Italian Unification. Obstacles to Italian Unity Italy had not been unified since Roman times. Obstacles to Italian unity: - Foreign control and influence

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p>Italian Unification Slide 2 Obstacles to Italian Unity Italy had not been unified since Roman times. Obstacles to Italian unity: - Foreign control and influence - Foreign control and influence - Habsburgs - Habsburgs Nationalists organized secret societies to oust Austrians from northern Italy. - 1830s Giuseppe Mazzini founded Young Italy - 1830s Giuseppe Mazzini founded Young Italy - 1849 Mazzini set up revolutionary republic in Rome that - 1849 Mazzini set up revolutionary republic in Rome that was toppled by French armies sent to help the pope was toppled by French armies sent to help the pope - Mazzini spend most of his life in exile - Mazzini spend most of his life in exile Even though nationalists failed it planted seeds for further successes. Slide 3 Nationalism and Mazzini Nationalists organized secret societies to oust Austrians from northern Italy. Mazzini founded Young Italy to realize a republican, united Italy. 1849 Mazzini set up a revolutionary republic in Rome but it was toppled by French armies sent in to help the pope. Mazzini spent most of his life in exile Even though nationalists failed, it planted the seeds for future successes. Nationalists believed that a united Italy made sense because of a common language and history. Giuseppe Mazzini Slide 4 Piedmont Sardinia Leads Unification After 1848 leadership of Italian unification went to Piedmont-Sardinia. Piedmont had a constitutional monarchy under Victor Emmanuel II Piedmont Sardinia included Piedmont, Nice, Savoy, island of Sardinia Map of Italy before Unification Slide 5 Piedmonts Leadership King Victor Emmanuel II Camillo Cavour Slide 6 Cavours Leadership 1852 Victor Emmanuel made Count Camillo Cavour prime minister. He was from a noble family, but favored liberal goals. He was a realpolitik. Cavour first reformed Sardinias economy by improving agriculture, building railroads, and encouraging commerce. Cavours long term goal: end Austrian power in Italy and annex Lombardy and Venetia. Slide 7 Intrigue with France 1855 Sardinia joined Britain and France against Russia in the Crimean War. Sardinia did not win any territory but they did have a voice at the peace conference and gained the attention of France and Napoleon III. 1855 Cavour negotiated a secret deal with Napoleon. Napoleon promised to aid Sardinia in a war with Austria. Slide 8 War with Austria 1859 Cavour provoked a war with Austria with the help of France. Austria was defeated. Lombardy was annexed to Sardinia along with several other northern Italian states. Slide 9 Garibaldis Red Shirts Attention shifted to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in southern Italy. Giuseppe Garibaldi, a nationalist and ally of Mazzini was ready for action. He wanted to create an Italian republic and accepted aid from Cavour Garibaldi recruited a force of 1000 red- shirted volunteers. Cavour provided weapons and allowed ships to take Garibaldi and his Red Shirts south to Sicily. Garibaldis forces won control of Sicily. He then crossed the mainland toward Naples. Slide 10 Cavour Intervenes Cavour was alarmed at Garibaldis successes. He believed he might wiant to set up a republic of his own in the south. Cavour urged Victor Emmanuel to send Sardinian troops to deal with Garibaldi. Instead the Sardinians overran the Papal States and linked up with Garibaldi and his forces in Naples. Garibaldi turned over Naples and Sicily to Victor Emmanuel. Slide 11 Unification 1861 Victor Emmanuel became king of Italy. Two areas remained outside the new Italian nation: Rome and Venetia. Cavour died in 1861. His successors completed his dream. Italy formed an alliance with Prussia and in the Austro- Prussian war they won the province of Venetia. During the Franco-Prussian War in 1870 France was forced to withdraw troops from Rome. Italy was now united. Slide 12 Challenges Facing a United Italy Few Italians felt ties to the new nation. Regional rivalries: The north was the center of business and culture and the south was agricultural and poor. Hostility between Italy and the Roman Catholic Church became even greater. - the popes resented the seizing of the Papal States and - the popes resented the seizing of the Papal States and Rome Rome - government granted the papacy limited rights and - government granted the papacy limited rights and control over church properties. control over church properties. - popes saw themselves as prisoners and urged Catholics not to - popes saw themselves as prisoners and urged Catholics not to cooperate with the government. cooperate with the government. </p>