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1. Humanism and/or reckless rulers:Brechts adaptation of Sophocles Antigoneand translation problemsProf. Jelena Kosti-TomoviInternational scientific conference Humanism: Culture or Illusion?University of Belgrade, Faculty of PhilologyBelgrade, 15th 16th May 20141 2. The presentation Sophocles Antigone and its translationsand adaptations: There is nothing worsethan disobedience to authority. Hlderlins translation of Antigone and itsreception: the work of a madman or of agenius? Brechts adaptation of the Antigone (e.g. ofHlderlins translation): returning home afterexile Translating Brechts Antigone: aninsurmountable challenge?2 3. ISOPHOCLES ANTIGONE TRANSLATIONS AND ADAPTIONSSophocles3 4. Sophocles Antigone Sophocles (497/6 406/5 B.C.) Wrote 123 plays 7 have survived in a complete form, amongthem Antigone Antigone - one of the Theban plays,together with Oedipus the King andOedipus at Colonus First performance on stage 442 B.C. inAthens a great success4 5. Sophocles Antigone Mythological plot (Oedipuss curse etc.); maincharacters: Antigone, Creon, Ismene; The focus not on the historical and politicalevents of the time; the play does point at thedangers of absolute power (tyranny). Creon: There is nothing worse thandisobedience to authority. Timeless relevance:state control civil disobedience / civil courage;5 6. Sophocles Antigone German Translations and Performances More than 100 different translations intoGerman (90 between 1760 and 1920); First published translation: 1636 by MartinOpitz, a Baroque poet; First performance on stage: 1808 at theWeimar Court Theatre (translation by F.Rochlitz); First significant performance on stage: 1841(artistic director Ludwig Tieck, translation byJ.C. Donner, music Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy);6 7. Sophocles Antigone SerbianTranslations 1873 Panajot Papakostopulos (1820-1879), amedical doctor; 1922 Milo N. uri (1892-1967), expert inancient Greek literature, philosophy, ethics etc. Croatian: Branimir ganjer (1919-1999)7 8. Sophocles Antigone -AdaptationsNumerous adaptationsin various languages and forms 1664 Jean Racine 1917 Walter Hasenclever 1942 by Jean Anouilh 1947 by Bertot Brecht 1949 Carl Orff (opera) 1963 Rolf Hochhuth (short story) 1996 Mikis Theodorakis (opera) etc.8 9. IIANTIGONE TRANSLATIONBY FRIEDRICH HLDERLINHlderlin9 10. Friedrich Hlderin German romantic poet, 1770-1843; Important contribution to the development ofGerman Idealism, early influence on Hegel andSchelling; Great admirer of ancient Greek culture andsupporter of the French Revolution; Important works: epistolary novel Hyperion,tragedy Empedocles, poems; 1805 falling into schizophrenia Little known during his lifetime and largelyunknown for the rest of the 19th century; Rediscovered in 1913 by Norbert von Hellingrath,who brought out an edition of Hlderlins works;10 11. Sophocles Antigone Hlderlins Translation into German 1804 Die Trauerspiele des Sophokles:Antigone and Oedipus the Kingnegative reactions first performance on stage only in1918 inZurich 1923 a staging in Darmstadt, 1940 a staging inthe Burg Theatre in Vienna 1947 Brechts adaptation, premiere 1948 inChur (Switzerland) 1949 opera by Carl Orff11 12. The uniquenessof Hlderlins translationsReturn to naturallanguage and its powersattempt to renovatethe languageout of itsetymological origins:giving the words back theirprimary meaning,or at least their ancientmeaning;IGraecizationof German:Was ist's, du scheinst ein rotesWort zu frbenIIArchaisationArbeit instead of MhsalFrau instead of HerrinTugend ( taugen) instead of Wert12 13. Antoine Berman (1942-1991):Hlderlins translations are part andparcel of his poetic trajectory, of hisconcept of language, poetry, and thatwhich he himself calls the experienceof the foreign to such extent that thecustomary categories of poetry andtranslation can only be applied withdifficulty in his case.13 14. Negative receptionContemporariesF. Schiller: the work of a madmanModern day criticsW. Benjamin sees a connection between theradicality of Hlderlins translationsand his break-down.14 15. Walter BenjaminHlderlins translations in particular aresubjects to the enormous danger inherent inall translations: the gates of language thusexpended and modified may slam shut andendorse the translator with silence; in themmeaning plunges from abyss to abyss until itthreatens to become lost in the bottomlessdepths of language.15 16. Positive receptionContemporariesBettina von Arnim and Clemens BrentanoModern day criticsrediscovery first complete edition reevaluation status of historic translations[Hlderlins translations] have been recognizedas epoch-making in the history of not onlyGerman but Western translation.(A. Berman)16 17. IIIADAPTIONBY BERTOLT BRECHTBertolt Brecht17 18. Brechts Antigone key data 1 Written between 30 Nov and 12 Dec1947; Premiere on15 Feb 1948 in Chur, Switzerland(small provincial theatre);18 19. Brechts Antigone key data 1I German premier 18 Nov 1951 in Greiz (GDR),director Otto Ernst Tickardt; Published in 1949 in Germany asAntigonemodell 1948 (with photos andsketches by C. Neher);19 20. Why Hlderin?According to Brecht: Recommended to Brecht by Caspar Neher; Sentimental reasons - returning to the Germanlanguage area:Vermutlich ist es die Rckkehr in den deutschenSprachbereich, was mich in das Unternehmentreibt. Traces of the Swabian dialect (schwbische Tonflle) Reminiscence of grammar school Latin (gymnasialeLateinkonstruktionen) Associations with Hegel, Luther etc.20 21. Why Hlderin?Compatibility with the goals of the epictheatre the audience has always to be awarethat it is watching a playContributing to the Verfremdungseffect(making strange effect) detaching theaudience from the action of the play and thecharacters (avoiding empathy non-Aristotelian drama)21 22. Hlderlins Antigone vs.Brechts Antigone About 20% taken from Sophocles/Hlderlin withoutalterations, about 30% altered to a certain extent,about 50% added;Accentuating the relevance to the current situation: A new prologue in Berlin 1945 two sisters areafraid to take the body of their brother, a desertedsoldier, off the gallows. Polynices is not a traitor, but a deserter. Thebes is losing instead of winning the war. The defeat is unavoidable, but Creon wants thehole city to go down with him.22 23. ReceptionNot really a success: 3 performances in Chur and 1 guestperformance in Zurich; Was staged by other German directors only afew times in the decades to come: 1951 Greiz,1952 Eisenach, 1959 Gera and 1976 Dresden; Antigonemodell 1948: only a couple ofhundred copies during the first years; A radio play (Deutschlandsender,1970): not asuccess;23 24. Historical significance - a decisivepointin Brechts professional life Brechts first play after WW II; Brechts first production in an German-speakingcountry after WW II; First collaboration after WW II with the stageand costume designer Caspar Neher, a closeassociate and a childhood friend; Helene Weigels first performance on stageafter 15 years in exile (at the age of 47); A test for a future production of MotherCourage with Weigel and Neher in Germany;24 25. Theatrical significance25 26. Antigone in the contextof Brechts late work26 Brecht wrote only a few plays after WW II:Brecht plays after WW IIAdaptation Sophokles Antigone 1947Die Tage der Commune 1949Adaptation Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz Der Hofmeister 1949Adaptation Gerhart Hauptmann Biberpelz und roter Hahn 1950Adaptation William Shakespeare Coriolanus 19511955Adaptation Anna Seghers Der Prozess der Jeanne dArc 1952Turandot oder Der Kongre der Weiwscher 1953Adaptation Molire Don Juan 1952Pauken und Trompeten (nach George Farquhar) 1954 Mainly directing his own plays after WW II; 11 Jan 1949 Mother Courage with H. Weigel and Erich Engel,Deutsches Theater in East Berlin a great success; Since autumn 1949 his own theater company, the famousBerliner Ensemble 27. IVTRANSLATINGBRECHTS ADAPTATIONDanica Ristovski as Brechts Antigone 200627 28. Complexity of the constellation28Brechts AdaptionOnly 2/3Serbian translationsNo reception ofHlderlinstranslation in SerbiaOnly a weekawareness of theGerman andinternational receptionof HlderlinstranslationNoequivalents tomanydistinctivefeatures of theoriginal, e.g.the Swabiandialect 29. Translating Brechts Antigone an insurmountable challenge?Compromises are inevitable.Sacrifice some to save some.29 30. Guidelines for translationPurpose of translation Performance on stage highest priority: comprehensibility suitable for articulating on stage (actors) suitable for following the play (audience) no footnotes, prefaces, comments etc. Publishing (printing) comprehensibility not necessarily the priority possible footnotes, preface, afterword, comments30Thetranslationby Milouri offersa goodbasis fortheatertranslation. 31. References Berman, A. (1992). The Experience of the Foreign. Cultureand Translation in Romantic Germany. Translatet by S.Heywaert. New York: State University of New York Press. Berman, A. (2004). Prevoenje i slovo ili konaite zadalekog. Prevela Aleksandra Mani. Beograd: Rad. Hecht, W. (1988). Brechts Antigone des Sophokles. Frankfurt:Suhrkamp. Sophokles Antigone. bersetzt von Hlderlin. Bearbeitet vonMartin Walser. Frankfurt: Insel Verlag. Klaniczay, G., Werner, M. & Gecser, O. (eds.). MultipleAntiquities Multiple Modernities. Ancient Histories in 19.Century European Cultures. Frankfurt: Campus. Sophokles (1981). Antigone. Greichisch/Deutsch. bersetztvon Norbert Zink. Stuttgart: Reclam. Sofokle (2005). Antigona. Car Edip. Preveo Milo N. uri.Zemun: JRJ.31 32. Thank you32