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1. Group ofSoftwareEngineering U N I V E R S I D A D D E C U E N C A , E C U A D O R LessonsLearnedontheuseofi* byNonTechnicalUsers 2. 2 Outline Motivation.Purposeofthiswork Thecasestudy Thelessonslearned Conclusions 3. 3 Motivation(1/2) Earlyphasesoftheenterpriseengineeringprocess areorientedtomodeltheenterprisecontext Enterprisecontextmodelsincludeenvironmental actorsandtheirrelationships.Helpunderstanding: thepurposeofenterprisesintheirenvironment whatisrequiredfromthem howtheygeneratevalue Enterprisecontext models may bedifficult tobuild: communicationalgapsamongtechnicaland administrativepersonnel limitedknowledgeoftheenterprisestructure, operationsandstrategy 4. 4 Motivation(2/2) Todealwiththeseproblems,wehaveusedi*as: communicationalmeansbetweenstakeholders frameworktodiscoverbusinessarchitectures languagetodefineenterprisecontextpatterns Inthispaper,wefocusonthefirstaspect 5. 5 Purposeofthiswork Weplannedandconductedanempiricalvalidation case: intendedtomeasuretheabilityofnontechnical stakeholderstolearnandusethei*notationinan industrialsetting 6. 6 Background DHARMAmethod 4phasemethodforconstructingEAswithi* D D 1.Enterprise context model (CM) 2.Introdu cing the system 3.Impact analysis 4.Architec ting a solution 7. 7 Thecasestudy Mediumsize(10Kstudents)privateEcuadorianuniv. DHARMAmethodusedtodefinetheITstrategic planandprojectportfolio Firststepwastheconstructionofthei*basedCM. 13OrganizationalAreas(OA)contributed Allstakeholdersfromthemwerenontechnical: operational,midmanagementandmanagement staff lawyers,businessadministrators,psychologists, librarians,economists,accountantsand communicators 8. 8 Thecasestudyinnumbers 9. 9 Lessonslearned Categorizedinthreephases: Induction (3 lessons) Execution (5 lessons) Consolidation (2 lessons) 10. 10 Lessonslearned:Induction(1/3) Provide a road- map to perform the work Provide a road- map to perform the work Provide basic training1 22 Provide guide- lines to improve quality Provide guide- lines to improve quality33 Focused sessions Not too ambitious 11. 11 Lessonslearned:Induction(2/3) Provide a road- map to perform the work 2 Provide basic training Provide basic training11 Clear outcomes Precise timeline 12. 12 Lessonslearned:Induction(3/3) Provide basic training Provide basic training11 Provide guide- lines to improve quality 3 Provide a road- map to perform the work Provide a road- map to perform the work 22 methodology execution notation 13. 13 Lessonslearned:Execution(1/5) Help users to manage size4 Break the model Allow non-graphical representations 14. 14 Lessonslearned:Execution(2/5) Avoid the use of specialized tools Help users to manage size Help users to manage size44 5 Time-consuming and rewardless Let them draw and excel-ise! Actor Dependency Type Dependency Direction Goal Agreementssigned Resource AgreementDocuments Goal Technicalformationprovided Resource Teachers Resource Infrastructure Goal SyllabusPrepared Resource Curricula&Contents Goal CurriculaApproved Goal ContentsApproved Goal Gradesandassistanceregistered Resource Gradesandassistancerecords Resource Gradesandassistanceformats Goal Enrollment/Inscriptionrecorded Goal Admissionexamstaken Resource RegulationsandCertificates 01.03Institutes 15. 15 Lessonslearned:Execution(3/5) Help users to manage size Help users to manage size44 55 Do not over- constrain users imagination 6 Avoid the use of specialized tools Avoid the use of specialized tools Methods, notation, 16. 16 Lessonslearned:Execution(4/5) 55 Do not over- constrain users imagination Do not over- constrain users imagination66 Do not expect excellence7 Avoid the use of specialized tools Avoid the use of specialized tools Help users to manage size Help users to manage size44 1 They have not become experts! Flaws are easy to identify and correct 17. 17 Lessonslearned:Execution(5/5) 55 Do not over- constrain users imagination Do not over- constrain users imagination66 Avoid the use of specialized tools Avoid the use of specialized tools Help users to manage size Help users to manage size44 Do not expect excellence Do not expect excellence77 1 8 Review & pro- vide feedback continuosly Stakeholders will require continuous but decreasing feedback. Operational profiles require less corrections than managerial Dependencies Operational Area (OA) Nb. of Participants Job Position Nb. Correct 26 30%Treasury 1 Operational 91 28%Research Deanship 1 Operational 52 27%Libraries 1 Operational 39 26% Administrative Coordination 1 Mid-manager 184 20%Faculties 6 Mid-manager 94 15% Communications Department 2 Manager / operational 84 14%Students Welfare 3 Manager / operational 56 13%Financial Direction 1 Manager 68 12%Graduate school 1 Mid-manager 54 6% Professional / Continuing Education 1 Manager 18. 18 Lessonslearned:Consolidation(1/2) Plan for validation activities 9 Reconcile different styles i*-compliant Manage large scaleExternal (ECA) Internal (ICA) Total Goal SoftGoal Task Resources 800 550 61 22 167 Type 179 155 3 6 15 Description 448 372 19 8 49 Direction 217 155 17 7 38 Deleted 20 13 1 3 3 Correct 221 90 35 6 90 239 65 45 15 114 Area Actors Dependencies IncludedinCMsby Total 69 53 IncudedinnontechnicalstakeholdersCMs Incorrect Addedbyconsultant 19. 19 Lessonslearned:Consolidation(2/2) Be aware of consolidation activities 10 Plan for validation activities Plan for validation activities99 Putting together 13 different models 20. 20 Conclusions Positiveside: Setoflessonslearnedidentified Stakeholdersagreedthattheactionsdescribed inthisworkhelpedinthesuccessful conductionofthecase Negativeside: Stilltheuseofi* withoutani* expertremains achallenge 21. Group ofSoftwareEngineering U N I V E R S I D A D D E C U E N C A , E C U A D O R Thanks for your attention!