli</p> <p>f^gh</p> <p>*-r&gt;b</p> <p>O ddhr</p> <p>yOx</p> <p>ary.* In nil other matters of orthograpliy the spelling preferred</p> <p>has usually heen followed.</p> <p>Typo</p> <p>:</p> <p>tiYSTEM.s</p> <p>OF 'I'HANSLlTEliATloX AJND OF CITATION OF</p> <p>FliOPElJ</p> <p>NAMKS</p> <p>3.</p> <p>The Arabic article is iiiTariably written al. no account being taken of the assimilation of the / to the foUovvmg letter: I'.y Abu ul-Halt, not Alin-l-Satt: Aa/Zs itl-Dau/ali, not Xajix ad-l&gt;ciiilah. The article is joined by a liyphen to the following word.,</p> <p>4.</p> <p>At the endat;</p> <p>of words the feminine terminational-Kiii-xijij.</p> <p>is</p> <p>written ah</p> <p>;</p> <p>but win n followed by a g^'nitive.</p> <p>e.g.,</p> <p>Risulah dhatis</p> <p>but Hi'at al-AJIak.:</p> <p>5.</p> <p>Noor</p> <p>account</p> <p>Amrun;</p> <p>Va'kiib, not Va'/cuban; or in a</p> <p>taken of the overhanging vowels which distinguisli tlie cases e.g.. \Uiir, not 'AmrK title, Kitdb al-Amaiiat ical-I'tika(tnt.</p> <p>C RulesAll Russian</p> <p>for the Transliteration of Russian.</p> <p>as hare become familiar to English readers in other forms, as Czar, AlexauUer, deciatine, Moscuw, are transliterated according to the following system</p> <p>names and words, except such</p> <p>A</p> <p>a</p> <p>'</p> <p>1.</p> <p>LIST OF AiilillEVlATIO.NS[Solf-cvidcnl abbreviations, partituilarly those used intin- liil)]ion;i-;iphios.</p> <p>an* not infludod</p> <p>lii-r*-.]</p> <p>AbAb. U.</p> <p>Abol. PirkH</p> <p>N</p> <p>*Ab. Ziinili ad loc</p> <p>A.HAllg. Zelt. des Jiid.. Am. Jew. Hist. Soc.</p> <p>Abot. di'-Kabbi NaUm 'AiHHl:i!i Zanili at the place ; to the passage cited in the yeai- of tlic llegira</p> <p>En^' English Epuibaiiius. HiLTes. Epiphariius. Aciiisiiil;nid</p> <p>A. T.. A. v..</p> <p>Das Allc ToiamentAuthnrizeii Vcision</p> <p>b.Bacher, Ag. liab.</p> <p>ben or bar or born(.\</p> <p>AmorBacber, Ag.l*al.</p> <p>Bacher. Agada dcr Babyloniseheo Amoraer</p> <p>Bacher, Agada der Palastinensischen Amor raer Barber, Ag. Tan.... Bacher. Agaila dcr Tannaiten(1</p> <p>Amo-</p> <p>B.BB.C</p> <p>Bahu</p> <p>iiatta ('niliiiii.l)</p> <p>BekBer</p> <p>before tlic (lii'islian era Bek. .rut (Talmud)</p> <p>Benzinger, Arcb... Bcn&gt;:inLn'r. Hcbriiiscbe Archaolo^c Berak&gt;-t (Taluiud)</p> <p>Berlinerscbrift</p> <p>Fesl-</p> <p>II</p> <p>Festschrift</p> <p>zum</p> <p>70ten Ceburtstag Berllnersfiir</p> <p>Berbner's</p> <p>I.</p> <p>MagazinBibl.</p> <p>I</p> <p>Berliner's Magazin JudcntlmriisBikkuiiiii (laliuud)</p> <p>die Wissenscbaft des</p> <p>Geiger, Urschrift und Ucbcrscizungen der Geiger, Urscbrift. a Bibel in Ibrcr Ahhiingitrkcit von der Inneren Entwickluug des Juii'-mliutns Geiger's Jiidische Zeitschrilt fiir WissenCieiger'sJiid.Zeit. scbaft und Leben Geiger'sWlss. Geiger's Wissenschaftliclie Zeitschrift fur Zeit.Jud.Theol. ( Jiidische Theologie Gesch .Geschichte Gesenius, Gr .Gesenius. Grammar Gesenius, Th (iesenius, Thesaurus Gibbon, Decline Gibbon, History of the Decline and Fall of and Fall the Roman Empire f Ginsburg's New Massoreticu-Critical Text Ginsburg's Bible., of the Hebrew Bible Git Gittin (Talmud) Graetz, His! Graetz. History of the Jews Griitz, (iesch Griitz, (Veschichte der Juden (iest-bicbtti des ErziehungsG u d e a n n , (jiidemann, wesens und der Cultur der AbendlandiI /</p> <p>-j</p> <p>m</p> <p>^</p> <p>Rab</p> <p>Biblii'llit'ca l{;ibbinica</p> <p>Gesch</p> <p>)</p> <p>BikB. B.</p> <p>K</p> <p>MS</p> <p>,</p> <p>Baba l\amma (Talmud) Baba Mezi'a (Talmud)</p> <p>Hag HagHal</p> <p>Boletin de lu Real Acadeuiia de la Historia (Madrid) Briiirs Jahrbiicher fiir Jiidisohe Geschichte BriilPs Jahrb. und Litteratur Bulletin All. Isr.... Bulletin of the Alliance Israelite Universelle Boletiu Acad. Hist.c</p> <p>Hamburger.R. B. T Hastings, Diet. Bible</p> <p>'</p> <p>i/</p> <p>scheu Juden Haggai Hagigab (Talnuid) Hallah (Talmud) Hamburger, liealencyclopSdie und TalmudHastings, Dictionary of the BibleEpistle to the</p> <p>fur</p> <p>Bibel</p> <p>i'</p> <p>HebHebrHerzog-Plittori -</p> <p>HebrewsThe-</p> <p>aboutCanticles (Song of Solomon)I \ 1</p> <p>Masoretic Textl{i'al-Encykln|);idie fiir Protestantische</p> <p>CantCat. Auglo-Jew. Hist. Exh Caz^s. Notes Bi-</p> <p>Catalogue of Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibition</p> <p>Herzog-Hauck,Real-EncycV Hirsch, Biog. Lex.)</p> <p>bliograpbiques. O.E CU</p> <p>T</p> <p>comuKmI</p> <p>Caz^s, Notes Ribliograpbiquessurla Littrature Juive-Tunisienue era chapter or chapters</p> <p>*</p> <p>ologie und Kirche (2d and '.id editions respectively) Hirscb, Biograpbiscbes Lexikon der Hervorrageutler Aerzle Aller Zeiten und Vcilker</p> <p>HorHuli'h</p> <p>Horayot (Talmud)</p> <p>Cheyne and Black.</p> <p>Cheyne and Black, EncycIop;pdia Biblica Encyc. Bibl Travaux Rf^digcs en Memoire Chwolson Jubilee J Recueil des scii'utilliiuede du Jubile M. Daniel ChwolVolume\ i</p> <p>iitftnIsr..i</p> <p>HuUin (Talmud) same place same authorIsraelitische Letterbode</p> <p>Lettcrbude..</p> <p>Jahvist</p> <p>son,</p> <p>184(i-]s:i(;</p> <p>C. C.</p> <p>I. I.</p> <p>A</p> <p>a C.I.H C.I. LC.I. S mp('urinier. Diet.I</p> <p>Corpus Corpus Corpus Corpus Corpus</p> <p>InsrrJ|itionum Atticarum Irisciiiiiinuuui (iriecarum Inscripiiouiim Hei&gt;raicarumIiisiripiiouiuu Latinariim</p> <p>JaarboekenJacobs, Sources..</p> <p>Jaarboeken voor de Israelitcn inlaud</p> <p>Neder-</p> <p>Jacobs, Inquiry into the Sources of SpanishJewish History</p> <p>Inscriptionum SemiticarumDu'tionnaire National des</p> <p>compareE. E. Curinier,\</p> <p>Jacobs and Wolf, Bibl.Auglo-Jud. Jahrb. (Jesch. der</p> <p>Jacobs and Wolf, Bibliotheca A nglo-Judaica</p> <p>Jabrbuch'</p> <p>fiir</p> <p>die (Jesehichte dur</p> <p>Juden und</p> <p>JudJastrow, DietJellinek. B. Jew. Chroii</p> <p>Nata</p> <p>Contemporainsdied</p> <p>des Judenthiims Jastrow, Dictionary of the Targumim, Tal-</p> <p>nmdim,</p> <p>an-i</p> <p>Midrashim</p> <p>(Jubematis, Diz. Biog De Gubernatis,I&gt;e le Koi,</p> <p>D De</p> <p>DeuteronomistI 1</p> <p>H</p> <p>JeUinek, Bel ba-Midrasli</p> <p>De</p> <p>Gubeniatis. Dizionario Biograflco degli</p> <p>Jewish,</p> <p>London</p> <p>Scrittori ('oniciiiiieranei</p> <p>EcrivainsduJour Juden-</p> <p>{ C</p> <p>De Gubcniati&gt;. IHciionnaire International des Ecrivains du Jour De le Itoi, (icscbichte der EvangelischenJuden-Mission</p> <p>Jew. Encyc The Jewish Kiicyclupeiiia Jew. Hist. Soc. Eng. Jewish Hi-stoi i.Ni society of Englaud J. (^. R Jewish Quarterly Keview Jew, World Jewish World, LomlonJose[)hus, Ant Josepbus, Amii|iiiiies of the Jews Josepiujs, B. J Josepbus, De Bello Judaico Joseph us.Contra Ap..Josepbus, Contra Apioiiein Josh JoshuaJost's Annalen .lour. Bib. Lit Justin, Dial, cum Jost's IsraelitischeI</p> <p>Mission Deui</p> <p>1</p> <p>Deiiiai tTaliiiud) DereribiiurLr, Kssai snr I'Histoire et la GeoDerenbourg, Hist. ^ graphic tU' la Palestine, etc. De Rossi, Dizit&gt;- i De IJnssi. Diziiiiiario storico degli Autori</p> <p>AnnalenTryphi)ne Juddso</p> <p>De</p> <p>nario Rossibergei-,</p> <p>i</p> <p>EInei c tMU-</p> <p>I,ben und Pseudepigrapheu des Allen TeslaliieTdSKayserlinL^Bil'lloIcca Flspaiiola-Portugucza-</p> <p>*</p> <p>(</p> <p>Lex</p> <p>'Eduyot (Talmud) Ludwiir KistMiherg's (irosses Biograpbiscbes Biog. J Lexiknii dt-r DeiUschen Biibne im XIX.i</p> <p>\</p> <p>JudaicaDie Jiidischen Frauen in der Literatur und KunstKeritot(Jescbichte,</p> <p>J</p> <p>)</p> <p>Encyc</p> <p>Brit</p> <p>Jabrhun2 Roest, ("atalog der Heliraica imd .ludtiicu aus der L. ItoseulliaI'Mlieu Bibhothek Revised \'ersinn Salfeld. T):is Martyrologiuiu des Niirnberger. ..</p> <p>^</p> <p>vlllume'""""'I-t'hn-</p> <p>*^*'"'"''' *^t"'lfes</p> <p>Memory</p> <p>logium</p> <p>Memorliitcb(&gt;s</p> <p>SanhS, B.</p> <p>Krauss.</p> <p>'</p> <p>wiirtcr</p> <p>\</p> <p>Krauss, (iiiechisclip und Lateinisehe Lelinwiirter ini Taliimd, Midnisoh, und TarL'um</p> <p>E,,</p> <p>,,</p> <p>,'</p> <p>I</p> <p>h^ousse.l&gt;icl....\^'^{^%^!^'^l.C</p> <p>l.i.Hounaue Universd duWOrterlaich uber die</p> <p>^- " "</p> <p>1</p> <p>Sanbedrin (Tjilnuid) Sacred Books ot the East (Sacred Books of the Old Testament) Polychrome Bible, ed. Paul HauptSchafl'-Hei-zog,</p> <p>Levy, dial.</p> <p>I.</p> <p>in lilt! place ritcd Levj-, I Ualdiiisclu's</p> <p>^^''Ency?'"'*''"</p> <p>f'</p> <p>A Religious Encyclopaedia</p> <p>Worterb Tpvv Ni.iihplirw-",....H</p> <p>(</p> <p>1 Z.</p> <p>Targuuiiiu (Levy, Neuhi-hriiisclies und fliakUiisches Worterbuch uber die Taliriudiiu uud MidZoolojrie dcs TalniudsliterallyI'';;;,:,^;|:'</p> <p>Sclirader, C. I. 0.</p> <p>Schrader, Cuneiform Inscriptions and the</p> <p>T'p</p> <p>I</p> <p>u,.i,,..i^,.,. I.A S(hianci, iv.A.</p> <p>I</p> <p>i.-,</p> <p>Old Testament, Eng. transl. Sclnailer, Keilinschrifteu und das Alte Tes,.,|p|,t</p> <p>Solu-ader, K.</p> <p>B,.</p> <p>Lewvsnhn.lit</p> <p>T</p> <p>Sihiadei.h.,,,</p> <p>..</p> <p>(.. f.-,</p> <p>(.Scbnider,</p> <p>Schrader. Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek Keilinschrifteu und Geschichtsfr,;,.|ning</p> <p>Low, Lebensalter]</p> <p>'-"'"S''"^'- '"</p> <p>'' Jiidisdien Li-</p> <p>Schiirer, Ciesch.</p> <p>Semshall</p> <p>Schiirer, (ieschichte des Jiidischen</p> <p>Vo...</p>