irony illustrated: a cross-cultural exploration of situational irony in china and the united states

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  • 8/3/2019 Irony Illustrated: A Cross-Cultural Exploration of Situational Irony in China and the United States

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    [LJD/VEN]DJLK VNVGY[

    Jwoigy >8= Dk}digy% 9668

    Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0

    N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj| lj

    Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{

    i|

    Xlnjc El

    Rlk}dy H* Only% Gml}dy

    [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{

    Mgvny}ogj} db Gn{} N{lnj Enjcwncg{ njm Klrlelpn}ldj{

    Wjlrgy{l}| db Vgjj{|ernjln

    Vhlenmgevhln% VN >6=/2;67 W[N

    ronlyF{n{*wvgjj*gmw

    sss*{ljd/ven}djlk*dyc

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    [LJD/VEN]DJLK VNVGY[ l{ nj dkkn{ldjne {gylg{ gml}gm i| Rlk}dy H* Only*]hg vwyvd{g db }hg {gylg{ l{ }d onag nrnlenieg }d {vgklnel{}{ njm }hg lj}gyg{}gm

    vwielk }hg yg{we}{ db yg{gnykh }hn}% igknw{g db l}{ wjkdjrgj}ldjne dy kdj}ydrgy{lnejn}wyg% olch} d}hgysl{g cd wjvwiel{hgm* ]hg gml}dy nk}lrge| gjkdwyncg{ |dwjcgy%jd} |g} sgee g{}niel{hgm% {khdeny{ njm ljmgvgjmgj} nw}hdy{ }d {wiol} onjw{kylv}{bdy kdj{lmgyn}ldj* Kdj}yliw}ldj{ lj nj| db }hg on`dy {khdenye| enjcwncg{ db }hgsdyem% ljkewmljc Ydonjlpgm Odmgyj [}njmnym Onjmnylj (O[O, njm @nvnjg{g% nygnkkgv}nieg* Lj {vgklne klykwo{}njkg{% vnvgy{ syl}}gj lj djg db }hg [ljl}lk }dvdegk}{(bnjc|nj, on| ig kdj{lmgygm bdy vwielkn}ldj*

    Ne}hdwch }hg khlgb bdkw{ db[ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{ l{ dj }hg lj}gykwe}wyne ygen}ldj{ db

    Khljn sl}h d}hgy vgdveg{% khneegjcljc njm kygn}lrg {}wmlg{ dj n slmg rnylg}| db

    vhlededclkne {wi`gk}{ slee ig gj}gy}nljgm* ]hl{ {gylg{ l{ jd} }hg venkg bdy {nbg% {digy%njm {}dmc| vyg{gj}n}ldj{* [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{ vygbgy{ elrge| sdya }hn}% shleg}naljc ygn{djnieg yl{a{ }d nmrnjkg }hg blgem% knvl}nelpg{ dj iyleelnj} jgs lj{lch}{

    lj}d }hg mgrgedvogj} db klrlelpn}ldj*

    ]hg dje| {}|eg/{hgg} sg hdjdy l{ }hn} db kdj{l{}gjk|* Shgyg vd{{lieg% sg vygbgy }hgw{ncg{ db }hg @dwyjne db N{lnj [}wmlg{* [ljdcynvh{ (hnjpl% ne{d kneegm }g}yncynvh{Qbnjcawnlpl_, njm d}hgy wjw{wne {|oide{ {hdwem ig agv} }d nj ni{dew}g oljlowo*[ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{ govhn{lpg{ {wi{}njkg drgy bdyo*

    [wiol{{ldj{ nyg ygcwenye| {gj} dw} }d ig ygbgyggm njm gx}gj{lrg gml}dylne{wccg{}ldj{ bdy ygrl{ldj on| ig dbbgygm* Onjw{kylv}{ {hdwem ig mdwieg/{vnkgm sl}h

    slmg onyclj{ njm {wiol}}gm lj mwvelkn}g* N {g} db )Lj{}ywk}ldj{ bdy Nw}hdy{) on|ig di}nljgm i| kdj}nk}ljc }hg gml}dy*

    Lmgnee|% }hg bljne mynb} {hdwem ig n jgn}% kegny knogyn/ygnm| kdv| sl}h hlch ienka/njm/shl}g kdj}yn{}*

    [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{ l{ elkgj{gm wjmgy }hg Kygn}lrg Kdoodj{ N}}yliw}ldj/JdjKdoogyklne/JdMgylr{ 9*7 Elkgj{g* ]d rlgs n kdv| db }hl{ elkgj{g% rl{l}

    h}}v0$$kygn}lrgkdoodj{*dyc$elkgj{g{$i|/jk/jm$9*7$ dy {gjm n eg}}gy }d Kygn}lrgKdoodj{% 7=; Hdsnym [}ygg}% 7}h Beddy% [nj Bynjkl{kd% Knelbdyjln% 67% W[N*

    Vegn{g jd}g0 Shgj }hg gml}dy cdg{ dj nj gxvgml}ldj dy yg{gnykh }ylv% nee dvgyn}ldj{(ljkewmljc bleeljc dymgy{, on| }govdynyle| kgn{g bdy wv }d }sd dy }hygg odj}h{ n} n}log* Lj {wkh klykwo{}njkg{% }hd{g shd sl{h }d vwykhn{g rnyldw{ l{{wg{ db [VV nygyg~wg{}gm }d snl} vn}lgj}e| wj}le hg yg}wyj{* Lb l{{wg{ nyg wycgj}e| jggmgm shleg }hggml}dy l{ nsn|% }hg| on| ig yg~wg{}gm }hydwch Lj}gyeliyny| Ednj*

    J*I*0 Igcljjljc sl}h l{{wg jd* >3>% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{ hn{ iggj vwiel{hgm

    gegk}ydjlknee| dj }hg Sgi* L{{wg{ bydo jd* > }d jd* >36% hdsgrgy% slee kdj}ljwg }dig {dem n{ vnvgy kdvlg{ wj}le dwy {}dka ywj{ dw}% nb}gy shlkh }hg| }dd slee ig onmgnrnlenieg dj }hg Sgi n} sss*{ljd/ven}djlk*dyc*

    TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT

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    ]d o| od}hgy \dw|ljc njm o| bn}hgy \djc

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    ll

    NKAJDSEGMCOGJ][

    ]hl{ vnvgy sdwem jd} hnrg igkdog ygnel}| sl}hdw} }hg cwlmnjkg njm ogj}dyljcvydrlmgm i| o| bnkwe}| nmrl{dy{* ]hnja |dw% My* Only% bdy |dwy gjmeg{{ {wvvdy} njm

    }loge| yg{dwykg {wccg{}ldj{% njm% My* Cli{dj% bdy |dwy cgjgydw{ ogj}dyljc* Sl}hdw} |dwy

    hgev% }hl{ sdya sdwem hnrg iggj {grgyge| elol}gm lj {}n}l{}lkne {wvvdy}* L no mggve|

    cyn}gbwe bdy |dwy vn}lgjkg njm cwlmnjkg*

    GXGKW]LRG [WOONY\

    Onj| yg{gnykhgy{ db lydj| hnrg gxvyg{{gm kwyld{l}| nidw} }hg kwe}wyne lovelkn}ldj{ db

    ygkdcjlpljc njm nvvygkln}ljc lydj|* Lj bnk}% {dog hnrg cdjg {d bny n{ }d gxvyg{{ igelgb lj

    }hg kdjbljgogj} db }hg vhgjdogjdj }d }hg Sg{}gyj hgol{vhgyg* ]hl{ vnvgy mgne{

    gxkew{lrge| sl}h {l}wn}ldjne lydj| njm w{g{ {wyrg| mn}n bydo id}h Khljg{g njm W*[*

    {noveg{ }d kdovnyg njm kdj}yn{} kyd{{/kwe}wyne yg{we}{*

    N {l}wn}ldj knj ig ken{{lblgm n{ lydjlk shgj ljmlrlmwne lj}gj}ldj{ dy {dklne

    gxvgk}n}ldj{ nyg ml{ywv}gm i| nj ljkdjcywdw{ ygnel}|* ]hl{ vnvgy bly{} ygrlgs{ }hg ygegrnj}

    }hgdy| ygen}ljc }d lydj| njm }hg inkacydwjm db lydj| lj Khljn% njm }hgj ml{kw{{g{ }hg

    yg{gnykh mg{lcj njm bljmljc{ db }hg {}wm|* ]hg {}wm| kdjmwk}gm ljrderg{ n {gylg{ db lydjlk

    njm jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{ njm {wyrg|{ }hg yg{vdjmgj}{ kdovyghgj{ldj% nvvygkln}ldj% njm

    ygnk}ldj }d gnkh kny}ddj* Yg{we}{ bydo }hg njne|{l{ {wccg{} }hn} shleg {l}wn}ldjne lydj| l{

    vyg{gj} njm cgjgynee| wjmgy{}ddm lj Khljn% }hgyg nyg {lcjlblknj} kwe}wyne mlbbgygjkg{ lj l}{

    }ygn}ogj} njm vygbgygjkg ig}sggj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{*

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    KDJ]GJ][

    Nkajdsegmcogj}{ ll

    Gxgkw}lrg [woony| ll

    L* Lj}ydmwk}ldj >

    LL* ]hgdyg}lkne Inkacydwjm 9

    Lydjdedc|0 N hl{}dy| db lydj| 9

    ]nxdjdo| db lydj| =

    Lydj| r{* {n}lyg njm {nykn{o =

    [l}wn}ldjne lydj| 7

    LLL* Lydj| lj Khljn >>

    LR* H|vd}hg{l{ >;

    R* Yg{gnykh Mg{lcj >=

    RL* Yg{gnykh Bljmljc{ 9>

    Kyd{{/kwe}wyne njne|{l{ 9>Byg~wgjk| db !$/ ygnk}ldj{ 9;

    Lovelkn}ldj{ db kny}ddj }dvlk 9=

    Gxvd{wyg }d Sg{}gyj kwe}wyg 97

    Ml{kw{{ldj 97

    RLL* Kdjkew{ldj 98

    Nvvgjmlkg{ ;9

    Ygbgygjkg{ 73

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    L*LJ]YDMWK]LDJ

    Ne}hdwch od{} bdyone lj}ydmwk}ldj{ }d }hg kdjkgv} db lydj| }nag venkg sl}hljenjcwncg njm el}gyn}wyg ken{{yddo{ nb}gy gegogj}ny| gmwkn}ldj% {}wmlg{ hnrg {hdsj }hn}

    khlemygj igclj }d wjmgy{}njm kdovdjgj}{ db lydj| i| 7 dy 2 |gny{ db ncg (Kygw{gyg% 9666,*

    ]hg gnye| mgrgedvogj} db n khlem{ nilel}| }d wjmgy{}njm lydj| {wccg{}{ }hn} bdyon}lrg

    gxvgylgjkg{ sl}h }hg kdjkgv} (vyldy }d ken{{yddo lj}ydmwk}ldj, gxl{} ig|djm }hg kdj}gx} db

    }gx}idda{ njm {khddesdya* Ne}hdwch nknmgolk {}wmlg{ db lydj| nyg vylonyle| hdw{gm lj

    }hg blgem{ db yhg}dylk njm el}gyn}wyg% lydj| l}{geb l{ n vhgjdogjdj kdoodj grgj lj dwy

    mnle| elrg{*

    ]hg ken{{lk nkkdwj} db lydj|% lj}gjmljc }hg dvvd{l}g db shn} l{ {nlm dy syl}}gj% l{

    vgyhnv{ ne{d }hg od{} {loveg njm kdoodj* Ljmggm% }hl{ }|vg db kdj}ynmlk}dy| mdwieg

    en|gyljc ig}sggj shn} l{ {nlm dy syl}}gj njm shn} l{ nk}wnee| lj}gjmgm l{ nj n{vgk} db

    lydj|1 |g} hds knj nee }hg kdovegxl}lg{ db {wkh n {dvhl{}lkn}gm |g} kdoodj vhgjdogjdj

    ig knv}wygm {d gn{le|4 ]d n}}gov} n }nxdjdo| njm mgbljl}ldj db n vhgjdogjdj {d

    jgiwedw{ }hn} l} ml{nvvgny{ n{ djg nvvydnkhg{ l} l{ n mg{vgyn}g nmrgj}wyg (Owgkag% >

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    (bjbjc, db}gj vdlj} djg }d el}gyny| sdya{ }hn} nyg nee }hg odyg ygen}gm }d {n}lyg* Cynj}gm%

    }hg ml{}ljk}ldj{ ig}sggj lydj| njm {n}lyg dy {nykn{o nyg jd} gj}lyge| kegny }d jdj/Khljg{g

    kwe}wyg{ njm {dklg}lg{ gl}hgy1 hdsgrgy% }hg gxl{}gjkg db lydj| (njm l}{ wjmgy{}njmljc njm

    nvvygkln}ldj, l{ ygonyanie| odyg vygrnegj} lj }hg Sg{}gyj kwe}wyg{* ]hl{ igc{ }hg

    ~wg{}ldj db shg}hgy lydj| njm l}{ wjmgy{}njmljc njm nvvygkln}ldj nyg {loleny nkyd{{ }hg

    Khljg{g njm W*[* kwe}wyg{* Clrgj }hg cgjgyne enka db hwody yg{gnykh ygcnymljc Khljn%

    }hl{ vnvgy slee vydrg }d ig n {}gvvljc {}djg }dsnym{ n ig}}gy {dkldedclkne wjmgy{}njmljc db

    }hg kwyygj} kdjml}ldj{ db hwody% {vgklblknee| lydj|% lj Khljn* ]hl{ vnvgy ne{d kdj}yliw}g{

    {lcjlblknj}e| }d }hg }hlj el}gyn}wyg nrnlenieg ygcnymljc {l}wn}ldjne lydj| njm }hg kyd{{/

    kwe}wyne lovelkn}ldj{ db lydj|*

    ]hl{ vnvgy slee bly{} g{}niel{h n }hgdyg}lkne bynogsdya lj wjmgy{}njmljc lydj| njm l}{

    {wi{g} bdyo db {l}wn}ldjne lydj|* Sg slee }hgj gxvedyg }hg kwyygj} {}n}g db lydj| lj Khljn

    igbdyg vyg{gj}ljc n h|vd}hg{l{ ygcnymljc kwe}wyne mlbbgygjkg{ db wjmgy{}njmljc njm

    nvvygkln}ljc lydj| lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{* [wi{g~wgj}e|% sg slee mgerg lj}d

    vylony| yg{gnykh kdjmwk}gm lj }hg bdyo db n {wyrg| }d }g{} dwy h|vd}hg{g{* Bljnee|% sg

    slee njne|pg dwy bljmljc{ njm kdjkewmg sl}h {wccg{}ldj{ bdy bw}wyg {}wmlg{ lj }hg nygn db

    lydj| njm kyd{{/kwe}wyne {}wmlg{ dj hwody*

    LL*]HGDYG]LKNE INKACYDWJM

    Lydjdedc|0 N hl{}dy| db lydj|

    ]hg vhgjdogjdj db lydj| gxl{}gm igbdyg l} sn{ jnogm* Nj g{}lon}ldj db l}{ nj}l~wl}|

    l{ ig|djm }hg {kdvg db }hl{ vnvgy% iw} sg slee }ynkg l}{ ydd}{ inka }d l}{ bly{} ajdsj

    lj}gcyn}ldj lj}d }hg hwonj enjcwncg n{ }hg Cygga sdym glydjgln* Bly{} ygkdymgm lj Ven}d{

    Ygvwielk njm nvvelgm }d [dkyn}g{ i| djg db hl{ rlk}lo{% glydjgln {ggo{ }d hnrg ognj}

    {dog}hljc {loleny }d n {odd}h% eds/mdsj sn| db }naljc vgdveg lj (Owgkag% >=,* Hdsgrgy% grgj nodjc }hg njklgj} Cygga{% }hg ognjljc dbglydjgln sn{ ljkdj{l{}gj}*

    ]d Mgod{}hgjg{ nj glydj sn{ djg shd grnmgm hl{ yg{vdj{lilel}lg{ n{ n kl}lpgj i|

    vyg}gjmljc wjbl}jg{{% shleg }d ]hgdvhyn{}w{% nj glydj vdlj}gm }d {dogdjg id}h grn{lrg

    njm jdjkdool}}ne* ]hg bnodw{ Ydonj dyn}dy% Klkgyd% sn{ }hg bly{} }d clrg lydjln n

    mgjd}n}ldj ig|djm }hg Cygga vgy{vgk}lrg db l} n{ n odmg db ighnrldy* Lj Klkgyd{ w{ncg db

    9

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    }hg sdym% l} grdergm }d ne{d ig nvvelgm }d n mgkgv}lrg w{g db enjcwncg0 }d ienog i|

    lydjlkne vynl{g dy }d vynl{g i| lydjlkne ienog (Owgkag% >769 njm mlm jd}

    kdog lj}d cgjgyne w{g wj}le }hg gnye| glch}ggj}h kgj}wy|* Lj Gjcenjm% n{ lj }hg yg{} db

    odmgyj Gwydvg% }hg kdjkgv} db lydj| mgrgedvgm {edse|* L}{ bly{} mgbljl}ldj{ }ygn}gm lydj|

    vyljklvnee| n{ n blcwyg db {vggkh% ygrderljc nydwjm }hg lmgn{ db {n|ljc kdj}yny| db shn}

    djg ognj{% {n|ljc djg }hljc iw} ognjljc njd}hgy% njm odkaljc njm {kdbbljc

    (Owgkag% >2,*

    Bn{} bdysnym }d }hg {}ny} db }hg jljg}ggj}h kgj}wy|0 }hg sdym lydj| igclj{ }d }nag dj

    n jwoigy db ognjljc{% ynjcljc bydo jgse| mgrgedvgm rnyln}ldj{ db lydj| {wkh n{ }ynclk

    lydj|% sdyem lydj|% kd{olk lydj|% vhled{dvhlkne lydj|% g}k* ]hg djg od{} ygegrnj} }d }hl{

    vnvgy l{ }hg lmgn vyg{gj}gm i| Kdjjdv ]hlyesnee lj hl{ ny}lkeg Dj }hg Lydj| db

    [dvhdkeg{* ]hlyesnee{ di{gyrn}ldj{ {ggo }d hnrg kdjkglrgm db nj lydj| sl}hdw} nj

    lydjl{} (djg }hn} kygn}g{ lydj|, njm {wccg{}gm }hn} lydj| on| yg{lmg lj }hg n}}l}wmg db nj

    lydjlk di{gyrgy% dy yn}hgy% lj }hg {l}wn}ldj di{gyrgm(]hlyesnee% >8;;% vv* =8

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    ]nxdjdo| db lydj|

    Od{} db }hg yg{gnykh dj lydj| hn{ iggj mdjg sl}hlj }hg el}gyny| vnynmlco* Lj cgjgyne%

    lydj| ljrderg{ n kdj}ynmlk}ldj ig}sggj nvvgnynjkg dy gxvgk}n}ldj$lj}gj}ldj njm ygnel}|*

    Aygwp njm Ydigy}{ mgbljg bdwy (el}gyny| njm jdj/el}gyny|, kn}gcdylg{ db lydj| n{ bdeeds0

    >* [dkyn}lk lydj|9* Mynon}lk lydj|;* Rgyine lydj|=* [l}wn}ldjne lydj|

    [dkyn}lk lydj| l{ }hg vyg}gj{g db lcjdynjkg db n clrgj {wi`gk}% jdyonee| bdy vgmncdclkne

    vwyvd{g{* ]hl{ bdyo db lydj| {}go{ bydo Ven}d{ mgvlk}ldj db [dkyn}g{ hnil}wne vynk}lkg

    db nk}ljc bddel{h }d onag hl{ bgeeds kl}lpgj{ {gg }hgly dsj lyyn}ldjnel}|* Mynon}lk lydj| l{

    khnynk}gylpgm i| n ml{kygvnjk| ig}sggj shn} }hg nwmlgjkg ajds{ }d ig }ywg njm shn} }hg

    khnynk}gy vgykglrg{ }d ig }ywg% {wkh n{ Dgmlvw{ ol{}nagj igelgb{ lj hl{ }ynclk gvlk* Rgyine

    lydj| l{ n ml{kygvnjk| ig}sggj shn} n {vgnagy dy syl}gy {n|{ njm shn} hg dy {hg igelgrg{

    }d ig }ywg% {wkh n{ }hg w}}gynjkg Shn} n {wjj| mn| mwyljc n {}dyo* Bljnee|% {l}wn}ldjne

    lydj| ljrderg{ nj ljkdjcywl}| ig}sggj ygnel}| njm gxvgk}n}ldj{ lj n {}n}g db nbbnly{% {wkh

    n{ }hg blyghdw{g iwyjljc }d }hg cydwjm (Aygwp " Ydigy}{% >

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    {gylg{ db vn{{ncg{ ljrderljc lydj| njm {nykn{o* Djg cydwv yn}gm n }nycg} w}}gynjkg lj

    }gyo{ db }hg gx}gj} }d shlkh l} sn{ n cddm gxnoveg db {nykn{o% njm {gkdjm cydwv yn}gm lj

    l} }gyo{ db }hg gx}gj} }d shlkh l} sn{ n cddm gxnoveg db lydj|* ]hg yg{we}{ db }hg

    gxvgylogj} {wccg{} }hn} ylmlkweg db n {vgklblk rlk}lo ven|{ n {wi{}nj}lnee| enycgy ydeg lj

    {nykn{o }hnj lydj| (Egg " An}p% >

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    bleegm sl}h n {gj{g db ol{bdy}wjg dy wjbnlyjg{{ bdy ncgj}{ ljrdergm lj }hg {l}wn}ldj* ]hg

    ljkdjcywl}| lj }hg {l}wn}ldj l}{geb l{ jd} lj}gjmgm njm l{ db}gj dw} db }hg hnjm{ db }hg

    ncgj}{ shd on| ig rlk}lo{ db }hg {l}wn}ldjne lydj|* [l}wn}ldjne lydj| mlbbgy{ bydo d}hgy

    bdyo{ db lydj| lj n bwjmnogj}ne sn|0 {l}wn}ldjne lydj| l{ di{gyrgm shgygn{ d}hgy bdyo{ db

    lydj| nyg kygn}gm* Owgkag jd}gm }hn} sg onag }hg ml{}ljk}ldj ig}sggj rgyine njm

    {l}wn}ldjne lydj| shgj sg {n|% dj }hg djg hnjm% Hg dy {hg l{ igljc lydjlkne njm dj }hg

    d}hgy hnjm% L} l{ lydjlk }hn} (Owgkag% >9,*Algyagcnnym{ njne|{l{ {wccg{}{ }hn} nj lydjlkne kdj{kldw{jg{{ ow{} gxl{} sl}hlj

    nj di{gyrgy bdy hlo dy }d {wkkg{{bwee| vgykglrg }hg lydj| db n {l}wn}ldj*

    Sl}hlj }hg ygneo db hwody% n }lj| vdy}ldj db el}gyn}wyg hn{ iggj vydmwkgm }d njne|pg

    }hg kdjkgv} db lydj|* Elagsl{g% sl}hlj }hg el}gyn}wyg db lydj|% {l}wn}ldjne lydj| hn{ jd}

    iggj cynj}gm owkh n}}gj}ldj* Ne}hdwch l} l{ {lolenye| n kdovegx njm kdoodjvenkg

    vhgjdogjdj n{ rgyine lydj|% l} hn{ ygkglrgm jdshgyg jgny }hg {nog nodwj} db n}}gj}ldj

    bydo {khdeny{* Od{} db }hg nrnlenieg yg{dwykg{ ygcnymljc lydj| nyg {}lee mggve| gj}ygjkhgm

    sl}hlj n el}gyny| bynogsdya njm nvvydnkh* Dje| }hygg n}}gov}{ lj ygkgj} el}gyn}wyg hnrg

    iggj onmg }d clrg kdcjl}lrge| venw{lieg nkkdwj}{ db {l}wn}ldjne lydj|* ]hg{g gxkgv}ldj{ }d

    }hg cgjgyne }ygjm db bdkw{ljc dj rgyine lydj| nyg }hygg {gvnyn}g }ygn}ogj}{ db lydj|

    vydvd{gm i| El}}onj njm Og| (>

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    gj}lyge| mgvgjmgj} dj }hg di{gyrgy{ vdlj} db rlgs* ]hw{% n kdovw}gy vydcyno }hn} slee ig

    nieg }d di`gk}lrge| cnwcg }hg {l}wn}ldjne lydj| db n {kgjnyld l{ jd} ygnel{}lk lj nvvelkn}ldj*

    Lj nmml}ldj% lydj| mgne{ sl}h nj lydjlkne kdj{kldw{jg{{ }hn} l{ ljhgygj}e| ljnkkg{{lieg

    }d ny}lblklne lj}geelcgjkg* El}}onj njm Og| n}}gov} }d vyg/gov} }hl{ ljmlk}ogj} i|

    ml{}ljcwl{hljc ig}sggj }hg vgykgv}ldj db lydj| njm l}{ nvvygkln}ldj* Hdsgrgy% `w{} n{ sl}h

    hwody% }hg vgykgv}ldj db {l}wn}ldjne lydj| on| ne{d rny| nkyd{{ kwe}wyg{* Jgrgy}hgeg{{%

    }hg lmgn }hn} nvvygkln}ldj db lydj| knj ig mlrdykgm bydo l}{ vgykgv}ldj l{ ljmggm nj

    lovdy}nj} ml{}ljk}ldj }d ig onmg (El}}onj " Og|% >=2,* Jgrgy}hgeg{{% id}h }hg

    vgykgv}ldj njm nvvygkln}ldj db {l}wn}ldjne lydj| nyg {wi`gk} }d djg{ lj}gyvyg}n}ldj db }hg

    grgj}% shlkh l{ n bwjk}ldj db djg{ vgy{vgk}lrg% inkacydwjm% kwe}wyg% g}k*

    El}}onj njm Og| cd dj }d dbbgy }hygg }|vg{ db {l}wn}ldjne lydj|% mgbljgm n{0

    lj}gj}ldjne cdne$venj lydj|% {gygjmlvl}dw{ cdne$venj lydj|% njm kdovg}gjkg lydj|*

    Nkkdymljc }d }hg{g kn}gcdylg{% kgy}nlj kdoiljn}ldj{ db ved} }sl{}{ njm }hsny}gm lj}gj}ldj{

    kdj{}l}w}g lydj|* Hdsgrgy% bny bydo gxhnw{}ljc }hg vd{{lieg }|vg{ db {l}wn}ldjne lydj|%

    El}}onj njm Og| clrg gxkg{{lrg sglch} }d ljkdjcywl}lg{ ig}sggj hwonj lj}gj}ldj{ njm

    ygnel}| lj }hgly kn}gcdylg{ njm {love| md jd} kdj{lmgy bdyo{ db {l}wn}ldjne lydj| }hn} nyl{g

    bydo hwonj gxvgk}n}ldj{ {wkh n{ }hg lydj| lj hnrljc }hg {wccg{}ldj idx dw}{lmg db }hg

    KGD{ dbblkg igljc mlygk}e| gov}lgm lj}d n ygk|keljc ilj i| kegnjljc sdyagy{ nb}gy dbblkg

    hdwy{* El}}onj njm Og| onag nj lovdy}nj} kdjjgk}ldj ig}sggj lydj| njm hwody%

    n{{gy}ljc }hn} hwody njm lydj| nyg lj}lon}ge| ygen}gm (>=

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    dy dj grgj}{ }d ywj n {}njmnym kdwy{g*}hg| {lcjne }hg rwejgynilel}| db }hg hwonj

    kdjml}ldjlj}gj}ldjnel}|% nk}ldj{% {}n}g{% dw}kdog{ (Ewknylgeed% >

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    3* Kdljklmgjkg0 N{{dy}gm grgj}{% {wkh n{ kd/dkkwyygjkg{ dy {g~wgjkg{ db nk}ldj{hnrljc jd kdjrgj}ldjne dy knw{ne in{l{*

    I| }naljc lj}d kdj{lmgyn}ldj lydjlk {l}wn}ldj{ }hn} nyg dw}{lmg }hg ygneo db ljmlrlmwne

    lj}gj}ldj{% Ewknylgeed{ }nxdjdo| db {l}wn}ldjne lydjlg{ l{ owkh odyg kdovyghgj{lrg }hnj

    El}}onj njm Og|{ odmge* Sg slee yg{l{} gxvedyljc }hg {wi}|vg{ }hn} Ewknylgeed ne{d

    mgrgedvgm bdy gnkh db }hg onlj {grgj kn}gcdylg{% iw} }hg ygnmgy l{ wycgm }d ygbgygjkg

    Nvvgjmlx 9*> bdy bwy}hgy ljbdyon}ldj*

    [hgeeg|{ }ygn}ogj} db {l}wn}ldjne lydj| l{ }hg od{} ygkgj} n}}gov} }d clrg kdcjl}lrge|

    venw{lieg nkkdwj}{ db {l}wn}ldjne lydj|* [hgeeg| bly{} ygrlgs{ }hg sdya db El}}onj njm Og|

    njm Ewknylgeed* Hg ljmlk}{ El}}onj njm Og|{ odmge bdy clrljc edclkne vyldyl}| }d

    rgyine lydj| drgy {l}wn}ldjne lydj| i| idyydsljc }hg el}gyny| kdjkgv}{ db ved} }sl{}{ njm

    kdoowjlkn}lrg lj}gj}ldj{ bydo rgyine lydj| ([hgeeg|% 966>% vv 332,* Ne}hdwch hg

    kdj{lmgy{ Ewknylgeed{ }hgdy| }d ig ylkhgy njm odyg venw{lieg }hn} El}}onj njm Og|{%

    hg ne{d kyl}lklpg{ Ewknylgeed bdy bnleljc }d gxvenlj }hg mlbbgygjkg ig}sggj lydj| njm jdj/

    lydj| n{ sgee n{ jgcegk}ljc }d mgrgedv n }hgdy| }d gxvenlj hgy mn}n*

    [hgeeg|{ ilkdhgygjkg }hgdy| l{ in{gm dj }hg n{{wov}ldj }hn} hwonj kdcjl}ldj l{

    dycnjlpgm }d onxlolpg kdjkgv}wne kdhgygjkg% dy edclkne lj}gykdjjgk}ldj njm

    kdj{l{}gjk|* ]hg }hgdy| ygbgy{ }d }hg {lowe}njgdw{ nk}lrn}ldj db gegogj}{ dy ken{{g{ }hn}

    yg{l{} bl}}ljc }dcg}hgy ([hgeeg|% 966>% vv* 338,* [l}wn}ldjne lydj| l{ nkajdsegmcgm

    shgj }hg nkkgv}gm lj}gyvyg}n}ldj db n {l}wn}ldj ml{ven|{ n ilkdhgygj} kdjkgv}wne {}ywk}wyg%

    nbbdym{ nmg~wn}g kdcjl}lrg {nelgjkg% njm grdag{ nj nvvydvyln}g kdjblcwyn}ldj db

    god}ldj{ ([hgeeg|% 966>% vv* 338,* N ilkdhgygj} kdjkgv}wne {}ywk}wyg ljkewmg{ gl}hgy n

    ilkdhgygj} ken{{ dy ilkdhgygj} gegogj} n{ mgbljgm njm gxvenljgm igeds0

    >* Ilkdhgygj} ken{{0 N ken{{ kdj}nljljc }sd gegogj}{ }hn} nyg kdjkgv}wnee|ljkdhgygj} sl}h gnkh d}hgy* Kdj{lmgy n ken{{ db idda{ i| djg nw}hdy sl}h }hg

    bdeedsljc }l}eg{0 ]hg }ynrnle db elbg lj nj lovgybgk} sdyem% sh| sdwem Cdm needs

    grle4 njm Kwyldw{ Cgdycg cdg{ }d }hg pdd* ]hl{ ken{{ db idda{ l{ ljkdhgygj} lj }hg

    {gj{g }hn} l} cydwv{ n elch}/hgny}gm khlemygj{ idda }dcg}hgy sl}h sglch}| sdya{

    dj gxl{}gj}lne nelgjn}ldj ([hgeeg|% 966>,*

    9* Ilkdhgygj} gegogj}0 Nj gegogj} igedjcljc }d }sd ken{{g{ }hn} nyg kdjkgv}wnee|ljkdhgygj} sl}h gnkh d}hgy* Kdj{lmgy }hg {nog nw}hdy{ en}g{} sdya% Kwyldw{

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    Cgdycg {gga{ }hg sn|* ]hl{ idda l{ ilkdhgygj} lj }hg {gj{g }hn} idda{}dyg{ slee

    {}dka l} lj id}h }hg khlemygj{ {gk}ldj (bdy l}{ kdedybwe leew{}yn}ldj{, njm }hg

    vhled{dvh| {gk}ldj (igknw{g db }hg nkkg{{lieg onjjgy lj shlkh l} nmmyg{{g{

    lovdy}nj} elbg l{{wg{, ([hgeeg|% 966>% v* 33%

    vv* 337,* ]hg lmgn }hn} }hg vgykgv}ldj db lydj| lj n {l}wn}ldj nyl{g{ bydo }hg sn| }hg

    {l}wn}ldj mgblg{ dwy jdyone grgj} {kylv}{ l{ {loleny }d Ewknylgeed{ vydvd{ne% iw} [hgeeg|

    cdg{ dj }d nmm }hn} }hl{ ol{bl} ow{} ig {nelgj} gjdwch bdy dwy vgykgv}ldj n{ sgee n{

    vdsgybwe gjdwch }d grdag {dog aljm db god}ldjne ygnk}ldj* ]hg{g nyg lovdy}nj}

    ml{}ljcwl{hljc bnk}dy{ db {l}wn}ldjne lydj| bydo ogyge| kdljklmgj}ne dy {wyvyl{ljc grgj}{*

    Kdcjl}lrg {nelgjkg ogn{wyg{ hds jd}lkgnieg {dog}hljc l{ lj ygen}ldj }d d}hgy }hljc{*

    ]hg {nelgjkg db n {l}wn}ldj mgvgjm{ dj }hg kdj}gj}{ db }hg {l}wn}ldj njm hds }hd{g

    kdj}gj}{ ygen}gm }d }hg ljmlrlmwne kdjkglrljc }hgo* Kdcjl}lrg {nelgjkg l{ n bwjk}ldj db

    ildedclkne {nelgjkg (l*g*% {wyrlrne jggm{ mlk}n}g }hn} n {dwjm odrljc ked{gy }d w{ l{ odyg

    {nelgj} }hnj n {dwjm odrljc nsn| bydo w{, njm kwe}wyne {nelgjkg (l*g*% hlchgy {nelgjkg bdy

    n{|oog}ylkne di`gk}{ lj kgy}nlj kwe}wyg{,*

    God}ldjne kdjblcwyn}ldj l{ ne{d kgj}yne }d {l}wn}ldjne lydj| n{ n kdjkgv}wne {}ywk}wyg*

    Ygkgj} yg{gnykh lj kdcjl}lrg {klgjkg ljmlkn}g{ }hn} wjeg{{ }hgyg l{ {vgklblk grlmgjkg }d }hg

    kdj}yny|% sg {hdwem n{{wog }hn} god}ldj{ nyg nj lj}gcyne bgn}wyg db nj| kdcjl}lrg

    vhgjdogjdj* [hgeeg| n{{gy}{ }hn} god}ldj{ ygen}g }d {l}wn}ldjne lydj| lj n} egn{} }sd sn|{*

    Bly{}% {dog aljm{ db {l}wn}ldjne lydj| on| grdag vny}lkweny god}ldj{ dje|* Bdy gxnoveg%

    {dog aljm{ db lydj| on| grdag oly}h njm jd} {nmjg{{* Lj nmml}ldj% hglch}gjgm god}ldjne

    yg{vdj{g }gjm{ }d ljkygn{g }hg {nelgjkg db n {l}wn}ldj njm }hw{ ygljbdykg dy grgj ljkygn{g

    }hg {gj{g db lydj|* God}ldjne yg{vdj{g l{ n bwjk}ldj db hds }hg {l}wn}ldj ygen}g{ }d }hg

    di{gyrgy{ cdne{% kdjkgyj{% dy vygbgygjkg{ ([hgeeg|% 966>,* N{ ~wd}gm i| [hgeeg|% Owgkag

    gxvyg{{gm }hl{ vdlj} {wkkljk}e| lj n og}nvhdy0 D}hgy }hljc{ igljc g~wne% lydjlg{ slee ig

    >6

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    odyg dy eg{{ bdykgbwe lj vydvdy}ldj }d }hg nodwj} db god}ldjne knvl}ne }hg ygnmgy dy

    di{gyrgy hn{ ljrg{}gm lj }hg rlk}lo dy }dvlk db lydj| (Owgkag% >* (bjhw, }ynj{en}g{ el}gynee| n{ dvvd{l}g }nea% shlkh l{ nk}wnee| n odygbl}}ljc }ynj{en}ldj bdy {nykn{o lj mgbljl}ldj njm nvvelkn}ldj* L} l{ ne{d kdoodje|

    w{gm n{ {nykn{o% ne}hdwch {dog {dwykg{ lj Khljn slee {}lee el{} l} n{ nj g~wlrnegj}

    bdy lydj|*

    9* (bjck, }ynj{en}g{ el}gynee| n{ {n}lylpg vylka% shlkh lj l}{ Khljg{g mgbljl}ldjn{ }hg gxvd{wyg% kyl}lkl{o% dy odkagy| db n vgy{dj dy }hljc }hydwch }hg w{g db

    kdovnyl{dj% gxnccgyn}ldj% g}k l{ {}lee odyg ked{ge| ygen}gm }d {n}lyg }hnj lydj|

    (Odmgyj Khljg{g Mlk}ldjny|% >

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    Lj }hg {}wm| db hwody lj njklgj} Khljg{g vhled{dvh|% rgyine lydj| l{ n kdoodj

    |g} {wi}eg mgrlkg w{gm lj }hgNjnegk}{ njmPhwnjc Pl (Hnyi{oglgy% >< db shlkh nyg nee el}gyn}wyg ygrlgs{ (Phdw% 9667,* Bwy}hgyodyg% }hg cgjgyne

    }ygjm {ggo{ }d ig }hn} shgj kdoodj gxnoveg{ db (bjbjc, nyg kl}gm lj Khljn% od{}

    db }hg{g {wvvd{gme| ygvyg{gj}n}lrg gxgoveny{ od{}e| vdlj} }d el}gyny| kn{g{ }hn} nyg db}gj

    {}nljgm sl}h {n}lyg1 kn{g{ lj vdlj} nyg }hg db}gj ygbgygjkgm sdya{ i| (E Xj, dy

    (Ed [h,*

    Grgj {gnykhg{ bdy }hg Khljg{g }gyo db {l}wn}ldjne lydj| ( ~jc`jc

    bjbjc, vygmdoljnj}e| vdlj} }d el}gyny| gxnoveg{ db kygn}gm lydjlg{ lj el}gyn}wyg njm jd}

    di{gyrgm lydjlg{ lj elbg* I| kdj}yn{}% W*[* njm Sg{}gyj kwe}wyg nyg yn}hgy bnolelny sl}h

    {l}wn}ldjne lydj| ig|djm l}{ gxl{}gjkg lj el}gyn}wyg* Nenjl{ Odyl{{g}}g{ hl} {djc gj}l}egm

    Lydjlk> njm [hgeeg|{ kdyvw{ {}wm|9 (966>, db {l}wn}ldjne lydjlg{ kl}gm lj djeljg jgs{

    ny}lkeg{ (shlkh cgjgyn}gm 976 {l}wn}ldjne lydjlg{ lj 9>3 jgs{ ny}lkeg{, nee kdj{l{} db

    {l}wn}ldjne lydjlg{ nyl{ljc bydo mnle| klykwo{}njkg{ njm jd} sdya{ db el}gyn}wyg*> ]hgyg l{ kdj{lmgynieg mgin}g drgy }hg lydjlg{ lj }hg {djc* Onj| igelgrg }hn} }hg {l}wn}ldj{

    ogj}ldjgm lj }hg e|ylk{ nyg jd} lydjlg{ iw} yn}hgy ogyge| wjbdy}wjn}g kdljklmgjkg{ dy {wyvyl{ljc

    ml{nvvdlj}ogj}{* [gg Nvvgjmlx =*> bdy e|ylk{ }d }hg {djc*9 N {}wm| db kdeegk}gm djeljg jgs{ ny}lkeg{ sl}h {l}wn}ldj{ mg{kyligm dy enigegm n{ lydjlk* Ny}lkeg{

    sgyg kdeegk}gm i| n kdovw}gy vydcyno bydo On| >

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    LR*H\VD]HG[L[

    Lj Sg{}gyj el}gyn}wyg ygcnymljc lydj|% }hgyg hn{ iggj {dog {vgkwen}ldj ygcnymljc

    shg}hgy lydj| l{ {}ylk}e| n Sg{}gyj vhgjdogjdj* Owgkag n{{gy}{% Lb lydj| sgyg enycge|

    kdjbljgm }d }hg Sg{}gyj sdyem% n{ L hnrg iggj egm }d igelgrg (iw} L md jd} rdwkh bdy }hn}

    bnk},% }hl{ sdwem ig db loogj{g {lcjlblknjkg (>,* Ne}hdwch L md jd} igelgrg

    }hn} lydj| l}{geb l{ yg{gyrgm dje| bdy }hg Sg{}gyj hgol{vhgyg% L md igelgrg }hgyg nyg

    {lcjlblknj} kwe}wyne rnyln}ldj{ lj }gyo{ db hds lydj| l{ wjmgy{}ddm njm nvvygkln}gm*

    [hgeeg|{ ilkdhgygjkg }hgdy| gj`d|{ n kdjjgk}ldj sl}h {dklne v{|khdedc| lj }hg bdyo db

    }hgvyljklveg db knw{ne n}}yliw}ldj }hn} mgodj{}yn}g{ }hg lovdy}nj} lovelkn}ldj{ db kwe}wyg

    bdy }hg vgykgv}ldj db lydj|*

    ]hg vyljklveg {}n}g{ }hn} vgdveg w{g }hygg aljm{ db ljbdyon}ldj lj dymgy }d gxvenlj

    }hg ighnrldy db d}hgy{* ]hg| edda n} >, hds n vgy{dj ighnrg{ lj n {l}wn}ldj n{ kdovnygm

    }d hds }hn} vgy{dj ighnrgm lj }hg {nog {l}wn}ldj vygrldw{e| (kdj{l{}gjk|,% 9, hds n

    vgy{dj ighnrg{ lj n {l}wn}ldj n{ kdovnygm }d hds }hn} vgy{dj ighnrgm lj n {loleny

    {l}wn}ldj lj }hg vn{} (ml{}ljk}lrgjg{{,% njm ;, hds }hg vgy{dj ighnrg{ lj n {l}wn}ldj n{

    kdovnygm }d hds d}hgy vgdveg hnrg ighnrgm lj }hg {nog {l}wn}ldj vygrldw{e| (kdj{gj{w{,

    (Jl{ig}} " Yd{{% >,*

    N{ di{gyrgm lj Khljn% }hg eds nsnygjg{{ db {l}wn}ldjne lydj| n{ kdovnygm }d

    rgyine lydj| l{ sdy}h| db gxvedyn}ldj* Vgyhnv{ kwe}wyne mlbbgygjkg{ nbbgk} }hg {nelgjk| db

    rnyldw{ bdyo{ db lydj|% njm }hg {nelgjk| db dylcljnee| jd} gn{le| jd}lkgnieg bdyo{ db lydj|

    knj ig gjhnjkgm }hydwch gxvd{wyg }d kwe}wyg{ sl}h hlch {nelgjk| lj }hn} {vgklblk bdyo db

    lydj|* Lj }hg bdeedsljc {}wm|% L slee }g{} shg}hgy gxvd{wyg }d Sg{}gyj kwe}wyg hdem{

    {lcjlblknj} gxvenjn}dy| vdsgy bdy }hg Khljg{g {noveg vdvwen}ldj{ nilel}| }d wjmgy{}njm

    >;

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    njm nvvygkln}g {l}wn}ldjne lydj|* L slee ne{d kdovnyg shg}hgy }hgyg nyg {lcjlblknj}

    mlbbgygjkg{ ig}sggj }hg wjmgy{}njmljc njm nvvygkln}ldj db {l}wn}ldjnee| lydjlk kny}ddj{

    ig}sggj }hg W*[* njm Khljg{g {noveg vdvwen}ldj{* Kdj{lmgyljc }hg eds nsnygjg{{ db

    {l}wn}ldjne lydj| lj Khljn njm }hg ygen}lrge| hlchgy kwe}wyne nsnygjg{{ db {l}wn}ldjne lydj|

    lj }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% L vygmlk} }hn} }hg Khljg{g slee hnrg n {lcjlblknj}e| edsgy nrgyncg

    kdovyghgj{ldj njm nvvygkln}ldj db }hg {l}wn}ldjne lydj| lj }hg lydjlk kny}ddj{* [lolenye|%

    lb sg n{{wog }hn} vd{l}lrg ygnk}ldj{ }d }hg kny}ddj{ kdyygen}g sl}h nvvygkln}ldj njm

    jgcn}lrg ygnk}ldj{ kdyygen}g sl}h d}hgy yg{vdj{g{ {wkh n{ ml{nvvydrne dy kdjbw{ldj% L

    vygmlk} }hn} }hg W*[* vdvwen}ldj slee hnrg hlchgy byg~wgjklg{ lj vd{l}lrg ygnk}ldj{ njm }hn}

    }hg Khljg{g slee hnrg hlchgy byg~wgjklg{ db jgcn}lrg ygnk}ldj{* Lj nmml}ldj% L igelgrg }hg

    {wi`gk} db }hg {l}wn}ldjne lydj| hdem{ lovelkn}ldj{ bdy }hg yg{vdjmgj}{ kdovyghgj{ldj

    njm nvvygkln}ldj egrge{* Clrgj }hg vygmdoljnjkg db }lg{ njm kdjbw{ldj ig}sggj lydj| njm

    {n}lyg lj Khljn% L vygmlk} }hn} {l}wn}ldjne lydjlg{ }hn} nyg ygbegk}lrg db ljkdjcywl}lg{

    ig}sggj {dklne gxvgk}n}ldj{ njm ygnel}| (shlkh nyg odyg {loleny }d {n}lyg, slee di}nlj

    hlchgy ognj{ lj kdovyghgj{ldj njm nvvygkln}ldj }hnj lydjlg{ ig}sggj ljmlrlmwne

    lj}gj}ldj njm ygnel}|*

    R*YG[GNYKH MG[LCJ

    ]d njne|pg n {noveg Khljg{g vdvwen}ldj{ nilel}| }d wjmgy{}njm njm nvvygkln}g

    {l}wn}ldjne lydj| njm kdovnyg l}{ yg{we}{ sl}h n {noveg W*[* vdvwen}ldj% {wyrg|{

    kdj{l{}ljc db n {gylg{ db >7 lydjlk njm jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{ sgyg ml{}yliw}gm gegk}ydjlknee|

    }d >92 yg{lmgj}{ lj }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{ njm 9>9 Khljg{g yg{lmgj}{ lj onljenjm Khljn*

    Yg{vdjmgj}{ sgyg n{agm }d lmgj}lb| }hgly ljl}lne ygnk}ldj{ n{ sgee n{ ynja }hgly

    wjmgy{}njmljc njm nvvygkln}ldj db gnkh kny}ddj* Jgl}hgy }hg kdjkgv} db {l}wn}ldjne lydj|

    jdy }hg yg{gnykh vwyvd{g{ db }hg {wyrg| sn{ ml{ked{gm }d }hg yg{vdjmgj}{% n{{wyljc }hn}

    }hg| sdwem yg{vdjm dj }hg in{l{ db ljmgvgjmgj} `wmcogj} njm ajdsegmcg* [grgyne

    ~wg{}ldj{ sgyg nmmyg{{gm0 Hds md }hg }sd vdvwen}ldj{ kdovnyg lj }hgly wjmgy{}njmljc db

    }hg hwody lj }hg kny}ddj{4 Hds md }hg }sd vdvwen}ldj{ kdovnyg lj }hgly ygnk}ldj njm

    egrge db now{gogj} njm nvvygkln}ldj bdy }hg lydjlk kny}ddj{4 Njm bljnee|% mdg{ gxvd{wyg

    >=

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    }d Sg{}gyj kwe}wyg kdyygen}g sl}h }hg Khljg{g vdvwen}ldj{ nilel}| }d wjmgy{}njm dy

    nvvygkln}g {l}wn}ldjne lydj|4

    [noveg vdvwen}ldj{

    ]hg {wyrg| sn{ kygn}gm lj id}h Gjcel{h njm Khljg{g% sl}h oljdy mlbbgygjkg{ ig}sggj

    }hg }sd (}d ig ml{kw{{gm en}gy,* ]hg Gjcel{h {wyrg| sn{ ml{}yliw}gm gegk}ydjlknee| rln

    gonle }d kwyygj} W*[* yg{lmgj}{ njm }hg Khljg{g {wyrg| sn{ ml{}yliw}gm gegk}ydjlknee| rln

    gonle }d g}hjlknee| Khljg{g yg{lmgj}{ lj onljenjm Khljn* Clrgj }hg vd{{lilel}| }hn} {dog

    yg{vdjmgj}{ on| hnrg ygkgj}e| loolcyn}gm }d }hg kdwj}y| db }hgly ygvyg{gj}n}lrg {noveg%

    nj nmml}ldjne ~wg{}ldj sn{ ljkewmgm lj id}h {wyrg|{ }d kdj}yde bdy }hg jwoigy db |gny{ }hg

    yg{vdjmgj}{ hnrg yg{lmgm lj }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{ dy Khljn* ]d nrdlm ljbewgjkg{ db bdyglcj

    kwe}wyg{ ml{}ljk}e| mlbbgygj} bydo }hg kwe}wyg {wvvd{gme| ygvyg{gj}n}lrg db }hg yg{vdjmgj}{%

    nee mn}n db yg{vdjmgj}{ elrljc lj }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{ dy Khljn bdy eg{{ }hnj = |gny{ sgyg

    gxkewmgm bydo njne|{l{*

    Ml{}yliw}ldj

    ]hg {wyrg|{ sgyg kygn}gm dj [wyrg|Odjag|*kdo njm ml{}yliw}gm rln gonle{ sl}h

    elja{ }d }hg {wyrg| n{ vydrlmgm i| [wyrg|Odjag|*kdo* Kdjrgjlgjkg {noveljc sn{ }hg

    vylony| bdyo db {noveljc n{ ljl}lne gonle{ sgyg bly{} {gj} dw} }d }hd{g sl}hlj }hg

    yg{gnykhgy{ jg}sdya* Lj hdvg{ db ig}}gy nkhlgrljc n ynjmdolpgm {noveg db id}h }hg W*[*njm Khljg{g vdvwen}ldj{% }hg bly{} gonle{ sgyg {gj} sl}h }hg di`gk}lrg njm gjkdwyncgogj}

    }hn} }hg {wyrg| elja{ vydov} rlyne bdysnymljc }d }hg ljl}lne ygklvlgj}{ vgy{djne jg}sdya*

    D}hgy }hnj kenylb|ljc }hn} }hg {wyrg| sn{ bdy }hg yg{gnykhgy{ {gjldy }hg{l{ dj }hg {wi`gk}

    db hwody% jd nmml}ldjne ljbdyon}ldj ygcnymljc }hg {wyrg| sn{ vydrlmgm }d }hg

    yg{vdjmgj}{* ]hg in{g cdne db ml{}yliw}ldj sn{ j?>66 bdy gnkh {wyrg|*

    Kny}ddj{

    N {g} db >7 kny}ddj{ sn{ {gegk}gm bydo n sgi {gnykh% kdovyl{ljc db 2 jdj/lydjlk njm

    < lydjlk kny}ddj{ ({gg Nvvgjmlx >*>,* Lydjlk kny}ddj{ sgyg lmgj}lblgm n{ kny}ddj{

    {vgklblknee| vdy}yn|ljc {l}wn}ldjne lydj|* Bdy }hg{g yg{gnykh vwyvd{g{% sg slee w{g }hg

    mgbljl}ldj db {l}wn}ldjne lydj| n{ mgbljgm i| }hg ilkdhgygjkg }hgdy| lj l}{ od{} in{lk bdyo0

    }hg ygkdcjl}ldj db n ilkdhgygj} vn}}gyj n{ lmgj}lblgm i| }hg vyg{gjkg db n ilkdhgygj}

    >7

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    gegogj} dy ken{{ lj n {l}wn}ldj* [vgklblknee| lj }hg ygneo db kny}ddj{ sg nyg njne|pljc% l} l{

    nmrl{nieg }d kdovnyg }hg lj}gj}ldj$gxvgk}n}ldj sl}h }hg ygnel}| db }hg kny}ddj* Ilkdhgygj}

    gegogj}{ }hn} igedjc }d }sd ken{{g{ }hn} nyg kdjkgv}wnee| ljkdhgygj} sl}h gnkh d}hgy nyg

    {dog}log{ vyg{gj} sl}hlj }hg kny}ddj{* Bdy gxnoveg% lj Kny}ddj +7% ienka {odag yl{g{

    bydo }hg khlojg|{ db n bnk}dy| }hn} vydmwkg{ vdeew}ldj on{a{* ]hg bnk}dy| (ilkdhgygj}

    gegogj}, igedjc{ }d }sd ken{{g{ }hn} nyg ljkdhgygj} sl}h gnkh d}hgy0 >, vydmwkgy{ db

    vdeew}ldj njm 9, vyd}gk}dy{ ncnlj{} vdeew}ldj* Lj }gyo{ db ilkdhgygj} ken{{g{% kdj{lmgy nj

    gxnoveg bydo Kny}ddj +8% lj shlkh n Sn}kh |dwy {}gv {lcj hnjc{ n} }hg in{g db }hg

    {}nly{ db n jdd{g ven}bdyo* ]hg ven}bdyo l}{geb l{ n ilkdhgygj} ken{{ }hn} kdj}nlj{ }sd

    gegogj}{ ljkdhgygj} sl}h gnkh d}hgy >, n {lcj lj}gjmgm }d gj{wyg vh|{lkne {nbg}| njm 9, n

    ognj{ db gxgkw}ldj* Shgj }hg kny}ddj l}{geb l{ }hg ilkdhgygj} ken{{% sg knj }hlja db }hg

    gj}lyg kny}ddj n{ kdj}nljljc }sd gegogj}{ (}hg gxvgk}n}ldj$lj}gj}ldj njm ygnel}| db }hg

    {l}wn}ldj vdy}yn|gm, }hn} nyg kdjkgv}wnee| ljkdhgygj} sl}h gnkh d}hgy* Bdy gxnoveg% lj

    Kny}ddj +9% n hnoodka bedn}{ i| n kn{}nsn| {}ynjmgm dj n {ljceg/}ygg l{enjm* ]hg

    lj}gj}ldj sl}hlj }hg kny}ddj l{ }d w{g }hg hnoodka% iw} }hg ygnel}| db }hg {l}wn}ldj ml{ywv}{

    }hl{ lj}gj}ldj igknw{g }hg l{enjm hn{ dje| djg db }hg }sd }ygg{ jggmgm }d hnjc }hg

    hnoodka* ]hg ilkdhgygj} ken{{ ({l}wn}ldj sl}hlj }hg kny}ddj, kdj}nlj{ }sd ljkdhgygj}

    gegogj}{ (lj}gj}ldj db w{ljc hnoodka njm ygnel}| db ol{{ljc }hg jgkg{{ny| lj{}ywogj}{ }d

    nk}wnee| w{g }hg hnoodka,*

    Jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{ (hgjkgbdy}h ygbgyygm }d n{ JL kny}ddj{, sgyg ne{d ljkewmgm lj }hg

    {wyrg| }d {gyrg n{ n in{l{ bdy kdovnyl{dj sl}h }hg lydjlk kny}ddj{* Nee khd{gj kny}ddj{

    sgyg ygrlgsgm njm vyg/{novegm i| {grgyne ljmlrlmwne{ d}hgy }hnj }hg yg{gnykhgy hgy{geb }d

    gj{wyg n cgjgyne kdj{gj{w{ ygcnymljc }hg kn}gcdylpn}ldj db }hg khd{gj kny}ddj{ n{ lydjlk

    dy jdj/lydjlk*

    Clrgj }hg kyd{{/kwe}wyne jn}wyg db }hl{ yg{gnykh% kny}ddj{ sgyg khd{gj n{ }hg rghlkeg{

    vdy}yn|ljc {l}wn}ldjne lydj| igknw{g db }hgly eds ygelnjkg dj enjcwncg }d kdoowjlkn}g l}{

    lydjlk og{{ncg }d }hg yg{vdjmgj}{* Od{} {}wmlg{ vygrldw{e| kdjmwk}gm dj {l}wn}ldjne lydj|

    ljrdergm {wi`gk}{ ygnmljc rlcjg}}g{ db lydjlk {l}wn}ldj{ dy ygkneeljc njm }hgj syl}ljc mdsj

    {l}wn}ldj{ mggogm }d ig lydjlk (Ewknylgeed% >

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    yg{gnykh* Sl}hdw} }hg ml{}ynk}ldj db enjcwncg% kny}ddj{ nyg }hg od{} ml{}leegm bdyo{ db

    {l}wn}ldjne lydj|*

    Sl}hlj }hg kn}gcdy| db lydjlk kny}ddj{% }hg kny}ddj{ sgyg bwy}hgy mlrlmgm lj}d }sd

    cydwv{ in{gm dj }hgly kdj}gj}* Kny}ddj{ mgneljc sl}h kdoodj njm vny}lkwenylpgm }dvlk{

    {wkh n{ }hg sljjljc db }hg ed}}gy| vd{}/ody}go njm }hg mylb}ljc db n hnoodka jgny n

    kn{}nsn| dj nj l{enjm sl}h djg }ygg nyg hgjkgbdy}h enigegm n{ LG (lydjlk grgy|mn|,

    kny}ddj{* D}hgy kny}ddj{ ygen}ljc }d {dklne gxvgk}n}ldj{ njm lj}gj} }hn} nyg ygbegk}lrg db

    iydnmgy {dklne kdoogj}ny| {wkh n{ }dvlk{ db gjrlydjogj}ne vyd}gk}ldj njm iwygnwkyn}lk

    nvn}h| nyg hgjkgbdy}h ygbgyygm }d n{ L[ (lydjlk {dklne, kny}ddj{* Djg vd{{lieg sn| db

    ml{}ljcwl{hljc ig}sggj L[ njm LG kny}ddj{ l{ }d kdj{lmgy }hg mlbbgygjkg{ ig}sggj

    lj}gj}ldj njm gxvgk}n}ldj lj }hg {l}wn}ldjne lydjlg{ db }hg kny}ddj{* Lj}gj}ldj{ }|vlknee|

    ygen}g }d ljmlrlmwne{ njm }hgly cdne{% njm }hg lydj| db }hg grgy|mn| kny}ddj }hw{ nyl{g{

    bydo }hg sn| ygnel}| dy n }sl{} db grgj}{ }hsny}{ dy odka{ }hg ljmlrlmwne{ lj}gj}ldj{* Bdy

    gxnoveg% sg {gg lj Kny}ddj +>> (Nvvgjmlx >*>, }hn} }hg lj}gj}ldj db }hg }ygn}ogj} sn{ }d

    {hylja }hg vn}lgj}{ }wody% iw} ygnel}| {hds{ }hn} }hg {lpg db }hg vn}lgj}{ hgnm sn{ ne{d

    ygmwkgm n{ n kdj{g~wgjkg* ]hl{ dw}kdog% ne}hdwch jd} }hsny}ljc db }hg ljmlrlmwne{

    lj}gj}ldj lj }ygn}ogj}% l{ kgy}nlje| odkaljc* ]hl{ knj ne{d ig kn}gcdylpgm n{ Mdwieg

    Dw}kdog{ Vylpg Jd} Shn} L}{ Kynkagm Wv }d Ig nkkdymljc }d Ewknylgeed{ }nxdjdo|

    ({gg Nvvgjmlx 9*>,*

    Gxvgk}n}ldj{% dj }hg d}hgy hnjm% db}gj ygen}g }d {dklne jdyo{ njm {}njmnym{% njm }hg

    lydj| nyl{g{ bydo }hg sn| ygnel}| db}gj odka{ }hg{g {dklne gxvgk}n}ldj{* Bdy gxnoveg%

    kdj{lmgy Kny}ddj +; (Nvvgjmlx >*>, shgyg }hg gxvgk}n}ldj }hn} bggminka njm {wccg{}ldj

    bdyo{ nyg ygnm i| hlchgy egrge dbblklne{ l{ nk}wnee| odkagm i| }hg ygnel}| db }hg ml{vd{ne db

    }hg{g bdyo{ mlygk}e| bydo }hgly kdeegk}ldj idx* Hdsgrgy% }hl{ }|vg db ml{}ljk}ldj l{ jd}

    nesn|{ ow}wnee| gxkew{lrg* Njd}hgy sn| }d kdj{lmgy }hg mlbbgygjkg{ ig}sggj L[ njm LG

    kny}ddj{ l{ }d kdj{lmgy shg}hgy }hg rlk}lo db }hg lydj| vdy}yn|gm lj }hg kny}ddj{ knj ig

    cgjgynelpgm ig|djm }hg ljmlrlmwne njm gjenycgm }d ljkewmg {dklg}|* Bdy gxnoveg% }hg lydj|

    db vddye| ygcwen}gm gjrlydjogj}ne vyd}gk}ldj (Kny}ddj +3

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    ]d nrdlm ljhgygj} mlbbgygjkg{ ig}sggj kny}ddj{ db W*[* dy Khljg{g dylclj% }hg {gylg{

    db >7 kny}ddj{ sgyg {gegk}gm n{ n olx ig}sggj W*[* njm Khljg{g dylclj{% sl}h < kygn}gm

    i| W*[* kny}ddjl{}{ njm 2 kygn}gm i| Khljg{g kny}ddjl{}{* Nee L[ kny}ddj{ sgyg {gegk}gm

    in{gm dj {dklne gxvgk}n}ldj{ njm lj}gj} }hn} sdwem ig ygegrnj} njm bnolelny }d id}h }hg

    W*[* njm Khljg{g kwe}wyg{*

    Bwy}hgyodyg% nee lyygegrnj} }gx} {wkh n{ }hg nw}hdy{hlv njm {dwykg sgyg mgeg}gm bydo

    }hg kny}ddj{ }d mgkygn{g ml{}ynk}ldj bydo }hg kny}ddj l}{geb njm nrdlm ygrgneljc }hg

    kdwj}y| njm enjcwncg db }hg kny}ddj{ dylclj* Kny}ddj{ sl}h sdym{ }hn} sgyg kywklne }d

    }hg kdovyghgj{ldj db }hg kny}ddj sgyg }ynj{en}gm i| }hg yg{gnykhgy lj n sn| mggogm ig{}

    }d vyg{gyrg }hg dylcljne hwody njm lj}gj}ldj db }hg kny}ddj* Kny}ddj{ sl}h hwody }hn}

    sgyg gj}lyge| mgvgjmgj} dj }hg vyg{gyrn}ldj db }hg enjcwncg l}{geb sgyg jd} {gegk}gm*

    Kny}ddj +>9% cgjgynee| mggogm di{kwyg njm wjkegny% sn{ lj}gjmgm n{ n slem knym }d

    n{{g{{ shg}hgy yg{vdjmgj}{ sgyg yg{vdjmljc }yw}hbwee| nidw} }hgly egrge db

    kdovyghgj{ldj*

    [wyrg| ~wg{}ldj{

    Gnkh kny}ddj sn{ bdeedsgm i| n {g} db ~wg{}ldj{ n{{g{{ljc }hg yg{vdjmgj}{ ygnk}ldj%

    kdovyghgj{ldj% njm nvvygkln}ldj db }hg kny}ddj* ]hg bly{} ~wg{}ldj n{a{ yg{vdjmgj}{ bdy

    }hgly ljl}lne ygnk}ldj }d }hg kny}ddj i| vydrlmljc n kdoiljn}ldj db dv}ldj{ ljkewmljc id}h

    vd{l}lrg ({oleg njm enwch, njm jgcn}lrg (bydsj% kyljcg% njm {lch, yg{vdj{g{* Yg{vdjmgj}{

    ne{d hnm }hg khdlkg db {gegk}ljc D}hgy njm {vgklb|ljc nmml}ldjne ygnk}ldj{ lj odyg mg}nle*

    ]hl{ ~wg{}ldj sn{ od}lrn}gm i| }hg lmgn }hn} bnklne gxvyg{{ldj{ nyg vh|{lkne njm jn}wyne

    onjlbg{}n}ldj{ db djg{ nvvygkln}ldj njm gj`d|ogj} (dy enka }hgygdb, db }hg kny}ddj{* N{

    vyg{gj}gm lj }hg ml{kw{{ldj ygcnymljc }hg lovdy}njkg db god}ldjne yg{vdj{g{ }d {l}wn}ldjne

    lydj|% }hl{ ~wg{}ldj (n{ l} l{ mlkhd}dolpgm ig}sggj vd{l}lrg njm jgcn}lrg bnklne

    gxvyg{{ldj{ }hn} kdyygen}g sl}h vd{l}lrg dy jgcn}lrg god}ldj{, l{ lj}gjmgm }d {gyrg n{ n

    ~wnel}n}lrg ogn{wyg db }hg yg{vdjmgj}{ kdovyghgj{ldj njm nvvygkln}ldj bdy }hg kny}ddj*Dj nj lj}gyg{}ljc {lmg jd}g% }hg Khljg{g enjcwncg enka{ nj g~wlrnegj} }d }hg Gjcel{h

    kdjkgv} db kyljcg dy sljkg* ]hw{% }hl{ dv}ldj sn{ gxkewmgm bydo }hg Khljg{g {wyrg|*

    ]hl{ di{gyrgm vhgjdogjdj db wjvnyneege rdkniweny| ygcnymljc bnklne gxvyg{{ldj{

    ig}sggj }hg Khljg{g njm Gjcel{h enjcwncg{ slee ig bwy}hgy ml{kw{{gm lj }hg kdjkew{ldj

    njm {wccg{}ldj{ bdy bw}wyg {}wmlg{*

    >8

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    Hn|{ bdwy/egrge odmge db hwody nvvygkln}ldj l{ dymgygm n{ bdeeds{ (gnkh {}n}g

    vyg{wvvd{ljc }hg djg }d l}{ egb},0 ygkdcjl}ldjwjmgy{}njmljcnvvygkln}ldjncyggogj}

    (966>,* ]hl{ odmge od}lrn}g{ }hg en{} }sd ~wg{}ldj{ lj }hg {g} bdeedsljc gnkh kny}ddj*

    Ygkdcjl}ldj njm kdovyghgj{ldj db n kny}ddj{ hwody mdg{ jd} g~wn}g }d l}{ gj`d|ogj}

    njm nvvygkln}ldj* ]hg }sd ~wg{}ldj{ Hds kdjblmgj} nyg |dw }hn} |dw wjmgy{}ddm }hg

    hwody lj }hg kny}ddj4 njm Hds now{ljc mlm |dw bljm }hg kny}ddj }d ig4 sgyg

    mg{lcjgm }d knv}wyg }hg jwnjkg{ ig}sggj kdovyghgjmljc njm nvvygkln}ljc }hg hwody lj

    gnkh kny}ddj* ]hg bdwy}h {}n}g db Hn|{ odmge sn{ jd} }nagj lj}d mlygk} kdj{lmgyn}ldj%

    ne}hdwch }hg vd{l}lrg njm jgcn}lrg bnklne ygnk}ldj{ (n{ {wyrg|gm lj }hg bly{} ~wg{}ldj,

    {gyrg n{ ygelnieg vydxlg{ }d cnwcg ncyggogj}*

    ]hg yg{gnykhgy ne{d {}ywccegm sl}h }hg lmgn db ljkewmljc n ~wg{}ldj n{aljc bdy }hg

    yg{vdjmgj}{ n{{g{{ogj} db gnkh kny}ddj{ egrge db lydj|* Hdsgrgy% }hg we}lon}g mgkl{ldj

    gxkewmgm }hg ~wg{}ldj igknw{g }hg dylcljne lj}gj}ldj db }hg yg{gnykh sn{ ognj} }d ig n

    {wi}eg }g{} db yg{vdjmgj}{ nilel}| }d wjmgy{}njm njm nvvygkln}g {l}wn}ldjne lydj| wjmgy

    wjvydov}gm klykwo{}njkg{* Clrgj }hg nbdygogj}ldjgm bnk} }hn} {l}wn}ldjne lydj| l{

    vylonyle| di{gyrgm yn}hgy }hnj kygn}gm% l}{ {vdj}njgdw{ di{gyrn}ldj njm kdovyghgj{ldj lj

    }hg kny}ddj{ sdwem ig nbbgk}gm njm$dy vylogm i| n {wyrg| ~wg{}ldj gxvelkl}e| ygbgygjkljc

    }hg kdjkgv} db lydj|*

    Id}h {wyrg|{ kdjkewmgm sl}h mgodcynvhlk ~wg{}ldj{ ljkewmljc ncg% cgjmgy%

    {}n}g$vydrljkg db yg{lmgjkg% venkg db ily}h% egrge db gmwkn}ldj% egrge db ljkdog% dkkwvn}ldj%

    njm jwoigy db |gny{ yg{lmljc lj }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{ dy Khljn* Lj}gjmgm bdy en}gy kdovnyl{dj

    sl}h yg{vdjmgj}{ nilel}| }d wjmgy{}njm njm nvvygkln}g {l}wn}ldjne lydj|% }hg Khljg{g

    {wyrg| ne{d ljkewmgm n {g} db }hygg nmml}ldjne ~wg{}ldj{ ogn{wyljc bdy }hg yg{vdjmgj}{

    gxvd{wyg }d njm wjmgy{}njmljc db Sg{}gyj kwe}wyg*

    Mgiylgbljc

    Clrgj }hg vygrldw{e| wjml{ked{gm lj}gj} db }hg {wyrg|% n mgiylgb mdkwogj} sn{ {gj} }dnee yg{vdjmgj}{ ljmlkn}ljc lj}gyg{} lj }hg yg{gnykh vwyvd{g{ db }hg {wyrg|*

    Elol}n}ldj{

    [grgyne elol}n}ldj{ lj }hg mg{lcj db }hg {wyrg| gxl{} njm nyg ml{kw{{gm igeds0

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    >* [noveg bynog* Clrgj }hg {noveljc bynog db kdjrgjlgjkg {noveljc% }hg mn}nkdeegk}gm on| jd} ig }hg od{} ygvyg{gj}n}lrg dy mlrgy{g db }hg vdvwen}ldj{

    {novegm* ]hg jg}sdya gbbgk}% shgyg }hg {wyrg| l{ bdysnymgm od{}e| }d ljmlrlmwne{

    {loleny }d }hg yg{vdjmgj}% on| ig n kdoodj vhgjdogjdj njm }hw{ elol} }hg

    ygvyg{gj}n}lrgjg{{ db }hg {noveg* Bydo }hg ljl}lne yg{we}{% cgjmgy njm ncg

    loinenjkg{ lj }hg yg{vdj{g{ {ggo }d ig n kdoodj vydiego nkyd{{ id}h {noveg

    cydwv{*

    9* Ynjcg db lydj|* Ne}hdwch }hg kny}ddj{ khd{gj nyg gl}hgy lydjlk dy jdj/lydjlk% l} l{mlbblkwe} }d kdj}yde bdy }hg ynjcg njm lj}gj{l}| db }hg lydj| vyg{gj} lj }hg kny}ddj{*

    ]hg kny}ddj{ khd{gj nyg ljgrl}nie| ynjcljc lj egrge{ db hwody njm lydj|% shlkh

    knj ig vydiegon}lk bdy njne|pljc }hg yg{vdjmgj}{ egrge db nvvygkln}ldj bdy nj

    lydjlk njm jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj lb djg kny}ddj l{ cgjgynee| kdj{lmgygm odyg

    hwodydw{ }hnj }hg d}hgy* Bdy gxnoveg% lb }hg khd{gj L[ kny}ddj{ nyg ljhgygj}e|

    odyg hwodydw{ dy lydjlk }hnj }hg LG kny}ddj{% }hl{ on| n}}yliw}g }d n

    ol{lj}gyvyg}n}ldj }hn} }hg {noveg vdvwen}ldj knj ig}}gy nvvygkln}g dy wjmgy{}njm

    }hg L[ kny}ddj{* Hdsgrgy% }hl{ elol}n}ldj knj ig drgykdog i| }hg w{g db }sd

    mlbbgygj} {noveg vdvwen}ldj{ }d {gyrg n{ n in{l{ db kdovnyl{dj*

    ;* Kwe}wyne {nelgjk| db L[ kny}ddj{* Ne}hdwch }hg yg{gnykhgy sn{ knygbwe lj khdd{ljcL[ kny}ddj{ kwe}wynee| ygegrnj} }d id}h }hg W*[* njm Khljg{g {noveg vdvwen}ldj{% l}

    l{ rgy| mlbblkwe} }d kdj}yde bdy kwe}wyne mlbbgygjkg{ lj }hg {nelgjk| db }hg lydjlg{

    vyg{gj}gm lj }hg kny}ddj{* Bdy gxnoveg% ne}hdwch iwygnwkyn}lk ljgbblklgjk|

    (Kny}ddj +;, l{ ygegrnj} }d id}h }hg W*[* njm Khljg{g kwe}wyg{% }hl{ vydiego on|

    ig odyg {nelgj} lj Khljg{g kwe}wyg* ]hl{ hlchgy {nelgjk| on| vd{l}lrge| kdj}yliw}g

    }d }hg Khljg{g {noveg{ nilel}| }d ygen}g }d }hg kny}ddj njm vd{{lie| ljkygn{g l}{

    {kdyg{ lj kdovyghgj{ldj njm nvvygkln}ldj* ]hl{ mlbbgygjkg on| iln{ dwy yg{we}{

    shgj kdovnyljc }hg W*[* yg{we}{ }d }g{} shg}hgy }hg Khljg{g }gjm }d nvvygkln}g L[

    kny}ddj{ odyg }hnj LG kny}ddj{% {ljkg }hg W*[* {kdyg{ lj nvvygkln}ldj njm

    kdovyghgj{ldj on| ig {love| edsgy igknw{g db n edsgy kwe}wyne {nelgjk| lj

    vny}lkweny }dvlk{ db }hg L[ kny}ddj{ njm jd} igknw{g db kwe}wyne mlbbgygjkg{ lj

    nvvygkln}ldj db L[ njm LG kny}ddj{* Hdsgrgy% }hg w{g db L[ kny}ddj{ dylcljn}ljc

    bydo id}h Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{ on| hgev }d kdj}yde bdy }hg{g mlbbgygjkg{%

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    {ljkg olxgm dylclj{ {hdwem vyg{wonie| hgev lj ynjmdolpljc nj| iln{g{ lj kwe}wyne

    {nelgjk|*

    =* Iewyy| ml{}ljk}ldj ig}sggj L[ njm LG kny}ddj{0 ]hg L[ njm LG kn}gcdylg{ nyg jd}gj}lyge| ow}wnee| gxkew{lrg db djg njd}hgy* [dog kny}ddj{% {wkh n{ Kny}ddj +>>%

    on| ig dylcljnee| kn}gcdylpgm n{ L[ kny}ddj{% iw} n{vgk}{ db }hg kny}ddj kdwem ne{d

    ygbegk} kdoogj}nylg{ dj {dklne gxvgk}n}ldj{ njm lj}gj}ldj{* Djg vd{{lieg

    lj}gyvyg}n}ldj sdwem ig }hn} }hg kny}ddj l{ n kdoogj} dj ogmlkne onevynk}lkg lj

    {dklg}|* Ne}hdwch LG kny}ddj{ knj {dog}log{ ne{d ig kyd{{/kn}gcdylpgm n{ L[

    kny}ddj{% }hg L[ kny}ddj{ lj }hg {wyrg| nyg bdy}wjn}ge| rgy| ml{}ljk} {dklne

    kdoogj}nylg{* ]hg LG kny}ddj{ }hn} on| ne{d ig kdj{}ywgm }d ig L[ kny}ddj{ slee

    ig clrgj {vgklne kdj{lmgyn}ldj lj }hg njne|{l{*

    RL*YG[GNYKH BLJMLJC[

    ]hg yg{gnykh mgylrg{ bydo >7< kdoveg}gm Khljg{g {wyrg|{ njm >63 kdoveg}gm W*[*

    {wyrg|{* ]d geloljn}g mn}n bydo ygkgj}e| loolcyn}gm yg{vdjmgj}{% shd sdwem vyg{wonie|

    ig wjygvyg{gj}n}lrg db }hgly jgs kdwj}y|% mn}n bydo yg{vdjmgj}{ shd hnrg jd} elrgm lj

    }hgly ygvyg{gj}n}lrg kdwj}y| bdy odyg }hnj n} egn{} bdwy |gny{ sgyg ne{d ble}gygm dw} db }hg

    yg{gnykh*

    Kyd{{/kwe}wyne njne|{l{

    Lj onaljc kyd{{/kwe}wyne kdovnyl{dj{% }hygg/sn| NJDRN odmge{ sgyg }g{}gm }d edda

    n} }hg gbbgk}{ db kdwj}y|% cgjmgy% njm ncg ; dj }hg nrgyncg{ db kdovyghgj{ldj njm

    nvvygkln}ldj db lydjlk njm jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{=* ]hw{ }hg mgvgjmgj} rnylnieg{ sgyg0

    >* Ognj L K Nrgyncg db n yg{vdjmgj}{ kdovyghgj{ldj db }hg hwody sl}hlj }hg bdy {}n}l{}lkne yg{we}{ }d }hg{g }g{}{*

    9>

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    ;* Ognj J K Nrgyncg db n yg{vdjmgj}{ kdovyghgj{ldj db }hg hwody sl}hlj }hg 2jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{*

    =* Ognj J N Nrgyncg db n yg{vdjmgj}{ nvvygkln}ldj db }hg hwody sl}hlj }hg 2jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{*

    Bdy Ognj L K% }hg odmge hnm nj Y/[~wnygm db 6*9338 njm ljmlkn}gm }hn} vgdveg db }hg

    Wjl}gm [}n}g{ hnm n {lcjlblknj}e| hlchgy nrgyncg lj kdovyghgj{ldj db }hg hwody sl}hlj

    }hg lydjlk kny}ddj{% sl}h v 5 *666>* ]hg demgy ncg cydwv ( 97 |gny{ dem, ne{d hn{ n

    {lcjlblknj}e| hlchgy nrgyncg lj kdovyghgj{ldj db }hg hwody sl}hlj }hg lydjlk kny}ddj{%

    sl}h v ? *6>;>* Cgjmgy mlm jd} hnrg n {lcjlblknj} gbbgk} dj }hg odmge*

    Bdy Ognj L N% }hg odmge hnm nj Y/[~wnygm db 6*6 njm ljmlkn}gm }hn} }hg Khljg{g

    hnm n {lcjlblknj}e| hlchgy nrgyncg lj nvvygkln}ljc }hg hwody db }hg lydjlk kny}ddj{% sl}h v

    5 *666>* Id}h cgjmgy njm ncg hnm jd {lcjlblknj} gbbgk}{* Bdy Ognj J K% }hg odmge hnm nj

    Y/[~wnygm db 6*>;< njm ljmlkn}gm }hn} vgdveg lj }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{ hnrg n {lcjlblknj}e|

    hlchgy nrgyncg lj wjmgy{}njmljc }hg hwody sl}hlj jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{% sl}h v 5 *666>*

    Ncg njm cgjmgy mlm jd} hnrg {lcjlblknj} gbbgk}{*

    Bdy Ognj J N% }hg odmge hnm nj Y/[~wnygm db 6*>=> njm ljmlkn}gm }hn} }hg Khljg{g

    hnrg n {lcjlblknj}e| hlchgy nrgyncg lj nvvygkln}ljc }hg hwody db }hg jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{%

    sl}h v 5 *666>* Ncnlj% cgjmgy njm ncg mlm jd} hnrg {lcjlblknj} gbbgk}{7*

    Bydo }hg{g ljl}lne kyd{{/kwe}wyne kdovnyl{dj{% kdwj}y| hn{ nesn|{ hnm n {lcjlblknj}

    gbbgk} njm vydrg{ }hn} }hgyg l{ n kdj{l{}gj} }ygjm lj }hg kwe}wyne mlbbgygjkg{ ig}sggj

    kdovyghgjmljc njm nvvygkln}ljc hwody* Lj nmml}ldj% }hg W*[* vdvwen}ldj hn{ {hdsj n

    kdj{l{}gj} vn}}gyj lj {kdyljc {lcjlblknj}e| hlchgy lj kdovyghgj{ldj db }hg hwody lj }hg

    kny}ddj{ (id}h lydjlk njm jdj/lydjlk, njm }hg Khljg{g vdvwen}ldj hn{ ne{d {hdsj n

    kdj{l{}gj} vn}}gyj lj {kdyljc {lcjlblknj}e| hlchgy lj nvvygkln}ljc }hg hwody db }hg

    kny}ddj{ (id}h lydjlk njm jdj/lydjlk,* ]hg{g bljmljc{ kgy}nlje| {wvvdy} }hg h|vd}hg{l{

    ygcnymljc mlbbgygjkg{ lj kwe}wyne vgykgv}ldj{ njm nvvygkln}ldj db lydj|* Iw} {ljkg }hg| nyg

    jd} gj}lyge| kdjkew{lrg% sg jds }wyj dwy n}}gj}ldj }d }hg byg~wgjk| db vd{l}lrg njm

    jgcn}lrg ygnk}ldj{ }d lydjlk njm jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{ }d njne|pg }hg mn}n odyg lj mg}nle*

    7 Lj}gynk}ldj gbbgk}{ ljrderljc }hg lj}gynk}ldj db kdwj}y| njm {gx% dy kdwj}y| njm ncg% sgyg }g{}gm

    njm bdwjm kdj{l{}gj}e| lj{lcjlblknj}*

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    Byg~wgjk| db !$/ ygnk}ldj{

    ]hygg/sn| NJDRN odmge{ sgyg ne{d kdj{}ywk}gm }d }g{} }hg gbbgk}{ db kdwj}y|%

    cgjmgy% njm ncg dj }hg byg~wgjk| db }hg yg{vdjmgj}{ vd{l}lrg njm jgcn}lrg ygnk}ldj{ }d

    id}h lydjlk njm jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{2* ]hw{ }hg mgvgjmgj} rnylnieg{ sgyg0

    >* Lydjlk !0 Vd{l}lrg ygnk}ldj{ }d lydjlk kny}ddj{9* Lydjlk /0 Jgcn}lrg ygnk}ldj{ }d lydjlk kny}ddj{;* Jdj/lydjlk !0 Vd{l}lrg ygnk}ldj{ }d jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{=* Jdj/lydjlk /0 Jgcn}lrg ygnk}ldj{ }d jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{

    Lj }hg Lydjlk ! odmge% vgdveg lj }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{ hnrg n {}n}l{}lknee| {lcjlblknj}

    hlchgy byg~wgjk| lj vd{l}lrg ygnk}ldj{ }d lydjlk kny}ddj{ }hnj vgdveg lj Khljn (v 5 *666>,1

    }hg demgy ncg cydwv ne{d hn{ n odyg vd{l}lrg ygnk}ldj }d lydj| }hnj }hg |dwjcgy cydwv (v

    ? *6;79,* Cgjmgy hnm jd {lcjlblknj} gbbgk}{* Lj }hg Lydjlk odmge% }hg Khljg{g hnrg n

    {}n}l{}lknee| {lcjlblknj} hlchgy byg~wgjk| lj jgcn}lrg ygnk}ldj{ }d }hg lydjlk kny}ddj{ }hnj

    }hg W*[* vdvwen}ldj (v ? *66;>,* Cgjmgy njm ncg hnrg jd {lcjlblknj} gbbgk}{*

    Lj }hg Jdj/lydjlk ! odmge% vgdveg lj Khljn hnrg n onycljnee| {lcjlblknj} hlchgy

    byg~wgjk| lj vd{l}lrg ygnk}ldj{ }d jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{ }hnj vgdveg lj }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{ (v

    ? *67

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    on| ig drgygxvd{gm }d kny}ddj{ njm }hl{ }|vg db hwody }d }hg vdlj} db drgy{n}wyn}ldj*

    Njd}hgy lj}gyvyg}n}ldj l{ }hn} }hg demgy ncg cydwv }gjm{ }d hnrg n edsgy }hyg{hdem bdy

    nvvygkln}ljc hwody*

    Lovelkn}ldj{ db kny}ddj }dvlk (LG r{* L[ kny}ddj{,

    Lj dymgy }d mg}gyoljg shg}hgy }hg }dvlk db }hg lydjlk kny}ddj{% n{ kn}gcdylpgm i| LG

    njm L[ kny}ddj{% hn{ lovelkn}ldj{ bdy }hg vdvwen}ldj{ ognj nvvygkln}ldj njm

    kdovyghgj{ldj% bdwy }/}g{}{ (n{{woljc wjg~wne rnylnjkg{, sgyg ywj }d mg}gyoljg lb }hgyg

    sgyg {lcjlblknj} mlbbgygjkg{ ig}sggj }hg ognj{ db }hg Khljg{g njm W*[* yg{vdjmgj}{ lj

    }hgly kdovyghgj{ldj njm nvvygkln}ldj db L[ njm LG kny}ddj{3*

    ]hg bly{} }/}g{} kdovnygm nrgyncg{ db }hg Khljg{g vdvwen}ldj{ ognj lj

    kdovyghgjmljc }hg L[ kny}ddj{ (L[ K, njm LG kny}ddj{ (LG K,* ]hg }/}g{} yg{we} {hds{ }hn}

    }hg L[ K nrgyncg db 3*3>; l{ {lcjlblknj}e| hlchgy }hnj }hg LG K nrgyncg db 2*767% sl}h v ?

    7*72G/6

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    mn}n% {hds{ }hn} }hgyg l{ jd} n {lcjlblknj} mlbbgygjkg ig}sggj }hg W*[* vdvwen}ldj{

    nvvygkln}ldj bdy L[ njm LG kny}ddj{* ]hg yg{we}{ db }hg en{} }sd }/}g{}{ {wvvdy} }hg

    h|vd}hg{l{ }hn} }hgyg l{ n kwe}wyne mlbbgygjkg ig}sggj }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{ njm Khljn*

    Shgygn{ }hg W*[* {noveg mdg{ jd} hnrg n {lcjlblknj} vygbgygjkg ig}sggj L[ njm LG

    kny}ddj{% }hg Khljg{g }gjm }d nvvygkln}g {dklnee| lydjlk kny}ddj{ odyg }hnj grgy|mn|

    lydjlk kny}ddj{*

    Gxvd{wyg }d Sg{}gyj kwe}wyg

    Lj dymgy }d mg}gyoljg shg}hgy gxvd{wyg njm wjmgy{}njmljc db Sg{}gyj kwe}wyg hn{ n

    {lcjlblknj} gbbgk} dj }hg Khljg{g vdvwen}ldj{ kdovyghgj{ldj njm nvvygkln}ldj egrge{ db

    }hg lydjlk kny}ddj{% }hygg/sn| NJDRN odmge{ sgyg ywj sl}h ljmgvgjmgj} rnylnieg{ db >,

    gxvd{wyg }d Sg{}gyj kwe}wyg% 9, wjmgy{}njmljc db Sg{}gyj kwe}wyg% njm ;, gxvd{wyg }d

    Sg{}gyj gj}gy}nljogj} ncnlj{} bdwy mgvgjmgj} rnylnieg{ db >, Ognj L K% 9, Ognj L N% ;,

    Ognj J K% njm Ognj J N8* ]hg ljmgvgjmgj} rnylnieg{% ynjagm dj n kdj}ljwdw{ {kneg db

    >>6 (sl}h >6 igljc }hg hlchg{}, sgyg }nagj mlygk}e| bydo gnkh yg{vdjmgj}{ n{{g{{ogj}

    db hl{ dy hgy gxvd{wyg njm wjmgy{}njmljc db Sg{}gyj kwe}wyg njm gj}gy}nljogj} (n{

    ljkewmgm n} }hg gjm db }hg Khljg{g {wyrg|,*

    Bydo }hg njne|{l{% sg bljm }hn} gxvd{wyg }d Sg{}gyj gj}gy}nljogj} l{ {lcjlblknj} njmkdj}yliw}g{ vd{l}lrge| }d }hg Khljg{g vdvwen}ldj{ ognj lj kdovyghgjmljc (v ? *666>,

    njm nvvygkln}ljc (v ? *668=, lydjlk kny}ddj{* L} l{ ne{d n {lcjlblknj} vygmlk}dy db

    kdovyghgj{ldj db }hg hwody lj jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{ (v ? *66;9,% iw} jd} {lcjlblknj} lj

    nvvygkln}ljc }hg hwody lj jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{ (v ? *;7;6,* ]hg yg{vdjmgj}{ {geb/n{{g{{gm

    gxvd{wyg }d Sg{}gyj kwe}wyg njm wjmgy{}njmljc db Sg{}gyj kwe}wyg mlm jd} hnrg n

    {lcjlblknj} gbbgk} dj nj| db }hg mgvgjmgj} rnylnieg{*

    Ml{kw{{ldj

    ]hg }hygg/sn| NJDRN bljmljc{ gxvenljgm nidrg nyg {woonylpgm lj }hg bdeedsljc

    khny}* ]hg }/}g{} bljmljc{ nyg jd} ygkdwj}gm igeds*

    8 Vegn{g {gg Nvvgjmlx ;*= bdy {}n}l{}lkne yg{we}{ }d }hg{g }g{}{*

    97

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    Odmge Y/

    [~wnygm

    [lcjlblknj}

    rnylnieg

    Vnynog}gy

    g{}lon}g

    Lj}gyvyg}n}ldj

    Ognj L K

    (Kyd{{/

    kwe}wyne,

    6*938 Kdwj}y|Q>_%

    v 5 *666>

    !6*_% v ? *6>;>

    /6*99< ]hg demgy ncg cydwv lj id}h kdwj}ylg{ hn{ n

    {lcjlblknj}e| hlchgy nrgyncg lj kdovyghgjmljc}hg hwody db lydjlk kny}ddj{

    Ognj L N

    (Kyd{{/

    kwe}wyne,

    6*6 Kdwj}y|Q>_%v 5 *666>

    /6*=3< Khljn hn{ n {lcjlblknj}e| hlchgy nrgyncg ljnvvygkln}ljc }hg hwody db lydjlk kny}ddj{

    Ognj J K

    (Kyd{{/

    kwe}wyne,

    6*>;< Kdwj}y|Q>_%v 5 *666>

    !6*2;8 ]hg W*[* hn{ n {lcjlblknj}e| hlchgy nrgyncg ljkdovyghgjmljc }hg hwody db jdj/lydjlk

    kny}ddj{

    Ognj J N

    (Kyd{{/

    kwe}wyne,

    6*>=> Kdwj}y|Q>_%

    v 5 *666>

    /6*2>2 Khljn hn{ n {lcjlblknj}e| hlchgy nrgyncg lj

    nvvygkln}ljc }hg hwody db jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{

    Lydjlk ! 6*>>> Kdwj}y|Q>_%

    v 5 *666>

    !6*323 ]hg W*[* hn{ n {lcjlblknj}e| hlchgy byg~wgjk|

    lj ygnk}ljc vd{l}lrge| }d lydjlk kny}ddj{

    Ncg mlkhd}dolpgm

    Q>_% v ? *6;7

    /6*98= ]hg demgy ncg cydwv lj id}h kdwj}ylg{ hn{ n

    {lcjlblknj}e| hlchgy byg~wgjk| lj ygnk}ljc

    vd{l}lrge| }d lydjlk kny}ddj{

    Lydjlk / 6*6;= Kdwj}y|Q>_%

    v ? *66;

    /6*; Khljn hn{ n {lcjlblknj}e| hlchgy byg~wgjk| lj

    ygnk}ljc jgcn}lrge| }d lydjlk kny}ddj{

    Jdj/lydjlk

    !

    6*6;8 Kdwj}y|Q>_%

    v ? *672< Khljn hn{ n {lcjlblknj}e| hlchgy byg~wgjk| lj

    ygnk}ljc vd{l}lrge| }d jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{

    Ncgmlkhd}dolpgmQ>_%

    v ? *6==

    /6*>33 ]hg demgy ncg cydwv hn{ n {lcjlblknj}e| hlchgybyg~wgjk| lj ygnk}ljc vd{l}lrge| }d jdj/lydjlk

    kny}ddj{

    Jdj/lydjlk

    /

    6*6>9 Jd {lcjlblknj}

    rnylnieg{Ognj L K 6*>9> Sg{}gyj

    gj}gy}nljogj}%

    v ? *666>

    !6*;>9 Gxvd{wyg }d Sg{}gyj gj}gy}nljogj} hn{ n{lcjlblknj}e| vd{l}lrg gbbgk} dj }hg Khljg{g

    kdovyghgj{ldj db }hg lydjlk kny}ddj{

    Ognj L N 6*67= Sg{}gyj

    gj}gy}nljogj}%

    v ? 6*668

    !6*9>3 Gxvd{wyg }d Sg{}gyj gj}gy}nljogj} hn{ n

    {lcjlblknj}e| vd{l}lrg gbbgk} dj }hg Khljg{g

    nvvygkln}ldj db lydjlk kny}ddj{

    Ognj J K 6*>9> Sg{}gyj

    gj}gy}nljogj}%

    v ? *66;

    !6*97< Gxvd{wyg }d Sg{}gyj gj}gy}nljogj} hn{ n{lcjlblknj}e| vd{l}lrg gbbgk} dj }hg Khljg{g

    kdovyghgj{ldj db jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{

    Ognj J N 6*6=

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    l{ ogyge| drgykdjblmgj} dy {love| odyg bnolelny sl}h kny}ddj hwody* Elagsl{g% ne}hdwch

    }hg Khljg{g yg{vdjmgj}{ ne{d nrgyncgm kdj{l{}gj}e| hlchgy lj }hgly nvvygkln}ldj db nee }hg

    kny}ddj{% sg knjjd} n{{wog }hn} }hg Khljg{g nyg ig}}gy nieg }d gj`d| kny}ddj hwody*

    Hdsgrgy% mynsljc wvdj }hg mn}n njne|{l{ nidrg% {grgyne ag| }nagnsn|{ ygcnymljc

    {l}wn}ldjne lydj| lj Khljn knj ig ml{}leegm igeds0

    ]hg Khljg{g {noveg l{ {lcjlblknj}e| odyg elage| }hnj }hg W*[* {noveg }d ygnk}

    jgcn}lrge| }d {l}wn}ldjne lydj| lj }hg kny}ddj{* ]hg W*[* {noveg hn{ n {lcjlblknj}e| hlchgy

    byg~wgjk| db vd{l}lrg ygnk}ldj{ }d lydjlk kny}ddj{ njm }hg Khljg{g {noveg hn{ n

    {lcjlblknj}e| hlchgy byg~wgjk| db jgcn}lrg ygnk}ldj{ }d lydjlk kny}ddj{* ]hg bnk} }hn} }hg

    Khljg{g {noveg hn{ n {lcjlblknj}e| hlchgy byg~wgjk| lj ygnk}ljc vd{l}lrge| }d }hg jdj/

    lydjlk kny}ddj{ ml{vge{ }hg lmgn }hn} }hg Khljg{g {noveg }gjm{ }d hnrg odyg jgcn}lrg

    ygnk}ldj{ }d }hg kny}ddj{ lj cgjgyne*

    Lb sg edda inka }d Hn|{ bdwy/egrge odmge db hwody nvvygkln}ldj% sg knj {gg }hn}

    nvvygkln}ldj njm ncyggogj} nyg cgjgynee| ljmgvgjmgj} db gnkh d}hgy* Ne}hdwch }hg

    Khljg{g kdj{l{}gj}e| nrgyncgm {lcjlblknj}e| hlchgy lj }hgly nvvygkln}ldj db }hg lydjlk njm

    jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{% }hl{ mdg{ jd} {gyrg n{ n vygmlk}dy db }hg {noveg{ ncyggogj} sl}h }hg

    kny}ddj* ]hg yg{vdjmgj} on| bljm }hg hwody db }hg kny}ddj bwjj| shleg ml{ncyggljc sl}h

    }hg og{{ncg* ]hgj% hg dy {hg knj {wvvdy} }hg hwody% iw} knjkge }hg lovelkn}wyg db

    ncyggogj} (Hn|% 966>% vv* 32,*

    N{{woljc }hn} god}ldjne ygnk}ldj{ nyg n vydx| bdy }hg di{gyrgy{ ncyggogj} sl}h }hg

    lydj|% sg knj }hgj }hgdylpg }hn} }hg Khljg{g }gjm }d ygnk} jgcn}lrge| }d }hg lydjlk

    {l}wn}ldj{ vdy}yn|gm mwg }d ml{ncyggogj} sl}h }hg hwody db }hg kny}ddj* Hdsgrgy% l} l{

    mlbblkwe} }d gx}ynvden}g }hg ygn{djljc ighljm }hgly ml{ncyggogj} n{ l} kdwem rny| bydo

    ml{nvvydrne db }hg onaljc elch} db n rlk}lo sl}hlj nj lydjlk {l}wn}ldj% {|ovn}h| bdy }hg

    rlk}lo db }hg lydjlk {l}wn}ldj% g}k*

    [dklnee| lydjlk {l}wn}ldj{ vygrnle lj kdovyghgj{ldj njm nvvygkln}ldj lj Khljn* ]hg

    Khljg{g {noveg hn{ n {lcjlblknj} nvvygkln}ldj vygbgygjkg bdy L[ kny}ddj{ drgy LG kny}ddj{*

    ]hl{ }ygjm sn{ jd} di{gyrgm lj }hg W*[* {noveg% shlkh {wvvdy}{ }hg h|vd}hg{l{ vygmlk}ljc

    n Khljg{g vygbgygjkg bdy {dklnee| lydjlk {l}wn}ldj{ drgy grgy|mn| lydjlk {l}wn}ldj{* ]hl{

    ne{d bl}{ {gj{lie| sl}hlj }hg di{gyrn}ldj }hn} od{} gxnoveg{ db lydj| lj Khljn vdlj} }d

    el}gyny| sdya{ db {n}lyg* Clrgj {n}lyg{ jn}wyg n{ n {dklne kdoogj}ny|% }hg vygrnegjkg db

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    {n}lyg drgy lydj| {wvvdy}{ }hg h|vd}hg{l{ }hn} {l}wn}ldjne lydjlg{ ygen}gm }d {dklne

    kdoogj}nylg{ {hdwem ig odyg {nelgj} njm nvvygklnieg }hnj {l}wn}ldjne lydjlg{ ygen}gm }d

    dymljny| njm ljmlrlmwne nbbnly{*

    Gxvd{wyg }d Sg{}gyj gj}gy}nljogj} hn{ n {lcjlblknj} gbbgk} dj }hg Khljg{g

    kdovyghgj{ldj njm nvvygkln}ldj db {l}wn}ldjne lydj|* Gxvd{wyg }d Sg{}gyj gj}gy}nljogj}

    ven|gm n {lcjlblknj} ydeg lj }hg Khljg{g vdvwen}ldj{ kdovyghgj{ldj njm nvvygkln}ldj db

    {l}wn}ldjne lydj|* ]hg bnk} }hn} cgjgyne gxvd{wyg }d Sg{}gyj kwe}wyg sn{ jd} n {lcjlblknj}

    rnylnieg {wccg{}{ }hn} gxvd{wyg }d Sg{}gyj gj}gy}nljogj} l{ n odyg {vgklblk njm ygegrnj}

    bnk}dy* W*[* {l}kdo{ ({l}wn}ldjne kdogmlg{, hnrg igkdog ljkygn{ljce| vdvweny lj Khljn*

    ]hg{g {l}kdo{% {wkh n{ }hg sgee/elagmBylgjm{ {gylg{% nyg db}gj vygmlkn}gm dj hwody bydo

    {l}wn}ldjne lydj|* Gxvd{wyg }d {wkh {l}kdo{ bnolelnylpg{ l}{ Khljg{g rlgsgy{ sl}h }hg

    hwody db {l}wn}ldjne lydjlg{ njm ne{d vd{{lie| {gyrg{ n{ nj gxvenjn}ldj bdy }hg kdyygen}ldj

    ig}sggj gxvd{wyg }d Sg{}gyj gj}gy}nljogj} njm }hg Khljg{g {noveg{ kdovyghgj{ldj

    njm nvvygkln}ldj db {l}wn}ldjne lydj|*

    RLL*KDJKEW[LDJ

    [l}wn}ldjne lydj| l{ n vhgjdogjdj db kdj{lmgynieg kwe}wyne {lcjlblknjkg* ]hl{ vnvgy

    hn{ gxvedygm }hg vyg{gjkg db {l}wn}ldjne lydj| lj Khljn njm kdovnygm }hg{g bljmljc{ }d

    }hg vyg{gjkg db }hl{ vhgjdogjdj lj }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{* Bydo }hg blgem {}wm| {wyrg|ljc

    Khljg{g njm W*[* yg{vdjmgj}{ db }hgly kdovyghgj{ldj% nvvygkln}ldj% njm ygnk}ldj

    ygcnymljc n {gylg{ db lydjlk njm jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{% sg nyg nieg }d vygeloljnyle| mgeljgn}g

    {grgyne lovdy}nj} ml{}ljk}ldj{ ig}sggj }hg W*[* njm Khljg{g {noveg cydwv{* ]hg Khljg{g

    {noveg }gjm{ }d nvvygkln}g }hg hwody sl}hlj lydjlk njm jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{ {lcjlblknj}e|

    odyg }hnj }hg W*[* {noveg* Hdsgrgy% }hg Khljg{g yg{vdjmgj}{ ne{d }gjm }d ygnk} odyg

    jgcn}lrge| (n{ ogn{wygm i| ljl}lne bnklne gxvyg{{ldj{, }d lydjlk kny}ddj{ njm ygnk} odyg

    vd{l}lrge| }d jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{* Lb sg kdj{lmgy vd{l}lrg ygnk}ldj{ }d }hg kny}ddj n{ n

    bdyo db ncyggogj}% }hgj sg knj ne}gyjn}lrge| kdj{lmgy jgcn}lrg ygnk}ldj{ n{ n bdyo db

    yg`gk}ldj dy ml{nvvydrne* ]hg yg{we}{ {wccg{} }hn} }hg W*[* yg{vdjmgj}{ ygnk}ldj{ }gjm }d

    ncygg sl}h }hg lydj| njm hwody vdy}yn|gm shgygn{ }hg Khljg{g yg{vdjmgj}{ gl}hgy yg`gk}

    dy ml{nvvydrg db }hg lydj| njm hwody sl}hlj }hg kny}ddj* @wmcljc bydo }hg Khljg{g

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    yg{we}{ db hlch nvvygkln}ldj iw} jgcn}lrg ygnk}ldj{ }d }hg lydjlk kny}ddj{% sg {gg n

    rnelmn}ldj db Hn|{ odmge lj }hg ljmgvgjmgj} ygen}ldj{hlv ig}sggj nvvygkln}ldj njm

    ncyggogj} db hwody*

    ]hg mn}n ne{d mgodj{}yn}gm }hg vd{l}lrg kdj}yliw}ldj{ }hn} gxvd{wyg }d Sg{}gyj

    gj}gy}nljogj} onag{ }d n Khljg{g yg{vdjmgj}{ kdovyghgj{ldj njm nvvygkln}ldj db

    {l}wn}ldjne lydj|* Bljnee|% }hg Khljg{g yg{we}{ ne{d {wccg{} {lcjlblknj}e| hlchgy

    nvvygkln}ldj egrge{ bdy lydjlk kny}ddj{ ygen}gm }d {dklne gxvgk}n}ldj{ (L[, n{ kdovnygm }d

    lydjlk kny}ddj{ ygen}gm }d ljmlrlmwne lj}gj}ldj{ (LG,* ]hl{ bljmljc {wvvdy}{ }hg lmgn }hn} }hg

    Khljg{g vdvwen}ldj l{ ig}}gy nieg }d nvvygkln}g% njm vgyhnv{ ygen}g }d% hwody }hn} l{

    kyl}lkne db kgy}nlj n{vgk}{ db {dklg}|* Djg gxvenjn}ldj db }hl{ di{gyrgm }ygjm sdy}h| db

    bwy}hgy gxvedyn}ldj sdwem ig }hg hl{}dylkne ydd}{ db hwody lj njklgj} Khljn*

    ]hg gnyelg{} }ynkg{ db mdkwogj}gm Khljg{g hwody db}gj mn}g inka }d }hg vyg/ njm gnye|

    ^lj vgyldm{ (]njc% 966=,* Od{} bdyo{ db }hg{g mdkwogj}gm lj{}njkg{ db hwody goved|gm

    sgyg ajdsj n{ lovelkl} nmodjl}ldj (bjc`lj, (Snjc% 966>,* Lj }hg vyg/ njm gnye|

    ^lj }log{ db vdel}lkne }gj{ldj njm {dog}log{ kgj{dy{hlv% dje| kegrgye| ml{cwl{gm bdyo{ db

    nmodjl}ldj njm nmrlkg }d }hg ywegy{ sgyg gbbgk}lrg lj igljc kdj{lmgygm* [}ynlch}bdysnym

    nmodjl}ldj (ph`lj, db}gj njcgygm ywegy{ njm iydwch} nidw} kdyvdyne vwjl{hogj} bdy

    }hg iynpgj njm ygvydnkhljc ljmlrlmwne* ]hl{ bdyo db lovelkl} nmodjl}ldj vnyneege{

    rgyine lydj| lj l}{ ljmlygk} jn}wyg db lj}gjmljc {dog}hljc mlbbgygj} }hnj shn} l{ {nlm* [lon

    ^lnj{ (, [hl`l hwn`l elgphwnj (, jnyyn}gm gvl{dmg{ db }hl{ bdyo

    db hwody bydo }hg vgyldm{ db }hg [vyljc/Nw}woj% Snyyljc [}n}g{% njm ^lj m|jn{}lg{*

    [lon ^lnj vdlj}gm dw} }hn} }hg od{} jd}nieg gxgoveny{< db lovelkl} nmodjl}ldj sgyg

    sl}}|% db}gj bljmljc }hg ylch} }log }d {vgna }hg ylch} sdym{ lj }hg ylch} sn|* ]hg| ne{d

    {vdag ygegrnj}e| }d {derg kdjbelk}{ njm sgyg hlche| ljbewgj}lne (Elnd% 966;,*

    < ]hg }hygg od{} jd}nieg gxgoveny{ ogj}ldjgm lj }hg [hl`l hwn`l elgphwnj nyg Khwj \wawj (

    ,% \dw Ogjc (,% njm \dw Phnj (,* Nj gxnoveg db lovelkl} nmodjl}ldj dy rgyine

    lydj| goved|gm i| \dw Ogjc l{ }hg {}dy| db \dw Ogjc Igygnrg{ Hdy{g (% \w Ojc

    a o,* ]hg ywegy n} }hg }log sn{ n bnjn}lkne edrgy db hdy{g{* Nb}gy hl{ igedrgm hdy{g mlgm% }hg aljc

    yg~wlygm hl{ dbblklne{ }d hdjdy }hg hdy{g lj n hlch dbblklne iwylne* ]hydwch \dw Ogjc{ gxnccgyn}gm{wccg{}ldj }hn} }hg ywegy {hdwem mgodj{}yn}g hl{ }ywg edrg bdy }hg hdy{g sl}h n yd|ne iwylne yg{gyrgm

    dje| bdy }hg yd|ne bnole|% \dw Ogjc onmg }hg ywegy ygnelpg }hg ni{wyml}| db hl{ dylcljne jd}ldj{ db

    nyynjcljc n hlch dbblklne iwylne bdy }hg hdy{g*

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    ]hg gxl{}gjkg db rgyine lydj| n{ n yhg}dylkne njm el}gyny| mgrlkg }ynkljc inka }d

    njklgj} Khljg{g vhled{dvh| ml{vydrg{ }hg jd}ldj }hn} lydj| l{ n vhgjdogjdj {}ylk}e|

    elol}gm }d }hg Sg{}gyj hgol{vhgyg* Hdsgrgy% }hl{ vnvgy {wvvdy}{ }hg lmgn }hn} }hg rnyldw{

    bdyo{ db lydj| knj ig {nelgj} lj rny|ljc mgcygg{ nkyd{{ kwe}wyg{ njm kdwj}ylg{* Bydo }hg

    {}wm| kdjmwk}gm% yg{we}{ {wvvdy} }hg jd}ldj }hn} gxvd{wyg }d Sg{}gyj bnk}dy{ {lcjlblknj}e|

    ljbewgjkg{ n Khljg{g yg{vdjmgj}{ nilel}| }d id}h wjmgy{}njm njm nvvygkln}g {l}wn}ldjne

    lydjlg{ lj kny}ddj{* Lj nmml}ldj% }hg mn}n ne{d {wccg{}{ }hn} vygbgygjkg{ bdy }hg }dvlk db

    lydj| (l*g* L[ r{* LG kny}ddj{, n{ sgee n{ }hg }ygn}ogj} db lydj| (vd{l}lrg dy jgcn}lrg

    ygnk}ldj{, knj ne{d rny| {lcjlblknj}e| nkyd{{ kwe}wyg{* ]hl{ l{ ne{d }hg nygn shgyg }hl{

    vnvgy onag{ n kdj{lmgynieg kdj}yliw}ldj }d }hg kyd{{/kwe}wyne {}wmlg{ db lydj|* Ne}hdwch

    {}wmlg{ db cgjgyne hwody hnrg gxvedygm }hg lovelkn}ldj{ db vny}lkweny `dag }dvlk{ njm

    kdj}gj} dj hds bwjj| mlbbgygj} kwe}wyg{ bljm }hg `dag{% jd}hljc {loleny hn{ iggj mdjg lj

    }hg ygneo db {}wmlg{ dj lydj|* I| ml{}ljcwl{hljc ig}sggj }dvlk{ db {l}wn}ldjne lydj| (L[ r{*

    LG kny}ddj{,% }hl{ vnvgy nkajdsegmcg{ njm iwlem{ }hg bdwjmn}ldj bdy }hl{ lovdy}nj}

    lovelkn}ldj bdy hds mlbbgygj} kwe}wyg{ nvvygkln}g njm ygen}g }d lydj|*

    [wccg{}ldj{ bdy bw}wyg {}wmlg{

    Lydj|{ ogyl}{ n{ n ognj{ db vyd}gk}ldj hnrg iggj mgin}gm i| {khdeny{* Owgkag jd}g{

    }hg vyd}gk}lrg gbbgk}{ db lydj|% Shn} nj lydjlk di{gyrgy }|vlknee| bgge{ lj }hg vyg{gjkg db

    nj lydjlk {l}wn}ldj on| ig {woogm wv lj }hygg sdym{0 {wvgyldyl}|% byggmdo% now{gogj}*

    Cdg}hg {n|{ }hn} lydj| ynl{g{ n onj nidrg hnvvljg{{ dy wjhnvvljg{{% cddm dy grle% mgn}h

    dy elbg) (~wd}gm lj Owgkag% >% v* 868,* ]hg gxvedyn}ldj db

    }hg {dklne v{|khdedc| ighljm lydj| l{ ne{d n sdy}h| nygn bdy bw}wyg yg{gnykh* Lj }hl{

    bynogsdya% kyd{{/kwe}wyne njne|{l{ db lydj| on| ne{d vydmwkg lj{lch} lj}d mlbbgygjkg{ dbkdvljc vygbgygjkg{ nkyd{{ kwe}wyg{*

    Njne|{l{ db lydj| nkyd{{ kwe}wyg{ l{ nj nygn {gemdo gxvedygm i| {khdeny{% mg{vl}g l}{

    }ygogjmdw{ {lcjlblknjkg lj blgem{ {wkh n{ {dkldedc|% v{|khdedc|% njm el}gyn}wyg* ]hg

    wjkdrgyljc db grlmgjkg lj {wvvdy} db }hg lmgn }hn} gxvd{wyg }d kgy}nlj kwe}wyg{ kdj}yliw}g{

    vd{l}lrge| }d njd}hgy kwe}wyg{ kdovyghgj{ldj njm nvvygkln}ldj db lydj| ne{d {wvvdy}{ }hg

    ;6

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    lmgn }hn} kgy}nlj }|vg{ db kdcjl}ldj njm hwody knj ig kdj}nljgm sl}hlj n klrlelpn}ldj wj}le

    l}{ {vygnm }d d}hgy kwe}wyg{* ]hl{ grlmgjkg igc{ }hg ~wg{}ldj db shg}hgy hwody njm

    kdcjl}ldj mlbbgygjkg{ nkyd{{ kwe}wyg{ knj igkdog {edse| gyn{gm sl}h }hg {}njmnymlpn}ldj

    db kwe}wyg }hydwch cedinelpn}ldj*

    Gx}gj{lrg yg{gnykh ygcnymljc lydj| lj Khljn l{ ne{d n {wccg{}ldj bdy bw}wyg {}wmlg{*

    Od{} db }hg nrnlenieg Khljg{g el}gyn}wyg ygcnymljc lydj| l{ odmgegm nb}gy Sg{}gyj }hgdylg{

    njm bynogsdya{* ]hg mlbbgygjkg{ lj }ygn}ogj} njm vygbgygjkg db lydj| lj Khljn snyynj}

    njd}hgy edda n} }hg mgbljl}ldj{ njm wjmgy{}njmljc db lydj| lj Khljn bydo nj gxkew{lrge|

    Khljg{g rlgsvdlj}* Kyd{{/ygcldjne mlbbgygjkg{ ig}sggj }hg Gn{} N{lnj kdwj}ylg{ sdwem

    ne{d onag bdy nj lj}gyg{}ljc bw}wyg njne|{l{*

    Lj nmml}ldj% neigl} jd} gj}lyge| ygen}gm }d lydj|% }hgyg nyg bw}wyg yg{gnykh dvvdy}wjl}lg{

    lj kyd{{/kwe}wyne mlbbgygjkg{ lj bnklne gxvyg{{ldj{* N{ vygrldw{e| ogj}ldjgm lj }hg

    Yg{gnykh Mg{lcj {gk}ldj db }hl{ vnvgy% }hg Khljg{g enjcwncg nk}wnee| enka{ nj g~wlrnegj}

    }gyo bdy }hg kdjkgv}{ db }d kyljcg njm }d sljkg* Od{} Gjcel{h/Khljg{g mlk}ldjnylg{

    }ynj{en}g }hg{g sdym{ i| jd}ljc }hg vh|{lkne odrgogj} n vgy{dj onag{ lj kyljcljc dy

    sljkljc ({wkh n{ clrljc l} n Khljg{g mgbljl}ldj ked{gy }d }hg lmgn{ db {hyljaljc% ygkdleljc%

    dy yg}ygn}ljc,* ]hg bnklne gxvyg{{ldj ({vgklblknee| }hg edda dj djg{ bnkg shgj kyljcljc dy

    sljkljc, l{ gj}lyge| ed{} lj }hg }ynj{en}ldj* Njd}hgy vd}gj}lne nygn bdy {}wm| l{ shg}hgy }hg

    Khljg{g vdvwen}ldj l{ gj}lyge| enkaljc lj }hl{ }|vg db bnklne gxvyg{{ldj% njm lb {d% sh|

    kgy}nlj bnklne gxvyg{{ldj{ nyg ml{}ljk}lrge| khnynk}gyl{}lk{ db kgy}nlj kwe}wyg{*

    Bljnee|% }hg Khljg{g }gyo (ojc|j mg khdjjc,% shlkh ygen}g{ ked{ge|

    }d n kyd{{ ig}sggj }sd d}hgy bdyo{ db lydj| ajdsj n{ lydj| db bn}g njm }ynclk lydj|% l{

    njd}hgy nygn sdy}h| db gxvedyn}ldj* ]hl{ }gyo }ynj{en}g{ lj}d bn}g{ odkagy|% shlkh

    knyylg{ hgnrle| sl}h l} Ewknylgeed{ jd}ldj db lydj|{ kdjjgk}ldj sl}h hwonj bynclel}|*

    Ne}hdwch (ojc|j mg khdjjc, l{ i| jd ognj{ n ken{{lblkn}ldj db n }|vg db

    lydj|% l} l{ kgy}nlje| n kdoodje| w{gm }gyo lj Khljg{g }d syl}g dbb wjbdy}wjn}g grgj}{ n{

    {love| ig|djm hwonj kdj}yde* N {}wm| db }hg grdew}ldj db }hl{ }gyo njm kdjkgv} lj

    Khljg{g kwe}wyg on| ne{d |lgem {lcjlblknj} lj{lch} lj}d hds {l}wn}ldjne lydjlg{ lj Khljn

    nyg gxvenljgm dy db}gj}log{ ml{ol{{gm yg{lcjgme| n{ n yg{we} db bn}g*

    ;>

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    NVVGJMLX >

    >*> Gjcel{h {wyrg| kny}ddj{

    ;9

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    38/65

    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    ;;

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    39/65

    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    ;=

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    40/65

    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    >*9 Khljg{g {wyrg| kny}ddj{

    ;7

  • 8/3/2019 Irony Illustrated: A Cross-Cultural Exploration of Situational Irony in China and the United States

    41/65

    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    ;2

  • 8/3/2019 Irony Illustrated: A Cross-Cultural Exploration of Situational Irony in China and the United States

    42/65

    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    Gjcel{h {wyrg|

    elja0 h}}v0$$sss*{wyrg|odjag|*kdo${*n{vx4{o?T9i[KgIhH72ROOO|>9[IMV[NT;m

    T;m

    Khljg{g {wyrg|

    elja0 h}}v0$$sss*{wyrg|odjag|*kdo${*n{vx4{o?gT9i^Gd|Kj`=>3O^I7`p3aO^T;mT;

    m

    ;3

    http://www.surveymonkey.com/s.aspx?sm=_2bSCeBhH56VMMMy12SBDPSA_3d_3dhttp://www.surveymonkey.com/s.aspx?sm=e_2bQEoyCnj417MQB5jz7kMQ_3d_3dhttp://www.surveymonkey.com/s.aspx?sm=e_2bQEoyCnj417MQB5jz7kMQ_3d_3dhttp://www.surveymonkey.com/s.aspx?sm=e_2bQEoyCnj417MQB5jz7kMQ_3d_3dhttp://www.surveymonkey.com/s.aspx?sm=e_2bQEoyCnj417MQB5jz7kMQ_3d_3dhttp://www.surveymonkey.com/s.aspx?sm=_2bSCeBhH56VMMMy12SBDPSA_3d_3d
  • 8/3/2019 Irony Illustrated: A Cross-Cultural Exploration of Situational Irony in China and the United States

    43/65

    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    NVVGJMLX 9

    9*> ]nxdjdo| db {l}wn}ldjne lydjlk grgj} aljm{(Ewknylgeed% >

  • 8/3/2019 Irony Illustrated: A Cross-Cultural Exploration of Situational Irony in China and the United States

    44/65

    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    9*> kdj}ljwgm

    ;

  • 8/3/2019 Irony Illustrated: A Cross-Cultural Exploration of Situational Irony in China and the United States

    45/65

    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    NVVGJMLX ;

    ;*> Kyd{{/kwe}wyne njne|{l{ {}n}l{}lkne yg{we}{

    ]g{} >0

    \0 Ognj kdovyghgj{ldj db nee lydjlk kny}ddj{

    X0 Cgjmgy (>? oneg% 9? bgoneg,% ncg (mlkhd}dolpgm n{ 59= |gny{ njm 9= |gny{,% kdwj}y|

    (> ? Wjl}gm [}n}g{% 9 ? Khljn,

    [woony| db Bl}

    Y[~wnygm 6*9333;2

    Y[~wnygm Nm` 6*92*==266>

    Ognj db Yg{vdj{g 3*=72=

    Ncg mlkhd}dolpgmQ>_ /6*99888> 6*627> /9*76 6*6>;>

    Kdwj}y|Q>_ 6*66= 6*68= >6*69 5*666>

    =6

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    46/65

    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    ]g{} 90

    \0 Ognj nvvygkln}ldj db nee lydjlk kny}ddj{

    X0 Cgjmgy (>? oneg% 9? bgoneg,% ncg (mlkhd}dolpgm n{ 59= |gny{ njm 9= |gny{,% kdwj}y|

    (> ? Wjl}gm [}n}g{% 9 ? Khljn,

    [woony| db Bl}

    Y[~wnyg 6*6*7386=9

    Ognj db Yg{vdj{g 7*96769

    Ncg mlkhd}dolpgmQ>_ /6*6;36669 /6*;8 6*3676

    Kdwj}y|Q>_ /6*=3882; 6*>6>2 5*666>

    =>

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    47/65

    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    ]g{} ;0

    \0 Ognj kdovyghgj{ldj db nee jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{

    X0 Cgjmgy (>? oneg% 9? bgoneg,% ncg (mlkhd}dolpgm n{ 59= |gny{ njm 9= |gny{,% kdwj}y|

    (> ? Wjl}gm [}n}g{% 9 ? Khljn,

    [woony| db Bl}

    Y[~wnyg 6*>;8269

    Y[~wnyg Nm` 6*>983;8

    Ydd} Ognj [~wnyg Gyydy >*773788

    Ognj db Yg{vdj{g 3*2>3 6*9==3

    Ncg mlkhd}dolpgmQ>_ /6*>27372 6*6*28 6*6_ 6*2;366;37 2*;2 5*666>

    =9

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    48/65

    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    ]g{} =0

    \0 Ognj nvvygkln}ldj db nee jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{

    X0 Cgjmgy (>? oneg% 9? bgoneg,% ncg (mlkhd}dolpgm n{ 59= |gny{ njm 9= |gny{,% kdwj}y|

    (> ? Wjl}gm [}n}g{% 9 ? Khljn,

    [woony| db Bl}

    Y[~wnyg 6*>=678>

    Y[~wnyg Nm` 6*>;63=

    Ydd} Ognj [~wnyg Gyydy >*733=62>39= 6*6_ /6*>263;8 6*6*27 6*6279 /2*62 5*666>

    =;

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    49/65

    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    ;*9 Byg~wgjk| db !$/ ygnk}ldj{ {}n}l{}lkne yg{we}{

    ]g{} >0

    \0 Byg~wgjk| db vd{l}lrg ygnk}ldj{ }d lydjlk kny}ddj{

    X0 Cgjmgy (>? oneg% 9? bgoneg,% ncg (mlkhd}dolpgm n{ 59= |gny{ njm 9= |gny{,% kdwj}y|

    (> ? Wjl}gm [}n}g{% 9 ? Khljn,

    [woony| db Bl}

    Y[~wnyg 6*>>6382

    Y[~wnyg Nm` 6*>6626=

    Ydd} Ognj [~wnyg Gyydy 9*>>89=7

    Ognj db Yg{vdj{g ;*8;8;=2

    Di{gyrn}ldj{ (dy [wo Sc}{, 922

    Vnynog}gy G{}lon}g{

    ]gyo G{}lon}g [}m Gyydy } Yn}ld Vydi:u}u

    Lj}gykgv} ;*2;8 6*>;9

    CgjmgyQ>_ 6*68;8 6*>;67=7 6*36 6*=89=

    Ncg mlkhQ>_ /6*98;298 6*>;;9 6*6;79

    ==

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    50/65

    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    ]g{} 90

    \0 Byg~wgjk| db jgcn}lrg ygnk}ldj{ }d lydjlk kny}ddj{

    X0 Cgjmgy (>? oneg% 9? bgoneg,% ncg (mlkhd}dolpgm n{ 59= |gny{ njm 9= |gny{,% kdwj}y|

    (> ? Wjl}gm [}n}g{% 9 ? Khljn,

    [woony| db Bl}

    Y[~wnyg 6*6;; 96*62 5*666>

    Kdwj}y|Q>_ /6*;>;2 6*>;6_ 6*6;;;97==9 6*93 6*3_ 6*6;78637 6*>98363 6*98 6*38>>

    =7

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    51/65

    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    ]g{} ;0

    \0 Byg~wgjk| db vd{l}lrg ygnk}ldj{ }d jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{

    X0 Cgjmgy (>? oneg% 9? bgoneg,% ncg (mlkhd}dolpgm n{ 59= |gny{ njm 9= |gny{,% kdwj}y|

    (> ? Wjl}gm [}n}g{% 9 ? Khljn,

    [woony| db Bl}

    Y[~wnyg 6*6;377

    Kdwj}y|Q>_ /6*>2>9 6*687=_ /6*>33;;< 6*6833>3 /9*69 6*6==9

    =2

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    52/65

    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    ]g{} =0

    \0 Byg~wgjk| db jgcn}lrg ygnk}ldj{ }d jdj/lydjlk kny}ddj{

    X0 Cgjmgy (>? oneg% 9? bgoneg,% ncg (mlkhd}dolpgm n{ 59= |gny{ njm 9= |gny{,% kdwj}y|

    (> ? Wjl}gm [}n}g{% 9 ? Khljn,

    [woony| db Bl}

    Y[~wnyg 6*6>>8;9

    Y[~wnyg Nm` 6*6667>3

    Ydd} Ognj [~wnyg Gyydy >*69;;>9

    Ognj db Yg{vdj{g 6*

    Di{gyrn}ldj{ (dy [wo Sc}{, 922

    Vnynog}gy G{}lon}g{

    ]gyo G{}lon}g [}m Gyydy } Yn}ld Vydi:u}u

    Lj}gykgv} 6*=*=3 5*666>

    Kdwj}y|Q>_ 6*6=2>>97 6*6278;8 6*36 6*=8=;

    CgjmgyQ>_ /6*698>8; 6*62;627 /6*=7 6*277;

    Ncg mlkhQ>_ /6*>63797 6*62=363 />*22 6*6

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    53/65

    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    ;*; Lovelkn}ldj{ db kny}ddj }dvlk (LG r{* L[ kny}ddj{, {}n}l{}lkne yg{we}{

    ]g{} >0

    Kdovnyg{ nrgyncg{ db }hg Khljg{g vdvwen}ldj{ ognj lj kdovyghgjmljc }hg L[ kny}ddj{

    (L[ K, njm LG kny}ddj{ (LG K,

    }/]g{}0 ]sd/[noveg N{{woljc Wjg~wne Rnylnjkg{

    LG K L[ K

    Ognj 2*7679=> 3*3>9388

    Rnylnjkg ;*7;727< >77

    } [}n} /7*82833

    V(]5?}, djg/}nle 7*72G/6*2=*>>G/68

    } Kyl}lkne }sd/}nle >*

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    54/65

    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    ]g{} 90

    Kdovnyg{ nrgyncg{ db }hg W*[* vdvwen}ldj{ ognj lj kdovyghgjmljc }hg L[ kny}ddj{ (L[

    K, njm LG kny}ddj{ (LG K,

    }/]g{}0 ]sd/[noveg N{{woljc Wjg~wne Rnylnjkg{

    LG K L[ K

    Ognj 8*;69>8> 8*7888

    Rnylnjkg >*838

    Di{gyrn}ldj{ >63 >63

    H|vd}hg{lpgm Ognj Mlbbgygjkg 6

    mb 962

    } [}n} /;*7;92=

    V(]5?}, djg/}nle 6*66697=

    } Kyl}lkne djg/}nle >*27998=

    V(]5?}, }sd/}nle 6*666768

    } Kyl}lkne }sd/}nle >*7=3

    =

  • 8/3/2019 Irony Illustrated: A Cross-Cultural Exploration of Situational Irony in China and the United States

    55/65

    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    ]g{} ;0

    Kdovnyg{ nrgyncg{ db }hg Khljg{g vdvwen}ldj{ ognj lj nvvygkln}ljc }hg L[ kny}ddj{ (L[

    N, njm LG kny}ddj{ (LG N,

    }/]g{}0 ]sd/[noveg N{{woljc Wjg~wne Rnylnjkg{

    LG N L[ N

    Ognj 7*;72;

    V(]5?}, }sd/}nle 6*66=;3>

    } Kyl}lkne }sd/}nle >*

  • 8/3/2019 Irony Illustrated: A Cross-Cultural Exploration of Situational Irony in China and the United States

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    ]g{} =0

    Kdovnyg{ nrgyncg{ db }hg W*[* vdvwen}ldj{ ognj lj nvvygkln}ljc }hg L[ kny}ddj{ (L[ N,

    njm LG kny}ddj{ (LG N,

    }/]g{}0 ]sd/[noveg N{{woljc Wjg~wne Rnylnjkg{

    LG N L[ N

    Ognj =*292>28 =*2>2899

    Rnylnjkg 9*929=

    Di{gyrn}ldj{ >63 >63

    H|vd}hg{lpgm Ognj Mlbbgygjkg 6

    mb 969

    } [}n} 6*6=663;

    V(]5?}, djg/}nle 6*=8=6;3

    } Kyl}lkne djg/}nle >*279=;9

    V(]5?}, }sd/}nle 6**333

    7>

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    Xlnjc El% Lydj| Leew{}yn}gm0 N Kyd{{/Kwe}wyne Gxvedyn}ldj db [l}wn}ldjne Lydj|

    lj Khljn njm }hg Wjl}gm [}n}g{% [ljd/Ven}djlk Vnvgy{% >8= (Dk}digy% 9668,

    ;*= Gxvd{wyg }d Sg{}gyj kwe}wyg {}n}l{}lkne yg{we}{

    ]g{} >0

    \0 Ognj kdovyghgj{ldj db nee lydjlk kny}ddj{

    X0 Gxvd{wyg }d Sg{}gyj kwe}wyg% wjmgy{}njmljc db Sg{}gyj kwe}wyg% njm gxvd{wyg db

    Sg{}gyj gj}gy}nljogj}

    [woony| db Bl}

    Y[~wnyg 6*>9>;38

    Y[~wnyg Nm` 6*>6=;39

    Ydd} Ognj [~wnyg Gyydy >*7=9=23

    Ognj db Yg{vdj{g 2*37679=

    Di{gyrn}ldj{ (dy [wo Sc}{, >7>8== 6*>>278= /6*>