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Chapter 2-1

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  • 1.THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFECHAPTER 2

2. ATOMS AN ATOM IS THE BASIC UNIT OF MATTER 3. ATOMSATOMS ARE MADE UP OF PROTONS, NEUTRONS, AND ELECTRONS 4. ATOMSPROTONS ARE POSITIVELY CHARGED PARTICLES NEUTRONS HAVE NO CHARGE ELECTRONS ARE NEGATIVELY CHARGED PARTICLES 5. ATOMSTHE CENTER OF THE ATOM IS THE NUCLEUS, AND IS MADE UP OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS 6. ATOMS ELECTRONS, THE NEGATIVELY CHARGED PARTICLES, ARE IN CONSTANT MOTION IN THE SPACE AROUND THE NUCLEUS 7. ATOMS 8. ATOMS ATOMS HAVE AN EQUAL NUMBER OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS, AND HAVE EQUAL BUT OPPOSITE CHARGES. ATOMS ARE THEREFORE NEUTRAL. 9. ELEMENTS AN ELEMENT IS A PURE SUBSTANCE THAT CONSISTS OF ONE TYPE OF ATOM THERE ARE OVER 100 KNOWN ELEMENTS, WHILE ONLY ABOUT 24 ARE COMMONLY FOUND IN LIVING ORGANISMS 10. ELEMENTS THE NUMBER OF PROTONS IN AN ATOM OF AN ELEMENT IS THE ATOMIC NUMBER FOR EXAMPLE,THE ATOMIC # FOR CARBON IS 6. CARBON THEREFORE HAS 6 PROTONS, AND 6 ELECTRONS 11. ISOTOPESISOTOPES ARE ATOMS OF THE SAME ELEMENT THAT DIFFER IN THE NUMBER OF NEUTRONS THEY CONTAIN 12. ISOTOPESTHE MASS NUMBER IS THE SUM OF THE PROTONS AND NEUTRONS IN AN ATOMS NUCLEUS 13. ISOTOPES ISOTOPES ARE IDENTIFIED BY THEIR MASS NUMBER 14. ISOTOPES BECAUSE ISOTOPES HAVE THE SAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS, ALL ISOTOPES OF AN ELEMENT HAVE THE SAME CHEMICAL PROPERTIES