italian unification. obstacles to unification  frequent warfare and foreign rule had led people...

Download Italian Unification. Obstacles to Unification  Frequent warfare and foreign rule had led people to identify with local regions  Austria, France, and

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  • Slide 1
  • Italian Unification
  • Slide 2
  • Slide 3
  • Obstacles to Unification Frequent warfare and foreign rule had led people to identify with local regions Austria, France, and independent Italian states were not unified In response to this foreign rule, secret patriotic societies focused their efforts on expelling the Austrian forces from northern Italy These forces revolted between 1820-1848 and were crushed by the Austrian forces
  • Slide 4
  • Italian Nationalism In the 1830s, a nationalist leader, Giuseppe Mazzini founded Young Italy The goal of the society was to create an independent, republic of Italy The revolution had failed, but nationalism remained, why!? Nationalism reminded Italians of the glory of Rome Shared a common language and history Unification would end trade barriers and stimulate industry
  • Slide 5
  • Southern Italian Movements The Italian nationalist movement, or Risorgimento, passed to the kingdom of Sardinia Victor Emmanuel II, the king of Sardinia, wanted to unify to expand his power In 1852, Victor Emmanuel II made Count Camillo Cavour his prime minister Wanted to end Austrian power in Italy and annex its provinces In 1858, Cavour negotiated a secret deal with Napoleon to aid Sardinia in a war with Austria With the help of France, Sardinia defeated Austria and annexed Lombardy Other nationalist provinces overthrew Austrian-backed rulers and joined with the Sardinians
  • Slide 6
  • Garibaldi and the Two Sicilies Giuseppe Garibaldi, a long-time nationalist who engineered the unification of Italy Garibaldi wanted to create an Italian republic and accepted aid from Cavour Garibaldi recruited a force of 1,000 red-shirted volunteers Cavour provided them arms and two ships to take them south into Sicily Garibaldis Red Shirts quickly won control of Sicily and went north into the rest of Italy
  • Slide 7
  • Unification! Garibaldi turned over Naples and Sicily to Victor Emmanuel II In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was crowned king of Italy At unification, two areas remained outside of the new Italian nation: Rome and Venetia But not for long. In a deal with Otto von Bismarck, Italy acquired Venetia after the Austro-Prussian War During the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, France withdrew from Rome For the first time since the fall of Rome, Italy was a united nation
  • Slide 8
  • Challenges for Italy Italy had no tradition of unity Few Italians felt loyalty to the new nation Regional rivalries remained Hostility between Italy and Roman Catholic Church divided the nation Popes resented the seizure of the papal states and Rome Papacy was left with a small territory of the Vatican Popes encouraged the Italians not to cooperate with the new government
  • Slide 9
  • Turmoil Italy was a constitutional monarchy under Victor Emmanuel Set up a two-house legislature In the late 1800s, social unrest increased as socialists organized strikes and anarchists turned to sabotage and violence Slowly, the government extended suffrage to more men and passed laws to improve social conditions Turmoil continued Many people emigrated (left their homeland) and went to the United States, Canada, and Latin America
  • Slide 10
  • Progress Despite problems, Italy developed economically in the Industrial Revolution Although they lacked natural resources, industries sprouted up in the north Industrialization brought urbanization Reformers improved education and working conditions