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    etngfica mai e 2009 13 (1): 49-75

    Ecange net an fee pin Bein: gift an cmmitie inatenatie cnmptin epeience1

    Irene Sabat MurielTi pape i bae n an etngap f atenatie cnmptin pacticein te inne cit f te fme Eat Bein. Nn-mneta ecange net(Tauschringe) an fee p (Umsonstlden) ae been eamine. In Umsonstl-den, te cntempa ieg f te pe gift (Pa 1986; Caie 1995) iat pa: bject ae fee gien an tta aienate fm tei ne.In tn, Tauschringe metime ince gift-giing pactice entaiing mtabigatin, a a et f feent ecange ic bing paticipant ciace. Te etngapic mateia I peent caenge te itabiit f a cn-cepta gift / cmmit iie t eamine tee epeience, pie tatiffeent maitie f gift-giing ae aticate it cmmitiatin ten.Cnieing ti cmpeit, I ppe a e-eaminatin f te e f te gift inatenatie cnmptin pactice pmte b cia mement in Bein.

    kEywords: ecnmic antpg, gift / cmmitie, ecange net,fee p, cnmptin, cia ecnm, cia mement, Bein.

    wit te gan tee e g itt g, e meet an ecange abiitie an g. It ie ti: ka ep Efiee it tepping, Efiee tae t ynne g f a a at nn, ynne ct

    ka ai. Te cice i ce. we nt n ant t ecange, bt at eae ne cntact, t cat abt eeting pibe (FieicaineTacing eafet, Bein, 2005, tanate fm Geman).

    In a ciet in ic a ting becme pct an tei ecange in ganize ia mne, in ic ban accnt ecie at cancemene a t ie, e ant t eep a aica atenatie: n mne, n

    1 Ti atice i bae n fie caie t f te at MAietatin (sabat 2006) n

    ete cnmptin pactice in Eat Bein. Ti eeac a been fne b mean f a pec-ta gant (FI) fm te Cataan Genment an b te spani Minite f Ecatin (pjectBso2003-06832 an sEJ2007-66633). It a e mc t te eiee cmment n t peiein an t d. sana Natz ientatin.

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    ExChANGE NETworks ANd FrEE shoPs IN BErlIN 51

    Tma appac (1991) e nt entai a enia f te gift an cmmitteetica ntin a petinent ne. rate, e inten t netan teiaticatin in te cntet f cnia it an pitic (1991: 3), an a t

    emntate tei ceitence in patica ecnmie an te impibiit fpeaing genea f gift cmmit ecnmie cietie (1991: 33).T, e can fin in ee ciet bject tat can n be gien at cetain

    time, bject tat can be anee t anne, an a bject tat iti imppe t e gie aa3(Tma 1991: 18). simia cntingence aente b Geie (2004). Mee, not everything that we buy and sell is a purecommodity (Caie 1995: 29), an nt a tat e gie an eceie i a pegift(laia 2000: 632).

    Caic antpgit c a Maini (2001 [1922]) ae been

    acce f apping te nm f ecipcit in t nieaitic a a (weine1992: 2, 17, 149) an etating te itance beteen te capitaitwet an te -cae pimitie ecnmie (weine 1992: 154; Tma1991: 206). hee, tee antpgit i nt en tat te cietiete bee metime ecange bject in a baance manne an itimmeiate cmpenatin, tg it n appene in na efine ci-cmtance. Maini imef ecibe bate pactice (gimwali) amngte Tbiane a being magina an acing te cia petige attibte tte cicatin fm c a tekula (Maini 2001: 339). T, ma-

    et-ie ecange c be a paic pactice ceiting it gift-giing.on ne cetain itica cicmtance, it te 19t-cent bmingf capitaim in Epe an Nt Ameica, te ibea apiatin f etting pa ef-egating maet tem became egemnic (Pani 2001 [1944]). Timae te maet gic peai an gae ie t a maet ecnm (Pani 1994[1977]: 81). Te igin f ti npeceente pea f te maet e aaea been ecibe b Ma an simme amng te.4 Te eaatin fit cneence a geat aie: fm te etctin f cia iaitiean te itaa f mait t te attainment f iniia feem an a

    bette iing tana (Pa an Bc 1989: 30; Geman 2001: 10).Neetee, nt n te pe-eminence f gift-giing in pe-capitait cie-tie, bt a a ppe biit f te maet e in te cntempawet nee t be caef cniee an etine (Geie 2004: 196).Man etngapie ae e tat gift-giing beai, tgete itte in f nn-mneta tanactin (Pa an Bc 1989), can a

    3 weine anai (1992) fce n ti ti categ, negecte b Maini (2001), in teTbian cntet.

    4 In fact, man at a ptate anag tanitin fm ne t te te tem f a ict-In fact, man at a ptate anag tanitin fm ne t te te tem f a ict-an at a ptate anag tanitin fm ne t te te tem f a ict-m: fm e ae t ecange ae (Aitte, Ma), fm Gemeinschaft t Gesellschaft (Tnnie),fm tat t cntact (Maine), fm btantie t fma atinait (webe), etc. (Pani 1994[1977]: 122; Geman 2001: 16).

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    52 IrENE sABAT MurIEl etngfica mai e 2009 13 (1): 49-75

    be etecte in capitait cntet, an tat c pactice emain a e ee-a tateg f man pepe, f eampe in inip fame (Bann2000). Taitina, eeace ae fce tei attentin n gift-giing a

    a tateg f maginaie pepe encnte baie t acce te maet,mne an te fma ecnm (stac 1974; lmnitz 1975). Neetee, iti pibe t etect gift-giing patten in ee cia tatm f ciet. Feampe, it a a been a peaie tateg in eea ecnmie neciaim (Bea 1997) an een afte te tanitin t capitaim (dnn1999; Patic 2002; hmpe 2002). A ti ppt Pani enncia-tin f te faac f te maet (1994 [1977]: 92-93), an e-impificatincniting in nica ientifing te weten cntempa ecnm itte capitait maet.

    In pite f te ten t eate bject t cmmitie in cntempacietie, Caie (1995) neine te nee t cnie te pecific eitencef bject an tei bn t te pepe pce, n cnme tem;tat i t a, te eitence f bject in piate tcte(1995: 8) an tecia eement at pa in te ecnm (1995: 193). Te pea f intiacapitaim a nt ne aa it pepe nee t ae tei bject bepein n a it abie te nee t tanact pein in penaeatinip (1995: 11).

    Caie netan te Maian me a a cntinm beteen cm-

    mit an gift eatin, te fit being impena an tanit, te ecnpena an ng-ating. Ten e ge n t affim tat bject fitting nef te t pe ae ae. hee, ciet fa an ieg f tegift eie fm te egegatin f me an a paaigmatic eampef te cia an ecnmic pee. A a et f ti iie, a nn-Ma-ian ppa cnceptin f te gift i cntcte in te wet. Gift-giing iepicte a a fee cice, a a t epe incee affectin an an actinic e nt bige t ecipcate (Caie 1995: 145).

    Pa an Bc ppa (1989: 23) t epain te ceitence f iffe-

    ent ecnmic gic i patia bae n te iea f a mticentic ecnm,a ptate b Bannan (1981) b kptff (1986: 71). hee, teinten t g ben tee at fc n mne an t cnie ecnmictem a a e. Te efine t tanactin e: tat f cmmece anab , an tat f e epctin. Bt e ae bae niffeent pincipe (te fme n t tem, iniia aciitin mtie,te atte n ng-tem ma ae) an tei ganic inteeatin ma entaime egee f cnfict. Geman (2001: 19) a affime te imiait fBc an Pa ppa t i ntin f iaectica eate cmmnit

    an maet eam.5

    5 we c a a ee Caie ppitin beteen te cta eam f me an (1995: 21).

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    ExChANGE NETworks ANd FrEE shoPs IN BErlIN 53

    In te cntet f ng-itance tae an cicatin, Appaai (1986)accnt f te meaning acie t b a cicating bject. At iffeenttage f it cia ife, an bject ecangeabiit i efine b pe an

    meaning eatin cnfming te pitic f ae. Cnectie enteingan eiting te maet, bject epeience cmmificatin an e-cmmi-ficatin pcee, an teefe a cmmit i nt ne in f ting atetan ante, bt ne pae in te ife f me ting (1986: 17).

    kptff (1986) ae Appaai fc n cicating bject an ntete nee t netan tei cta bigapie. Cmmitie can be ni-ea fn, a te ae efine b it ecangeabiit an n epen nte eitence f te necea ecange tecng. Bt ecmmificatini a pibe enee an bject becme picee an acie ante

    in f t. Ti i te et f tpica cta pcee c a ing-aizatin an acaizatin.Fing te mentine at, in ti atice, te ntin f gift an

    cmmit i be taen a paaigmatic cae ate tan a empiica eai-tie. It i ame tat g an eice nt ae a fie ientit btte ae te pct f a cntin e-ignificatin, an tat me epminent gift- an cmmit-ie ingeient c a ma bigatin aienabiit nee t be inetigate at a gien time an itin tei cntet(Caie 1995: 192).

    EThNoGrAPhIC FINdINGs

    ding te fina ea f te Geman demcatic repbic (Gdr), teInnen-stadt6 f Bein a an nattactie pat f te capita cit, e t te bacnitin f ing an te pimit f te wa. Bt igt aftedie Wende,7ing te ea ninetie, itict ie Mitte, Fieicain Penzae Begbecame a cente f attactin f weten ng pepe, man f m agn p in te atenatie an miitant atmpee f wet Bein. At tei

    aia, ften afte atting a biing, tee ngte ganie temeein cia, eninmenta, pitica an atitic mement. In a t time, tealternative Szene, fme cnfine in te weten itict f kezbeg, apea t te Eat.

    Een if te cpe f Bein alternative Szene a been ece ince teninetie, e t ban eeepment picie entaiing a eceaing aaiabi-it f pace an te aia f bette-ff ppatin, teInnenstadt cntine

    6 Geman tem f te inne cit, ic cmpie main te Eaten ate f Mitte, Fieicainan Penzae Beg.7 Ppa epein t ente te fa f te Bein wa in 1989 an te nificatin f Gemanin 1990.

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    54 IrENE sABAT MurIEl etngfica mai e 2009 13 (1): 49-75

    t be te aea f te cit matcing te epeimenta, atitic an atena-tie image f Bein. Atg a ceent ice i acing, te actiit fte alternative Szene i peente a a citica ppitin t egemnic iea.

    Antifacim, anti-eim, anti-capitaim, anti-impeiaim an eninmenta-im inpie a ie ieit f actiitie, ic ae intittinaie aProjekte(pject).

    sme Projekte ea it te ie f cnmptin b etining teme f maet piining an ggeting me atenatie pibiitie.Atg te cae eamine ee ee iginate afte te fa f te wa,c epeience ae aea a ng n itin te it f cia me-ment eiing fm cia ecnm appace. A itica accnt g bac t te ciait epeiment caie t ing te 19t cent in

    weten Epe, c a oen cnmptin cpeatie, ee ga a nata ae bae n man , an Pnbanques du peu-ple, ic intene t abi inteet in an (Gnet 1999). In Geman,sii GeeFreiwirtschaftslehre (fee ecnm) tie t enance te e fmne a a mean f ecange an pament. Accmatin a peenteb etabiing a ectin f te ae f mne if it a ept fm cic-atin f a cetain time. ote epemea epeiment t pace in te1930 in eea Atian an Geman tn a an attempt t cpe it te ecnmic cii (Gnet 1999; Pieet 1999). Man f tee epei-

    ment cnite n te ceatin f a ca cenc ic ptect ite fm infatin. Tee pactice ee a cniee a iega anfbien b te atitie becae tanactin in ca cencie ecapetaatin an eegitimate te natina cenc. Cmmnit cencieeappeae in Geman afte te II w wa. Te ee pmte b teatitie a an atenatie t te ia tategie c a te bacmaet (