Is searching self efficacy related to search performance?

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Is searching self efficacy related to search performance? A study of University students Web information searching strategies Marioleni Parissis , parisima@upatras.gr Nikolaos Tselios , nitse@ece.upatras.gr Vassilis Komis , komis@upatras.gr - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Is searching self efficacy related to search performance? A study of University students Web information searching strategies

Marioleni Parissis, parisima@upatras.grNikolaos Tselios, nitse@ece.upatras.gr Vassilis Komis, komis@upatras.gr University of Patras, Department of Educational Sciences and Early Childhood Education, Patras, Greece

The title of the presentation is Is searching self efficacy related to search performance? A study of University students Web information searching strategies 1Plan presentationBackgroundResearch objectivesMethodologyMethod of studyProcedureSearch taskInstruments FindingsConclusions and implicationsWORKSHOP IFIP'2010 2Our paper aims to describe the findings regarding to the information searching strategies of University students while using Internet search engines. The presentation begins with the research on search engines and information search, after will present the objectives of our study and the research methodology we adopted to satisfy them, then will describe the findings and some of the main conclusions and recommendations we have reached.

First, we will provide some information regarding 2Background 1/3People very often in their daily life face information problems (ip)activities that demand people to recognize the information they need and to be able to locate, evaluate, and use effectively (Walraven et al., 2008)Studies on the information problem solving (ips) fall into two categories with the focus on:the process of information problem solving (ips)the use of Internet and search engines WORKSHOP IFIP'2010 3By the term information problems it is meant Studies on the use of search engines fall into two categories with the focus on:the nature of user queries and the interaction between the user and the search engine interface

Studies on the use of search engines generally fall into three

The information seeking process on the internet is complex, since it involves a series of multiple sub processes and interactions individuals develop while they try to find information (Marchionini, 2003).

3Background 2/3Fournier & Loiselle (2009) reached the following conclusions on the students information problem solving (ips):they do not develop a planthey prefer to use search engines rather than directories, rarely construct searches using Boolean logic and usually look at the search engines results that appear at the topPeople of all ages and with different skills during the ips, face problems (Walraven et al., 2008):the utilization of keywords in search enginesthe evaluation of the search results andthe proper organization of the actual search procedureWORKSHOP IFIP'2010 4Fournier & Loiselle (2009) illustrate that students do not develop a plan when they carry out a search procedure, they prefer to use search engines rather than directories, rarely construct searches using Boolean logic and usually look at the search engines results that appear at the top.

As a result, students information seeking on the Web has recently emerged as an important research area.Another study on the use of the Internet as an information resource by two different groups of users reveals that there are two distinct types of patterns of information seeking on the Web based on the users experience: a breadth-first and a depth-first search (Jenkins et al., 2003). In the first case, users tend to browse a fairly large number of results without really reading and evaluating the information while in the other case they focus mainly on the content of two or three results.

4Background 3/3Jenkins et al. (2003) indicated that there are two distinct types of patterns of information seeking on the Web based on the users experience: a breadth-first and a depth-first searchHolscher and Strube (2000) noted that:experienced web users tend to use two times the number of search keywords compared to novice users, dont to have any difficulty when employing Boolean logic but face problems when having to search for information with specific-domain knowledge they lack

WORKSHOP IFIP'2010 5Holscher and Strube (2000) noted thatIn addition, despite the comfort experienced users feel while using search engines, they seem to have difficulty when having to search for information with specific-domain knowledge they lack. Holscher and Strube (2000) investigated the differences between the type of use of search engines by two groups of users:5Research objectivesThe objectives of our study were:Examination of the correlations between the perceived result confidence, perceived satisfaction and the effectiveness of the search processes developed for the completion of the activityInvestigation of the relationship between the participants search engine self efficacy and the effectiveness of the expressed search actionsIdentification of students search strategies while performing a given information task in accordance with their search engine self efficacy

WORKSHOP IFIP'2010 6The goal of the study was threefold. First to investigate students search strategies while performing a given information task in accordance with their search engine self efficacy as reported in a suitable designed questionnaire.

6

Method of study

Case study107 University students of the Early Childhood Educational Sciences Department of the University of Patras participated19-21 years old (1 male, 106 females)they attended two compulsory courses concerning the introduction and integration of ICT in Education during the academic year 2008-2009

WORKSHOP IFIP'2010 7A case study was conducted in which 107 University students participated.

7ProcedureThe research procedure consisted of:the students experimental session that involved a task completion the completion of a questionnaire referring to the participants self efficacy related to the use of ICT and basic Internet services and demographic characteristicsThey had 30 minutes to complete the given taskIt took place at the Departments computer lab

WORKSHOP IFIP'2010 8They were not given specific instructions on how to approach the task.The researcher did not interrupt the participants during the experimental procedure.Subsequently, the students had to fulfill a questionnaire referring to the participants demographic characteristics Each students Web session was recorded and stored upon task completion.

8

Search task

The task given was closely related with the subject of the two courses in which the research was conductedThe students had to answer to a question regarding the history of the Internet:

When and where did the idea of a large number of interconnected computers initially came up? WORKSHOP IFIP'2010 9The topic of the task was closely related with the subject of the two courses in which the research was conducted. 9

Instruments

Implementation of the research processan activity sheet a questionnaire using the Web service Survey MonkeyData collectionthe software Wrapperused to collect participants log files and a tool developed from our research group (Ict in Education) for data preprocessing of the users log files.Analysis of dataSPSS (17.0)

WORKSHOP IFIP'2010 10The materials necessary to conduct the research were:

10Results 1/551.02% of the students managed to find the right answer, 27.55% gave a wrong answer while 21.43% did not give any answer to the question the participants mean time to complete the task was 11 minutes and 32 seconds (SD= 312 sec)the mean number of searches performed by the students was 13.03 (SD=10.8) the mean number of Web sites they visited during the Web search was 22.6 (SD=16.8)

WORKSHOP IFIP'2010 11The results reported in the following are analyzed according to each group observed performance as well as to the total number of participants.11Results 2/5 NoVariables1234561Search engine self-efficacy-.093.135.093-.202*.0022Time on task-.282**-.323**.425**-.1183Confidence for the results accuracy.908**-.634**.292**4Perceived satisfaction-.711**.327**5Perceived task difficulty-.239*6Assessment of task performance WORKSHOP IFIP'2010 12Table 1: Spearman correlations between representative participants variables Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (*) or at the 0.01 level (**). This table presents correlations between participants variablesAs we can seen no correlation between search engine self efficacy and the effectiveness of the expressed search actions was revealed from the analysis of data. However, correlations between other variables seem to exist, for example12Results 3/5Students were separated in three groups based on reported self-efficacy in Internet search engines, reported to the questionnaire: students who seem to consider themselves as moderately capable users (22.4%)who consider themselves as capable users (46.9%) as very capable users of search engines (30.61%).

WORKSHOP IFIP'2010 13Analysis of the students reported self-efficacy in Internet search engines showed that they were separated in three groups: the first group consists 13Results 4/5Moderately capable users (N=22)Capable users (N=46)Very capable users (N=30)Overall(N=98)Use of multiple keywords68.18%67.39%73.33%69.39%Natural language 9.09%6.52%6.67%7.14%Natural language in quotation marks4.55%2.17%3.33%3.06%Use of Boolean operators AND, OR, NOT4.55%0.00%3.33%2.04%Use of the exact question as given in the task description 13.64%23.91%13.33%18.37%14Table 2: Students information searching strategiesParticipantsSearching Strategies

14Results 5/5 Students seem to commit errors and have misconceptions while employing information searching strategiesthey used the same keywords in more than one search attemptthey did not attempt to use a Boolean operator other than AND, which often was erroneously typedthey also have misconceptions about the way the search engines workstudents (18.37%) seem to believe that search engines are capable of interpreting the semantics of the queries they formulateWORKSHOP IFIP'2010 15Furthermore, from the log files analysis it is observed that students commit errors and have misconceptions while employing information searching strategies. A significant number of students (18.37%) seem to believe that search engines are capable of interpreting the semantic of the queries they formulate, since they used the exact question posed at the description of the task.

15Conclusions 1/2 No correlation between participants' search engine self efficacy and task performance was revealedStudents self efficacy and satisfaction are related with their expressed task performance The strategies used to execute a search were: a combination of multiple keywords, use of logical operators, use of natural language, use of natural language in quotations marks and use of the exact question given in the task descriptionNo significant differences in the information search strategies used by the students according to their reported search engine self efficacy on using were shownWORKSHOP IFIP'2010 16More research is required in this point, since it cannot be concluded whether the aforementioned finding is due to the nature of the specific given task or erroneous participants' beliefs concerning their information seeking skills.

16Conclusions 2/2The strategy mostly used by the students while attempting to find the required information was the use of multiple keywordsThe participants seem to lack knowledge of how to use search engines while seeking specific informationlimited use of logical operators and other logical expressions by the studentserrors in the expression the Boolean operatorsdifficulties when choosing keywords and phrasesthere is a need to the design of effective didactical situations (Walraven et al., 2008).

WORKSHOP IFIP'2010 17Based on these findings, we can conclude that 17ImplicationsFurther research goals are:The identification of patterns formulation queries in search engines used by the studentsThe derivation of appropriate instructional design schemes proper learning activities should contain suitable cognitive conflicts and should be presented through students everyday information needsin order to contribute to the deeper acquiring of relevant competenciesWORKSHOP IFIP'2010 1818References Fournier, H. and Loiselle, J. (2009) Les strategies de recherche et de traitement de linformation des futurs enseignants dans des environnements informatiques. International Journal of Technologies in Higher Education, 6, 1829. Holscher, C. and Strube, G. (2000) Web search behavior of Internet experts and newbies. Computer Networks, 33, 337346.Jenkins, C., Corritore, C. L. and Wiedenbeck, S. (2003) Patterns of information seeking on the web: A qualitative study of domain expertise and web expertise. IT and Society, 1, 6489. Marchionini, G. (2003) Information Seeking in Electronic Environments. Cambridge University Press, New York. Walraven, A., Brand-Gruwel, S. and Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2008) Information problem-solving: A review of problems students encounter and instructional solutions. Computers in Human Behavior, 24, 623648.

WORKSHOP IFIP'2010 1919Thank you for your attention!

Marioleni Parissis, parisima@upatras.grNikolaos Tselios, nitse@ece.upatras.gr Vassilis Komis, komis@upatras.gr

University of Patras, ICT in Education 2020

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