italian unification part 2 camillo cavour and realpolitik

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Italian Unification Part 2

Italian Unification Part 2Camillo Cavour and RealpolitikRealpolitikAfter the failure of the 1848 revolutions, many people realized that ideas alone were not enough to change the world. Many powerful people across Europe realized that Nationalism and Liberalism were powerful forces that could not be fought forever.Therefore, if you cant beat them, join them. Use the ideas to help get what you want.Realpolitik means politics by any means necessary. Get want you want and use any method to do it. War, Peace, Honesty, Dishonesty, Loyalty, Betrayal. Everything was fair gameThe users of Realpolitik achieved lasting change because they used the ideas of Liberalism and Nationalism while at the same time being dishonest, underhanded and cunning

THE BRAINS OF ITALIAN UNIFICATIONCAMILLO CAVOUR

Camillo CavourCamillo Benso, Conte di Cavour, was born in Turin, in Northern Italian State of PiedmontHis Father forced him to go to Military SchoolAlthough he was very intelligent, he did poorly in schoolHe was too head-strong and independent for military life and hated the conformity He read the works of Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill (Famous Liberalists)He quit the Military out of boredom and traveled EuropeUpon return to his families land, he was able to impact his entire community with a series of economic and agricultural reformsThe move to politicsAfter 1848, Liberalism became more acceptable in ItalyAt this point, Cavour decides to enter politicsDuring his impressive political career, he earned the reputation as being a Moderate LiberalHe eventually earned the position of Prime MinisterCavour loved Piedmont, but he understood the power of Nationalism in ItalyTherefore, in order to save Piedmont . . . he must destroy itHe would seek to create Italy . . . Under the rule of the Royal House of PiedmontHow to you create a country?ObstaclesAustria Controls much of Northern ItalyFrance The Bourbon family controls most of Southern ItalyThe Church the Papal States split Italy in HalfPolitical Division Italy has numerous small states - they have traditionally fought each against each other rather than work together

You are Camillo Cavour . . . What would you do first?Step 1: The Nucleus StateCavour thought of the concept of the Nucleus StateNationalist revolutions have traditionally failed because there is always the question of leadership Cavour would build Sardinia-Piedmont into a powerful, wealthy and modern stateTherefore, people across Italy would recognize their leadershipHe built new roads, railways, schoolsHe created jobs and encouraged new industry and investmentUnder his leadership, Sardinia-Piedmont became the greatest of the small Italian States

Step 2: Make a Powerful FriendCavour knew that the first major obstacle was AustriaAustria was far too powerful to be dealt with by anyone other that a major powerTherefore he went looking for friendsTo do this, he thrust his little kingdom into the largest war of the Century . . . The Crimean War

The Eastern Question and the Crimean WarThe Ottoman Empire was once very powerfulHowever, in the 19th the Ottomans did not Industrialize and became a poor and disorganized stateThe Greeks and Serbians were able to successfully break free and Egyptians rose up against the ottomans and almost conquered the entire empireThe Ottoman Empire was called The Sick Man of Europe and was on the verger of breaking apartThe Question of who got to control all this territory is know in history as THE EASTERN QUESTIONThe Crimean War is the Result of the Eastern QuestionRussia, as part of the Quadruple Alliance (Congress of Vienna) helped many European countries avoid revolution . . . They felt earned them the right to be left alone to profit from the Ottoman demiseThe rest of Europe didnt see it that wayThis was a massive and ugly conflictStep 3: Convince your Friend to help youDuring the Crimean War, Cavour was able to make several contacts with the French GovernmentHe also gained several Audiences with Emperior Louis NapoleonCavour realized that the Emperors ambition to be as great as his Uncle could be used against him Cavour convinced France to help him against Austria in Exchange for Nice (then part of Piedmont now the French Riviera)War broke out and the French and Piedmontese forces were able to dive the Austrians out of Lombardy however, Louis grew tired of the war and pulled outVenetia stayed in Austrian handsBut a great victory had been accomplished

Step 4: Talk others into Joining youCavour was ready for final stepHe had an alliance with the French, he had defeated Austria and was in control of the dominant country in ItalyPromising protection against Austria and the benefits of his great economy, he managed to convince all of the small states of Northern Italy to join himAt the same time, Garibaldi was conquering southern Italy and poised to take over the Papal StatesCavour could not anger France, so he sent his army to stop Garibaldi this led to the famous meeting on the bridge

What happened on the Bridge?Garibaldi was faced with a choiceFirst, give up his conquest to Piedmont and unify most of italyOr Second, keep going and try to unify all of Italy under democracy . . . His life long dreamHe choose to surrender his forces and unify most of Italy under the leadership of Victor Emmanuel who was really Cavours puppet!The Nation of Italy is born!

Italy gets the rest!Cavour dies shortly after he forms ItalyDoctors bleed him to help him recovery from illnessThe bleeding causes a stroke and he diesHis last words are ITALY IS MADE, ALL IS SAFEItaly gets Venetia a few years later while the Austrians are embarrassed in war with another European powerItaly gets the Papal States and Rome after that when France gets embarrassed in war with another European powerItaly as we now know it is formed in 1871.Not a Happy EndingThe new Italy was culturally divided the Industrial North and the Agricultural South a problem Italy still has todayThe greatest obstacle facing Italy was the Catholic ChurchAfter losing control of the Papal States and Rome the Pope had nothing leftThe Catholic Church sabotaged the new Italian state by order all Catholics to resist the Italian government in any way possibleThis caused most programs and reforms in Italy to fail and doomed Italy to poverty and backwardnessThe Pope was only able to make peace with Italy in 1929 with MussoliniThe Vatican was made into its own country in exchange for his support for Mussolinis rule

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