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IV Work Area:

CONNECTED CARS: ROAD TO VEHICLE COMMUNICATION

THROUGH VISIBLE LIGHT

An illustration of traffic control system of tomorrow

Transmitters V1

V2

001 010 011

Receivers

001 010 011

001 010 011

I2V

V2VV2I

V3

I2V, V2V, V2I optoelectronic WDM cooperative vehicular system enables direct communication between vehicles, roadside infrastructure and traffic lights control

Motivation and Objectives

Outline

Connected vehicles model Transmitters and Receivers

Cooperative VLC System Evaluation and proof of concept.

Conclusions and future trends.

I2V, V2V and V2I communications

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

0.5

1.0

#7

#9

#1d

15d14

d13d

12

d11d

10

d9d

8

d7d

6

d5

d4d

3d2d1d

0

V

B

G

R

0 0 0 00 0 0 10 0 1 00 0 1 10 1 0 00 1 0 1

0 1 1 00 1 1 1

1 0 0 01 0 0 1

1 0 1 01 0 1 1

1 1 0 01 1 0 1

1 1 1 01 1 1 1

R G B V

Norm

alized M

UX

sig

nal

Time (ms)

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.50.0

0.5

1.0

0101 (#7)

1100 (#9)

1111 (#1)

RGBV

IDSync Payload data

V2,3

B2,4

G3,3

R3,4

Norm

alized M

UX

sig

nal

Time (ms)

State of art: MUX/DEMUX techniques

The output presents 24 ordered levels each one related with RGBV bit sequences

RG

V B

12

4

5

67

8

9

3

Connected Vehicles Model

1

2

3

i

n

Street lamp Traffic light

I2V

V2V

V2I

Vehicles

Generic model for cooperative vehicular communications

Illustration of the proposed I2V2V2I communication scenario: Connected vehicles communication in a

crossroad.

Until recently

(V2V) communication was limited to brake lights, turn signals;

(V2I) was restricted to point detection (loop detectors).

10

01

10

01

11

01

11

01

10

01

10

01

10

10

10

01

10

01

10

01

10

01

10

01

10

10

10

01

10

10

10

01

Generated joint footprints

RG

V B

12

4

5

67

8

9

3

Unit cell

Four modulated LEDs (RGBV) located at the corners of a square grid.

R1,2G1,1

V2,3V2,1

R1,4

B2,2

G1,3

R3,2G3,1 G3,3

V4,3V4,1 B4,2

G1,5

V2,5

G3,5

V4,5

R5,2G5,1 R5,4G5,3 G5,5

B4,4

B2,4

R3,4

Promising benefits expected from safety and mobility improvements at the road network

Lighting plan

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

payload dataIDSync.

[data transmission][10101] [r r r: c c c]

V2,3

B2,4

G3,3

R3,4

Codew

ord

(R

GB

V)

Time (ms)

I2V : the street lamp (transmitter) sends a message to the SiC receiver, located at the rooftop. V2V: the information is resent to a leader vehicle, using the headlights as transmitters, .

Receiver SiC pinpin

Transmitter RGB-LED

400 500 600 700 8000.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

B

G

R

Inte

nsity (

a.u

.)

Wavelength (nm)

I2V2V system design

Representation of the I2V2V communication (working principle for the prototype)

Relative speed???

I

V

V

The structure of the frame is a classical one

The message begins with 5 synchronization bits The rest of the frame consists of 6 IDs bits, data bits and stop bit.

Cooperative VLC System Evaluation

Three different scenarios:

Scenario 1 I 2 V 2 V 2 I Scenario 2 I 2 V 2 I

Scenario 3 I 2 V 2 V 2 I

In order to verify the system operability and efficiency we have conducted an extensive set of measurements

Operational procedure: Each vehicle receives two different messages: I2V and V2V coming from the

streetlight and from the follow vehicle;

Compare them and infers the drive distance and the relative speed.

Send the information to a next car (V2V2V) or to an infrastructure (V2V2I).

Generalized view of the architecture

Transmitters V1

V2

001 010 011

Receivers

001 010 011

001 010 011

I2V

V2VV2I

V3

Dv=. Dt=.

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.50

1

2

3

4

5

RGBV

[0101]

[1010]

[1111]

I2V

IDSync Payload data

#3

#7

#1

V2,3

B2,2

G3,3

R3,2

MU

X (

A)

Time (ms)

Scenario 1: I2V2V2I

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.50.0

0.5

1.0

S

W

B2,2

R3,2

RGBV

[0011]

[1010]

V2I

IDSync Payload data

#3 (W, t1)

#5 (S, t2)

V4,3

B4,4

MU

X (

A)

Time (ms)

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.50.0

0.5

1.0

1010#P3 (W, t

3)

0101

1111

RGBV

IDSync Payload data

#P7 (W, t1)

#P1 (W, t2)

V2,1

B2,2

G3,1

R3,2

V2V

MU

X (

A)

Time (ms)

Request time: t1

Vehicle 1 sends the request message to the infrastructure (V2I) and informs the signal controller that this vehicle desires service (often called demand for service).

Data collected from connected vehicles provides a

much more complete picture of the traffic states near an intersection

Dv=. Dt=.

Scenario 2: I2V2I

Request time: t2

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.50.0

0.5

1.0

S

W

B2,2

R3,2

RGBV

[0011]

[1010]

V2I

IDSync Payload data

#3 (W, t1)

#5 (S, t2)

V4,3

B4,4

MU

X (

A)

Time (ms)

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.50

1

2

3

4

5 I2V

[0011]

[1100]

[1111]RGBV

IDSync Payload data

#9

#5

#1

V4,3

B4,4

G3,3

R3,4

MU

X (

A)

Time (ms)

I2V MUX signal received by a rooftop receiver moving in the S direction when the vehicle 2 is located #5

V2I communication from vehicle 2 to the infrastructure

Vehicle 2 sends the request message to the infrastructure (V2I) ) and informs the signal controller that this vehicle desires service.

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.50.0

0.5

1.0

1010#P3 (W, t

3)

0101

1111

RGBV

IDSync Payload data

#P7 (W, t1)

#P1 (W, t2)

V2,1

B2,2

G3,1

R3,2

V2V

MU

X (

A)

Time (ms)

Dv=. Dt=.

Scenario 3: I2V2V2I

Request time: t3

Pedestrian-only stage (01 phase) two single-lane road phases

Phasing of traffic flows

Vehicle 3 sends the request message to the infrastructure (V2I) and to the leader (V2V)

Vehicles intersection access time is defined as the time at which the head of the vehicle enters the intersection area

From a capacity point of view is more efficient, if Vehicle 3 is given access before Vehicle 2

G13

1

1

2

4 5

6

8

9 8

4

6

2

3

3

4

2 9

1 1

1

7

4 6 6

8 8

8

5

7

2

2

6 4

7

R14

3

3

1

B22 V21 V23 V23 B24

7

5 5 5

9

V43 B44

G33 R32 G31 R34 9

G35

7

6 4

1

3

3

2 8 R54 9

4 6

7

2 8

G53

9

Virtual road network: I2V2V2I NETWORK

13

Horizon 2020

Transport virtual info day

The event will present the following 2019 calls for funding making available a total of nearly 355 million Mobility for Growth Automated Road Transport Green Vehicles Next Generation Batteries

https://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/portal/desktop/en/opportunities/h2020/calls/h2020-mg-2018-2019-2020.html#c,topics=callIdentifier/t/H2020-MG-2018-2019-2020/1/1/1/default-group&callStatus/t/Forthcoming/1/1/0/default-group&callStatus/t/Open/1/1/0/default-group&callStatus/t/Closed/1/1/0/default-group&+identifier/deschttps://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/portal/desktop/en/opportunities/h2020/calls/h2020-dt-art-2018-2019-2020.html#c,topics=callIdentifier/t/H2020-DT-ART-2018-2019-2020/1/1/1/default-group&callStatus/t/Forthcoming/1/1/0/default-group&callStatus/t/Open/1/1/0/default-group&callStatus/t/Closed/1/1/0/default-group&+identifier/d

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