italian and german unification chapter 24 section 3

Download Italian and German Unification Chapter 24 Section 3

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  • Slide 1
  • Italian and German Unification Chapter 24 Section 3
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  • Unity and Disunity Nationalism fueled efforts to build nation- states Shaking Old Empires Austrian Empire (Slovenes, Hungarians, Germans, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Poles, Serbs, and Italians) Prussia wins Austro-Prussian War (union of Prussia and 21 smaller German political states) Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria split his empire in half declared Austria and Hungary separate states What did Francis Joseph hope to achieve by breaking his empire into two states? After WWI Austria-Hungary broke up into smaller states
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  • The Russian Empire (Ukrainians, Poles, Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians, Finns, Jews, Romanians, Georgians, Armenians, Turks and others Russification: forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups How was Russification suppose to strengthen the empire? WWI and communist revolution brought an end to the Romanov dynasty in 1917.
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  • Ottoman Empire (Greeks, Slavs, Arabs, Bulgarians and Armenians) Granted citizenship to all its citizens angering many WWI broke apart the empire
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  • Cavour Cavour in Sardinia Chief Minister, Count Camillo di Cavour Disliked absolutism and admired Britain's system of parliament Wanted Italy to be united and industrialized Reorganized and strengthened the army Established banks, factories and railroads Believed in separation of church and state Allied Sardinia with France and Great Britain
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  • Napoleon III Napoleon III and War with Austria Austria biggest obstacle to unification Napoleon III of France, allied with Sardinia, in hopes of pushing Austria out of Italy and becoming more of an influence in Italy Napoleon III and Cavour agreed that France would help drive the Austrians out if Cavour would give Napoleon III the French speaking regions of Nice and Savoy Why would Napoleon III agree to help Sardinia drive out Austria? Austria declared war on Sardinia because Sardinia didn't stop arming and mobilizing their army
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  • Garibaldi Garibaldi and the Thousand Recruited an army of 1,100 soldiers They were called the Red Shirts Invaded Sicily and Naples Cavour was afraid of Garibaldi's growing power, so he sent an army to stop his advancements Sardinia annexed most of the territory of the Papal States Garibaldi met with Cavour and agreed to have Victor Emmanuel II as king, as long as Garibaldi could be governor of Naples, he was denied
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  • Bismarck Bismarck and Prussian Strength 1862, Bismarck became leader of the Prussian cabinet Turned the Prussian army into a war machine Maintain Prussian dominance in unification Unification through war Bismarck had to overcome two major obstacles Get rid of Austria as a powerhouse in the German Confederation Get rid of Austria's influence on the opinions of the southern German states He overcame his obstacles through three wars The Danish War, the Seven Week's and the Franco-Prussian War The Danish War was fought over two territories, Schleswig (Prussia) and Holstein (Austria) The Seven Week's War was fought against Austria for dominance in the German Confederation The Treaty of Prague in 1866, Holstein and Venetia The Northern German Confederation formed, in 1867 The Franco-Prussian War the southern states joined the Northern Confederation defeated the French, GC gained Alsace-Lorraine
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  • German Empire Formation of the German Empire The German Empire was formed on January 18, 1871 Hall of Mirrors, in Paris, at the Palace of Versailles All German states became united except for Austria Berlin became the capital and Wilhelm I became emperor/Kaiser with Bismarck as his Prime Minister Bismarcks realpolitik Federal government controlled defense, foreign affairs and commerce Legislative branch had two houses, the Bundesrat and the Reichstag