jackfruit and its many functional components as related to human

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  • Jackfruit and Its Many Functional Componentsas Related to Human Health: A ReviewShrikant Baslingappa Swami, N. J. Thakor, P. M. Haldankar, and S. B. Kalse

    Abstract: Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is an ancient fruit that is widely consumed as a fresh fruit. The useof jackfruit bulbs and its parts has also been reported since ancient times for their therapeutic qualities. The beneficialphysiological effects may also have preventive application in a variety of pathologies. The health benefits of jackfruit havebeen attributed to its wide range of physicochemical applications. This review presents an overview of the functional,medicinal, and physiological properties of this fruit.

    IntroductionJackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) trees belong to the family

    Moraceae. They grow abundantly in India, Bangladesh, and inmany parts of Southeast Asia (Rahaman and others 1999). It is onethe most significant evergreen trees in tropical areas and widelygrown in Asia including India. It is a medium-size tree typicallyreaching 28 to 80 ft in height that is easily accessible for its fruit.The fruit is borne on side branches and main branches of the tree.Average weight of a fruit is 3.5 to 10 kg and sometimes a fruitmay reach up to 25 kg. Different parts of jackfruit are shown inFigure 1. There are 2 main varieties of jackfruits: one is small,fibrous, soft, and mushy, and the carpels are sweet, with a texturelike that of a raw oyster the other variety is crisp and crunchy, butnot very sweet. The large seeds from this nonleguminous plantare also edible, even though they are difficult to digest (Siddappa1957). A single seed is enclosed in a white aril encircling a thinbrown spermoderm, which covers the fleshy white cotyledon.Jackfruit cotyledons are fairly rich in starch and protein (Singhand others 1991). The search for lesser known and underutilizedcrops, many of which are potentially valuable as human and animalfood has included jackfruits which have been the focus of researchin recent years.

    The fruit provides about 2 MJ of energy per kg/wet weightof ripe perianth (Ahmed and others 1986). Jackfruit has beenreported to contain high levels of protein, starch, calcium, andthiamine (Burkill 1997). The seeds may be boiled, or roasted andeaten or boiled and preserved in syrup like chestnuts. Roasted,dried seeds are ground to make flour that is blended with

    MS 20120660 Submitted 5/9/2012, Accepted 7/30/2012. Author Swami,Thakor, and Kalse are with the Dept. of Agricultural Process Engineering, Collegeof Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan KrishiVidyapeeth, Dapoli-415 712, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, India. Author Haldankar iswith the Dept. of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant KonkanKrishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli-415 712, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, India. Direct inquiriesto author Swami (E-mail: swami_shrikant1975@yahoo.co.in).

    wheat flour for baking (Morton 1987). The composition of jack-fruit perianth and seed has been reported (Bobbio and others1978; Morton 1987; Selvaraj and Pal 1989; Hossain and others1990; Rahman and others 1999). At least one study has re-ported on functional properties of jackfruit flour (Odoemelam2005).

    In addition to its ripe fruit, which has a unique flavor, thejackfruit seed is widely consumed as a dessert or an ingredient inAsian culinary preparations. The jackfruit seeds are used in cookeddishes and its flour is used for baking. Jackfruit seeds are fairly richin starch (Singh and others 1991). Mature jackfruits are cookedas vegetables, and used in curries or salads (Narasimham 1990).Ripe fruits can be eaten raw, or cooked in creamy coconut milkas dessert, made into candied jackfruit or edible jackfruit leather.In India, the seeds are boiled in sugar and eaten as dessert (Royand Joshi 1995). Jackfruit is also used for further processing. Forinstance, jackfruit leather and jackfruit chips can be made fromdried jackfruit pulp (Nakasone and Paull 1998). Pureed jackfruitis also manufactured into baby food, juice, jam, jelly, and base forcordials (Roy and Joshi 1995). Jackfruits are made into candies,fruit-rolls, marmalades, and ice cream. Other than canning, ad-vances in processing technologies too, have pushed toward morenew products (Narasimham 1990). Freeze-dried, vacuum-fried,and cryogenic processing are new preservation methods for mod-ern jackfruit-based products. Various parts of the jackfruit treehave been used in medicine and its wood as an important sourcein the timber industries (Roy and Joshi 1995).

    It is now widely accepted that the beneficial effects of fruitsand vegetables for the prevention of certain diseases are due to thebioactive compounds they contain (Galaverna and others 2008).Recent years have seen increased interest on the part of consumers,researchers, and the food industries into how food products canhelp maintain health; and the role that diet plays in the preven-tion and treatment of many illnesses has become widely accepted(Vinuda-Martos and others 2010). The aim of this review was topresent an overview of the functional, medicinal, and physiologicalproperties of the jackfruit.

    c 2012 Institute of Food Technologistsdoi: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2012.00210.x Vol. 11, 2012 Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 565

  • Jackfruit and its functional components . . .

    PhytochemistryA. heterophyllus contains various chemical constituents as sev-

    eral flavone colorings, morin, dihydromorin, cynomacurin, ar-tocarpin, isoartocarpin, cyloartocarpin, artocarpesin, oxydihy-droartocarpesin, artocarpetin, norartocarpetin, cycloartinone, andartocarpanone (Rama Rao and others 1973). The heartwood ofjackfruit on analysis yields moisture (6.7%), glucosides (38.0%),lipids (0.7%), protein (1.7%), and cellulose (59.0 %) (Perkin andCope 1895). The jackfruit also contains free sugar (sucrose), fattyacids, ellagic acid, and amino acids like arginine, cystine, histidine,leucine, lysine, metheonine, theonine, tryptophan, and others.(Pavanasasivam and Sultanbawa 1973). Bark from the main trunkcontains betullic acid and two new flavone pigments includingcycloheterophyllin (C30H30O7) (Chawdhary and Raman 1997).Heterophylol, a phenolic compound with a novel skeleton, wasobtained from A. heterophyllus (Chun-Nan and Chai-Ming 1993).The leaves and stem have shown the presence of sapogenins,cycloartenone, cycloartenol, -sitosterol (Nath and Chaturvedi1989), and tannins, and they have shown estrogenic activity. Theroot contains -sitosterol, ursolic acid, betulinic acid, and cy-cloartenone (Dayal and Seshadri 1974).

    Jacalin, the major protein from A. heterophyllus seeds, is atetrameric two-chain lectin combining a heavy chain of 133amino acid residues with a light chain of 20 to 21 aminoacid residues. It is highly specific for the O-glycoside of thedisaccharide Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (Gal1-3GalNAc),even in its sialylated form. This property has made jacalin suit-able for studying various O-linked glycoproteins, particularlyhuman IgA1 (Suresh Kumar and others 1982). Jacalins unique-ness in being strongly mitogenic for human CD4 +T lympho-cytes has made it a useful tool for the evaluation of the immunestatus of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virusHIV-1 (Pereira-da-Silva and others 2006). Two novel 2,4,6-trioxygenated flavanones, heteroflavanones A and B, were iso-lated from the root bark of A. heterophyllus. Their structureswere elucidated as 5-hydroxy-7,2,4,6-tetra methoxyflavanoneand 8-( , -dimethylallyl) 5-hydroxy-7,2,4,6-tetra methoxyfla-vanone (Chai-Ming and Chun-Nan 1993; Chun-Nan and others1995). Three phenolic compounds were characterized as arto-carpesin [(5,7,2,4-tetrahydroxy-6--methylbut-3-enyl) flavone],norartocarpetin (5,7,2,4-tetrahydroxyflavone), and oxyresvera-trol (trans-2,4,3,5-tetrahydroxystilbene) by spectroscopic meth-ods (Venkataraman 2001) . The anti-inflammatory effects of theseisolated compounds were evaluated by determining their in-hibitory effects on the production of proinflammatory media-tors in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 murinemacrophage cells. These 3 compounds exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity (Jha and others 1997). The carotenoids

    of A. heterophyllus were identified as the carotenes -carotene,-carotene, -zeacarotene, -zeacarotene, and -carotene-5,6-epoxide, as well as a dicarboxylic carotenoid, crocetin (Chandrikaand others 2004).

    Chemical Composition of JackfruitJackfruit contains vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, cal-

    cium, potassium, iron, sodium, zinc, and niacin among many othernutrients. Jackfruit has a low caloric content: 100 g of jackfruitonly contains 94 calories (Mukprasirt and Sajjaanantakul 2004).Jackfruit is a rich source of potassium with 303 mg found in 100 gof jackfruit. Studies show that food rich in potassium helps tolower blood pressure.

    Another benefit of eating jackfruit is that it is a good source ofvitamin C. The human body does not make vitamin C so onemust eat food that contains vitamin C to reap its health bene-fits. The health benefits of vitamin C are that it is an antioxi-dant that protects the body against free radicals, strengthens theimmune system, and keeps our gums healthy (Umesh and others2010).

    Jackfruit contains phytonutrients: lignans, isoflavones, andsaponins that have health benefits that are wide ranging. Thesephytonutrients have anticancer, antihypertensive, antiulcer and an-tiaging properties. The phytonutrients found in jackfruit, there-fore, can prevent forming of cancer cells in the body, can lowerblood pressure, can fight against stomach ulcers, and can slowdown the degeneration of cells that make the skin look young andvitae. Jackfruit also contains niacin that is known as vitamin B3 andnecessary for energy metabolism, nerve function, and the synthesisof certain hormones. A portion of


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